Man's health

Free testosterone in men


A complex, multifaceted and multifunctional mechanism is the human body.

One of the most important processes in his work, ensuring normal functioning, is the production of hormones.

Important and biologically active substances are considered androgens - sex hormones, produced in the male body.

Symptoms of deficiency

There are a number of key symptoms, in the presence of which a man needs to see a specialist:

  • a marked decrease in sexual desire or lack of it,
  • problems with erection,
  • decrease or complete lack of sensitivity of the penis,
  • lack of orgasm during sexual contact, as well as during masturbation and pollutions (involuntary and uncontrollable ejaculation, for example, during sleep),
  • general weakness, decay of physical strength
  • decrease in muscle mass, but maintaining and increasing body fat on the body,
  • problems urinating (weak stream, delay),

  • chronic irritability, emotional instability, depression,
  • hair loss in the groin area and on the face,
  • decrease in testicles of penis in size,
  • excessive sweating, feeling of hot flashes (high fever, arising suddenly, usually in the face).

Diagnosis and treatment

Only a specialist can diagnose androgen deficiency by conducting the necessary research and analysis. In practice, the use of the index of free adrogens, which can be calculated by the formula 100x (testosterone / GSPS).

At the same time indicators of total testosterone should comply with the standards of GSM. If a man is healthy and the level of the hormone is normal, then the androgenic index will exceed 70%. To approve the deficit is possible only when the figures below 50%.

It is very simple to calculate the index in this way, but the results are not sufficiently informative for further treatment and accurate diagnosis. The method is mainly used to determine the estimated free and biologically available testosterone.

Drug and non-drug treatment

Properly prescribed treatment in most cases leads to success. It is not recommended to engage in self-treatment and self-diagnosis.

All drugs must be prescribed by a qualified doctor and only after receiving the results of the analysis. In addition to medication, complex work on the body is needed, which will help to quickly deal with the problem and prevent its subsequent occurrence.

Tips and tricks are also suitable for the prevention of androgen deficiency:

  • normalization of body weight
  • regular physical activity with the burden

  • proper and healthy food,
  • saturation of the body with vitamins and minerals.

If it is not possible to take vitamins in tablets, then you should "push" on such products as rosehip, avocados, nuts, black currants and any citrus fruits. It is useful to eat fish, pumpkin seeds, seafood, fresh greens.

Thus, it is possible to compensate for the lack of androgen only in a complex way, by taking medications prescribed by a doctor, eating right and leading a healthy lifestyle.

For androgen deficiency in men, see the doctor’s comments in the following video:

Free hormone level

In order to make an accurate diagnosis of testosterone dysfunction, doctors
It is necessary to calculate the male hormone index. This method was invented in order to visualize the indicators and calculate the pathological status of the TS in a mathematical way.

Based on this study, physicians make a treatment regimen and adjust the dosage of the necessary drugs. The calculation of the index is the percentage of total testosterone and what is bound by proteins.

With age, hormone production fails, which affects the health of the whole body. Jumps of indicators of its level are directly related to the lifestyle of a person.

If the androgen performance threshold is increased, the following signs and effects are observed:

  • Itsenko-Cushing syndrome
  • hair growth
  • aggression
  • baldness
  • prostate cancer
  • infertility

You should know that total and free testosterone have their own normal values. With a good deal for men between the ages of 18 and 60, analyzes should give the following result: total - from 250-1100 ng / dl, free from - 46 to 224 ng / dl. After 70 years old and older: total - 90-890 ng / dl, free - 6-73 ng / dl.

How is the analysis performed?

A day before the blood sampling is not recommended to engage in heavy physical labor, take alcohol to smoke. Analysis pass in the morning on an empty stomach.

The doctor takes blood from a vein, extracts serum from it and places it in a special gel. Within three hours you will get the result. For more accurate indicators also refuse hormonal drugs (if previously taken).

Everything can be fixed

Increasingly, doctors have to deal with patients who have significantly reduced testosterone levels. But not only age affects the level of male hormone in the blood. The predecessors of this disease can be craniocerebral injuries, pathologies of organs synthesizing androgens, alcohol consumption and antiandrogens.

There are signs by which you yourself can determine if you have lowered the production of a valuable hormone.

They are as follows:

  • sharp weight gain
  • inability to concentrate
  • breast enlargement
  • excessive sweating
  • decreased libido

If you notice that something is wrong with your body, consult a doctor endocrinologist or andrologist. He will find a way to increase free testosterone, prescribe special medications, prescribe a diet. Yes, you understood correctly, diet is one of the right ways to adjust the level of the hormone. It is necessary to abandon the products that "kill" masculinity and everything will be fine.

For drugs resorted to only in severe cases. Often, hormonal deficiency is restored thanks to the proper daily routine and nutrition, add sports and you bring the test results to the norm.

Causes Affecting Testosterone Variations

Lack or excess of a hormone can be caused by the following factors:

  • age means that in men after 40 years the natural production of the hormone in the body decreases,
  • insufficient content of organic and inorganic substances involved in metabolic processes,
  • being overweight
  • head injuries
  • frequent use of alcoholic beverages and tobacco,
  • psychological disorders, stress,
  • diseases of the digestive tract,
  • taking certain medications that affect the production of a hormone,
  • passive lifestyle,
  • genetics.

Grounds for the test

Steroids, hormones androgens, produced by the male gonads, are characterized by the ability to form new complex compounds, synthesize proteins and correct sexual desire. In diseases affecting the synthesis of androgens, a blood test is prescribed to establish free testosterone.

Anomalies in men:

  • prostatitis,
  • decrease in sexual desire,
  • violation of potency,
  • acne,
  • baldness,
  • violation of the sebaceous glands.

  • excessive hair growth throughout the body,
  • hair loss on the head,
  • polycystic ovaries,
  • lack of a menstrual cycle,
  • high blood pressure and urinary protein,
  • dermatological problems.

Ways to establish and prepare for ISA

Modern techniques have several options for determining the independent male hormone:

  • Radioimmune - based on the determination of the interaction of antigen and antibody, used to determine total and free testosterone,
  • double equilibrium dialysis - determines the independence of the hormone,
  • ultracentric configuration method - determines free hormone,
  • way of prebit
  • calculation of free androgen index (independent),
  • estimated free testosterone,
  • congestion in the saliva of unrelated hormone.

Material for analysis is taken from the venous vessel. A few days before blood sampling, hard physical training, smoking, and drinking alcoholic beverages, including beer, are excluded.


A number of formulas are known that allow the calculation of ISA, taking into account its total concentration and abundance associated with globulin. One of these: the proportion of testosterone combined with the globulin molecule to its total number in the blood is multiplied by 100%. The percentage representation of these values ​​is the index. This technology is defined as a free testosterone calculator.

When calculating the index takes into account the gender of the person. Elevated ISA values ​​are negative for women only. With its high rates in girls, anomalies such as hirsutism and polycystic are observed. For men, low indexes affect his health and indicate diseases such as prostatitis, hypogonadism, and others.

How androgens work in the male body

Originally from concentration androgen in intrauterine development depends future sex of the child. For example, androstenedione in the process of biosynthesis turns into testosterone in men, and estrone in women. The level of this hormone can serve as a kind of marker for normal levels of testosterone and estrone.

Already in adolescence, steroid hormones help in the growth and development of a child, stimulate hair growth, build muscle, reduce body fat, etc.

Testosterone, in fact, is a pure anabolic - a substance that stimulates the metabolic processes in the body by reducing the concentration of sugar in the blood, reducing cholesterol, etc. All this helps in prevention atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases, which is why women suffer from heart disease much less often - they have lower testosterone levels in their blood.

One of important functions Androgen is involved in the formation of bone tissue, which helps prevent excessive fragility of the bones. In addition, the whole group of hormones is involved in the sebaceous glands - monitors thermoregulation and sweating. Also important role played by sex hormones in the formation of endorphins (joy hormones).

Hormone deficiency in the male body: symptoms and diseases

For various reasons, there can be a shortage of androgens in the body, or target organs that must use hormones lose their susceptibility to them. If this happens in childhood or adolescence, then this leads to underdevelopment of the genitals and secondary sexual characteristics. If a similar disorder occurs in an adult male, it can lead to infertility.


  1. Violations of the cardiovascular system (tachycardia, arrhythmia, chest pain),
  2. Pain in the joints and bones
  3. Excessive perspiration, hot flashes,
  4. Breast augmentation,
  5. Erectile disfunction,
  6. Frequent urge to urinate,
  7. Psychological disorders (depression, panic attacks, etc.).

Diseasescaused by androgen deficiency:

  1. Kalman syndrome. It is a hereditary anomaly in sexual development, characterized by its slowdown or complete absence. It manifests itself primarily in unexpressed or completely absent secondary sexual characteristics, in violation of the formation of sperm (infertility), and these disorders are combined with a violation of view, deafness, atrophy of the optic nerve,
  2. Cryptorchidism - undescension of one testicle in the scrotum. With this disease, the testicle, instead of taking its place in the scrotum, may be located in the inguinal region, in the abdominal cavity, etc.,
  3. Orhit - inflammation of one or two testicles at once. Symptoms: increased body temperature, local pains that can be delivered to the groin and the abdominal cavity, the inflamed testicle increases in size, the skin on the scrotum becomes smooth, the pain can increase when walking,
  4. Klinefelter syndrome - A genetic disease characterized by disproportion in the physique (tall, very long arms, high waist), small testicular volume, gynecomastia, low level of intellectual activity.

How to increase the level of androgens in men

Besides general tipsthat give doctors like normalization of nutrition (more fat, slow carbohydrates, proteins), physical activity, often men need take hormonal drugs.

Similar therapy is of two types: substitution and stimulating. In the first case, the patient write hormones, which is lacking in the body, usually this treatment lasts a long time. In the second case funds are written outstimulating self-production of the missing hormone.

TO androgenic remedies include: Andriol, Omnadren, Nebido, Danazol, Methyltestosterone, etc.

How does an excess hormone in men

Hyperandrogenism or an overabundance of androgens in men is as follows by symptoms:

  1. Increased perspiration
  2. Acne and inflammation of the skin,
  3. Excessive thinness
  4. Metabolic disorders,
  5. Disorders of the liver and kidneys,
  6. Insomnia,
  7. Unmotivated aggression
  8. Concentration disorders,
  9. Neoplasm,
  10. Infertility.

This type of violation most common in the presence of a genetic disease, hereditary predisposition, and during bodybuilding, because in this sport it is not uncommon to receive steroid drugs.

Androgens - male sex hormones

Testosterone as a bright representative of the androgen group is synthesized in men in Leydig cells located in the testes. It increases protein synthesis and slows down its decay. This kind of hormone significantly enhances male sexuality and causes sexual desire. In the blood is predominantly with protein compounds, lowering the level of glucose.

An additional increase in the hormone is used in bodybuilding, when it is necessary to build muscle mass with the help of protein compounds. Professional athletes make sacrifices such as taking steroid hormones, later regretting this, because any violation of its concentration in the blood can lead to irreversible processes.

Throughout life, hormones are present in the body, but their concentration changes at different age stages. With small deviations from the norm, the imbalance is safe and does not carry dangerous consequences. If, however, the hormone level is changed consciously for a specific purpose, then this can lead to a hormonal imbalance, which will certainly affect the viability of all organs and systems.

The value of androgen in the male body

The stability of the hormonal background ensures the normal functioning of the body, in which all vital functions are performed. Male androgens perform the following functions:

  1. Increase strength and build muscle mass - this is due to the slow splitting of the protein, which is able to form new muscle fibers in the shortest possible time.
  2. Indispensable in lipid metabolism - due to the fact that sex hormones accelerate the breakdown of fat, a biological process is launched that does not allow them to be deposited in the reserve.
  3. Improve chemical blood parameters - contribute to an increase in hemoglobin level, lower blood cholesterol, preventing it from forming life-threatening blastula (cholesterol blood clots).
  4. Accelerate the breakdown of glucose and its components, while lowering blood sugar without the use of additional stimulants.
  5. Increase sexual desire.
  6. Participate in the process of formation of secondary sexual characteristics.
  7. Provide a good erection, increase "libido".
  8. Responsible for bone tissue, preventing bone fragility.
  9. Engaged in the regulation of sebaceous glands, determining the level of sebum, secreted as the protection of the external integuments of the body.
  10. Promote the production of endorphin - the hormone of joy.

Hormones, or rather their level, are controlled by such a part of the brain as the pituitary gland, any disruption in the work of this area causes its increase or decrease in production.

Excess Androgen

If the hormones produced are "going wild", then the men appear too thin, the skin has acne, which does not go away for a long time, the sebaceous glands are supersaturated with fat. Increasesodorant causing unpleasant odor. The excess of a hormone does not represent any particular danger to a person’s life, being limited to external inconveniences, which are eliminated by revealing a hormone index.

A more dangerous option is to consciously take hormone-containing drugs for personal use (body building). An uncontrolled increase in androgen can provoke the appearance of cancer tumors and lead to infertility.

Androgen deficiency

The teenage organism, due to the lack of steroid hormone production, may have an underdevelopment of secondary sexual characteristics. Deficiency leads to pathological diseases:

  • Klinefeltra syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by a lack of hairiness of the pubis and axillae, diminished by dense testicles, reduced intelligence,
  • Cryptorchidism is not the descent of the testicles into the scrotum, provokes sterility,
  • Orchitis is an inflammatory process in the testicles.

How to raise the level of this hormone, indicates only a doctor, after conducting a series of tests and making an accurate diagnosis. Often, hormonal therapy helps to increase androgens, chosen according to the patient's individual characteristics. Androgens in men fluctuate depending on the time of day, respectively, analyzes are taken on an empty stomach in the morning.

Laboratory detection of the disease

Before you identify abnormalities in the balance of hormonal levels, conduct appropriate laboratory studies, determining the level of total testosterone.

In blood plasma, testosterone is presented in two fractions:

  1. The fraction of free hormones - has a biological effect on individual cells of the body, while circulating independently.
  2. Protein fraction - part of the hormones circulates with the added protein compounds.

These two fractions form a bioavailable testosterone - the cumulative composition of free and protein fractions - an indicator on the basis of which a conclusion is drawn about the balance of hormonal levels using the free androgen index.

The free androgen index is an indicator that is calculated mathematically as the ratio of the total testosterone concentration in the blood to the sex globulin concentration of the protein fraction. This index is an indicator of the level of the hormone, depending on which it is concluded about its quantity. It is very difficult to compensate for the excess and in most cases to no avail, it is more successful to increase the male sex hormones.

What does it mean

The indicator is calculated using a special formula. To do this, you need to know the level of total testosterone and protein-globulin that binds sex hormones. The index is the ratio of testosterone to this globulin. That is, demonstrates the percentage of free form of the hormone of the total concentration.

It is the concentration of free androgens that determines sexual desire in men, the formation of secondary sexual characteristics. For these symptoms, you can suspect the presence of hormonal imbalance in men. In addition, the following tasks depend on the index:

  1. Spermatogenesis
  2. The development of muscle tissue (due to the anabolic effect of androgens, athletes often use endogenous testosterone to increase muscle mass).
  3. Redistribution of body fat.
  4. Control of the exchange of trace elements.

Increased free androgen levels can be caused by liver pathologies.

Why there is an increase in its level

Androgens are synthesized mainly in the tissues of the testes. However, it controls their production, and accordingly the free forms index, the hypothalamic-pituitary system. The hormone can accumulate in the tissues of the prostate gland, the seminiferous tubules and vesicles. The protein that binds androgens is formed in the liver. Therefore, liver disease can lead to a change in the index. Given the above, it is worth noting that the increase in the rate in men is due to the following pathological conditions:

  1. Pathology of the testes, most often it is tumor diseases, including cancer.
  2. Diseases of the hypothalamic-pituitary system.
  3. Pathology of the liver, which is accompanied by a decrease in protein-synthetic function.
  4. Intake of androgens in the body with food, drugs, which results in an increase in the free forms index.
  5. Hormone receptor resistance.

The increase in the level of the indicator is manifested in different ways. Symptomatology is most pronounced in women, while there is male pattern hair growth, polycystic changes in the ovaries, and more.

In men, symptoms are often absent, and an increase in the free androgen index does not cause inconvenience, a reduction is more significant for them. However, changes in its value may indicate the presence of serious diseases, so do not ignore this.