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Paracoccus (paracoccus infection): causative agent, signs, tests, therapy

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Paracoclusum and whooping cough have similar symptoms, both of which are infectious diseases, but each of them has its own bacterial pathogen. Accordingly, a child who has had parakoklyushem, will not receive immunity from whooping cough and vice versa. How to distinguish between these two diseases and how is paracoclusum treated? We will tell you what to do if your child has coughing episodes, as well as what prevention should be.

Causes of disease

Parakoklyushem can be infected from the carrier sticks Bordetella parapertussis, or from an already ill child. In this case, the baby is infectious, which apparently has no signs of the disease. Most often, the infection occurs through the air, the bacteria are transmitted with particles of sputum, the patient's saliva.

Mostly children are infected in kindergarten or other groups. Experts point out several factors that contribute to the transfer of bacteria that cause disease:

  • a large crowd of people in a small area of ​​the room,
  • low immunity of the child, unable to resist infection,
  • dry warm air that dries out mucous membranes,
  • standing air in a room that has not been ventilated for a long time.

Most often, children with 2 to 6 years of age, that is, preschoolers, are ill with paracoccus. It is impossible to protect oneself from the disease with the help of vaccination, since there is only vaccination against pertussis, a disease that usually occurs in a more severe form. Contrary to popular belief, this vaccine does not protect the body from infection with the bacterium Bordetella parapertussis.

Paracoclusum in children can occur in different ways. There is a typical, atypical course of the disease, as well as asymptomatic. In addition, a separate mention should be made of those babies who are carriers of the bacteria - they do not get sick themselves, but can infect others.

The carrier of the infection may not hurt itself, but at the same time infect other children

How does paracoclusis manifest?

If the course of the disease is typical, the symptoms of parakoklusha are similar to whooping cough symptoms. In other cases, this disease can be mistaken for a typical cold, which is often diagnosed in children. In total there are 4 stages of the disease, which may have different intensity depending on the course of the disease:

  1. The first is the incubation period. It can take from 5 days to 2 weeks. As a rule, in this interval, any symptoms of the disease are absent.
  2. The next stage is catarrhal. It is characterized by a sore throat, a sore throat, as well as a runny nose. Baby already in this period begins to cough slightly. If the disease is severe, the child may have a fever (up to 37.3 ° C), a headache, and weakness. Experts believe that the catarrhal period takes from 3 to 5 days.
  3. Stage cough with spasms. This is the most characteristic period of the disease. The child has a cough that becomes spasmodic. Especially painful night attacks, which plunge inexperienced parents into shock. The crisis begins with a slight cough, which gradually increases, developing into spasmodic. Between the spasms the baby cannot breathe, his face becomes pale, he seems to be choking with cough. The seizure usually ends with vomiting. After the child vomits, everything returns to normal until the next time. If the baby has a mild form of the disease, coughing spells end in a whistling breath, not going into vomiting. The duration of this period varies, depending on the course of the disease. In general, everything takes from 3 to 6 weeks.
  4. The final stage is the period when the strength and number of coughing episodes gradually decreases, disappearing. According to experts, it lasts 2-4 days.

Note that paracoccus usually does not give complications, except for the depletion of the body from asphyxiation. By itself, a strong cough causes excessive muscle tension, it can lead to the emergence of an umbilical hernia (we recommend reading: symptoms of an umbilical hernia in children and methods of treatment). If the disease is severe and a secondary infection has occurred, it can cause otitis, bronchitis or pneumonia, the treatment of which is significantly different from the treatment of paraclusus. After the child has had this disease, he becomes immune.

How to distinguish parakoklyush from other diseases?

A spasmodic cough characteristic of paracoclusum may be a symptom of other diseases. How to make sure that a child has paracoclusum if there are no test results? We present the main distinguishing features of this disease in comparison with other ailments:

  • Whooping cough is most symptomatic in relation to this ailment, but coughing attacks in whooping cough are more severe, they can significantly worsen the general condition of the child (more details in the article: symptoms and treatment of whooping cough in children). In addition, the second stage of the disease - catarrhal, proceeds in a more acute form than with parakoklush.
  • SARS, giving a complication of the trachea and bronchi. With respiratory viral infections, catarrhal symptoms are pronounced, they affect the child's well-being. High fever is not uncommon with ARVI, there are other signs of intoxication of the body (weakness, nausea, diarrhea, muscle aches).
  • Obstruction of the bronchi caused by allergies. Here it is important to identify the nature of such phenomena that occur in the process of contact with the allergen. This kind of cough can also be choking.
  • If a foreign body gets into the airways. To distinguish between these symptoms, you should know that the attack of spasmodic cough usually passes without consequences, and in case of contact with a foreign body, the patient's condition worsens.

Diagnostic methods

A pediatrician, as well as an infectious disease specialist, can diagnose paracoclusum. The doctor should interview the patient, try to find out if there has been contact with an infected person. Then listen and assign research. Laboratory tests typically include:

  • Microbiology analysis. A smear for microbiological examination is taken from the patient's pharynx. As a rule, the material for analysis is allowed to take on an empty stomach, or 2 hours after eating food.
  • Detection of antibodies to paracoclusis in the patient’s blood.
  • An immunological study is underway.

All research results, as well as the clinical picture, should fully confirm the diagnosis, but often studies are carried out in a reduced volume, then the diagnosis is made on the basis of a patient survey and microbiology.

Treatment of paracoccus is performed at home, hospitalization is indicated only rarely. As a rule, in a hospital setting, babies who have not yet turned 1 year old are treated, as well as those children who have complications. There are no special drugs for treatment. However, measures are being taken to more effectively deal with the symptoms. First of all, it is recommended to optimize the regime of the day of the child and create conditions conducive to his recovery:

  • Limit mental exertion, try to avoid strong emotional manifestations that can cause coughing.
  • Revise the diet, add more foods that are rich in vitamins, trace elements - it will support the body and help it fight infection. Remove from the menu dishes that are hard to digest. After vomiting, feed and feed the child in small portions.
During the period of illness, the child will need a special gentle diet.
  • Regularly ventilate the room in which the baby lives. Oxygen masks are shown during coughing attacks.

In parallel with this, the child is prescribed antiallergic drugs. This may be Suprastin, Fenistil, Erius. Such drugs will help relieve the allergic component of spasms. In addition, the doctor may prescribe:

  • Sedatives. As a rule, it is valerian, motherwort, Relanium.
  • Antitussive drugs whose action is aimed at suppressing unproductive cough. These include Libeksin, Sinekod, Stopttussin, Codeine.
  • Medications for the lungs and bronchi: Lasolvan, Bromhexin.
  • If it is possible to inhale, the doctor may recommend glucocorticoids (budesonide).
  • Means to improve blood flow, as well as to reduce the adverse effects of coughing asphyxiation.
  • Herbal tinctures used for cough and permitted for children - fennel, medunits, etc.

Dr. Komarovsky notes that coughing can be relieved by maintaining high humidity in the room. To do this, hang wet diapers or towels, or put in the room a few open containers with water. In addition, the specialist recommends well ventilate the home, and after improving walking with the child, avoiding contact with other children.

Fennel tincture is a harmless drug that can be taken by a child.

Preventive measures

To avoid disease, care should be taken about prevention. If we talk about activities in children's groups, where someone is sick parakoklyushem, then usually held the following:

  • quarantine for 2 weeks is announced,
  • a sick child is isolated for 25 days,
  • those children who have come into contact with the patient should have a pharyngeal smear test twice.

Paracoclusum is a rather serious disease, especially if its symptoms are not erased, but pronounced. However, it is important not to panic if you experience any kind of cough in a child, but to consult with a pediatrician. If the disease still overtook the baby, it is necessary to follow all the recommendations of the doctor, in this case, the recovery will be predictable, and the child will not receive complications.

Etiology and pathogenesis

The causative agent of para-pertussis infection is bacterium Bordetella parapertussis. These are small, gram-negative, short, cocci-shaped sticks with rounded ends, arranged in pairs, chains, or one by one.

Microbes have a tender capsule, flagella and are strict aerobes. Bordetella are stationary and grow at a temperature of + 35-37 ° C on synthetic and semi-synthetic environments: simple agar, casein-coal agar, blood agar. Colonies of microbes are round, small, moist, with a pearly luster, leaving a creamy mark on the medium.

The causative agent of paracoccus is an obligate parasite, unstable to environmental factors. Bordetella die when heated or under the influence of disinfectant solutions, are resistant to many antibiotics.

The source of infection is the patient, convalescent or carrier. Microbes spread by the aspiration mechanism, which is implemented by airborne droplets. This period lasts an average of three weeks.

The entrance gate of the infection is nasal mucosa. Microbes invade epithelial cells, multiply in the epithelial tissue of the larynx, trachea, bronchi and excrete infectious toxins into the blood. Toxins affect the respiratory system, central nervous system, blood vessels. Respiratory tract inflammation develops and progresses rapidly, which is clinically manifested by spasmodic cough. In the medulla oblongata, the cough reflex is formed under the influence of toxins. Coughing attacks are intensified and increased, the respiratory rhythm is disturbed, hemodynamic disorders occur, vascular permeability increases, hemorrhagic symptoms appear, bronchospasm, vascular hypertonia, and convulsive syndrome appear.

In patients with non-specific protection of the body is violated, and reduced immunity. This can result in the addition of a secondary bacterial infection and the formation of a bacteriocarrier. Additional infections can lead to the development of acute bronchitis, otitis or pneumonia.

Symptomatology

In the clinical course of paracoccus, there are 4 main periods: incubation, catarrhal, spasmodic, resolution.

The boundaries between these periods are smoothed or completely absent. The disease usually occurs as trachyet, bronchitis, pleurisy or pneumonia.

  • Incubation period Lasts 5-15 days, begins from the moment of infection of a person and is characterized by the absence of symptoms of pathology.
  • Catarrhal period manifested by signs of rhinitis, pain, sore throat and sore throat, coughing or a rare dry cough. Qatar lasts 3-5 days. In severe cases, signs of intoxication and astenisation of the body appear: persistent low-grade fever, weakness, malaise, myalgia, headache.
  • Then comes a period of spasmodic cough. The nature of the cough depends on the form of pathology. When erased form it is wet, obsessive, gradually increasing. A characteristic sign of paracolumnia infection in children is prolonged, exhausting coughing episodes against the background of normal temperature. With pertussis-like form, cough occurs in the form of seizures, which end with a reprise - whistling deep breath, and in severe cases vomiting. Coughing attacks are repeated 5-7 times a day. During the amplification of the cough symptom, sick children become restless and capricious.
  • Period of permission characterized by weak cough or lack of it. It lasts 2-3 days.

Paracoclusis is very difficult to distinguish from banal tracheitis or bronchitis of bacterial or viral origin. The cough is leveled independently and does not require medical therapy.

Complications develop very rarely with paracolumnia infection. The paracoclute form in case of severe course is complicated by pneumothorax, emphysema, prolapse of the rectum, hemorrhage into the retina or conjunctiva of the eye, nasal bleeding. Parakoklyush in 100% of cases ends with recovery.

Diagnostics

The pediatrician or infectious diseases specialist conducts the diagnosis and treatment of paracolumnia infection. Diagnostic measures include listening to the patient's complaints, collecting a history of life and illness, physical examination.

Epidemiological history allows to determine the presence of contact with a sick person. Then go to the laboratory diagnosis and instrumental methods.

  • Bacteriological examination of the patient - microbiological analysis for paracoclus. From the back wall of the pharynx, mucus is taken away with a sterile cotton swab on an empty stomach or 2 hours after a meal and immediately sown on nutrient media. Incubate, then study the nature of growth on Petri dishes, carry out microscopy and put additional tests.
  • Serology - the definition of antibodies in the blood to parakoklyusha. To confirm the diagnosis, an enzyme immunoassay is performed, RA, RPGA, RSC are placed.
  • Immunological examination - immunofluorescence analysis and the reaction of latex microagglutination.
  • The molecular method is a chain reaction.
  • In the hemogram - moderate leukocytosis and lymphocytosis.

Symptomatic treatment of parakoklushy. It is carried out on an outpatient basis. Hospitalization shall be for children with severe and moderate forms of the disease, with a burdened course, with concomitant serious diseases of organs and systems. Patients are recommended:

  • Long walks in the fresh air,
  • Diet, excluding foods that irritate the mucous throat: sour, salty, smoked, spicy dishes, crackers,
  • Avoid stress
  • Optimize your daily routine,
  • Humidify the air in the room, often air it,
  • Do not overwork.

Drug therapy is to use mucolytics - Ambroxol, Bronhikum, expectorants - Bromhexin, Tussin, bronchodilators and antispasmodics - Eufillin, Berodual, antihistamines - Dimedrol, Pipolfen, vitamins, and if there are complications - antibiotics. Sedatives and tranquilizers will help eliminate mental stress, resulting in a decrease in intensity and duration of cough. Children are prescribed inhalations with humid air or oxygen therapy, physiotherapy, and acupuncture.

In order for paracoclusum to pass faster, it is necessary to exclude external stimuli provoking new coughing episodes: dry air in the room, excess of emotions, and stress. Children are recommended quiet games, excluding excessive physical activity and arousal.

Traditional medicine can supplement the main treatment. The most effective are: decoctions, rubbing, radish juice with honey, "garlic milk", herbal extracts, rosehip tea, fresh elderberry, fennel tincture or medunitsa.

Prevention

There is no specific prophylaxis for paracoccus. Patients with paracoccal infection are isolated for 25 days, quarantine is established for 14 days. All contact persons and carriers of the pertussis pathogen are undergoing double bacteriological examination.

To improve the general condition of the body, general preventive measures are taken: proper nutrition, hardening, an active lifestyle, walking, good sleep, moderate physical labor.

First signs

It usually takes from three days to two weeks from the moment the bacteria enters the body until the first manifestations of the disease appear. At this time, the baby does not care, the state of the child is not disturbed. Sometimes some children may experience some weakness or decreased mood. Parents do not pay attention to these very early signs, writing them off for fatigue or a change of mood in a baby.

После окончания инкубационного периода появляются первые симптомы, которые характерны для паракоклюшной инфекции:

  • Приступы кашля. Usually they flow in a rather mild form. Baby coughing cough. Attempts to cough up well in the early stages of the disease do not bring results. If you do not start treatment in time, the cough increases markedly. The child tries to cough, but it does not work. When talking, a vulture appears, and during breathing - a characteristic whistle.
  • Increased body temperature. For most children, it increases to 37-38 degrees. Against the background of high temperature, chills appear, fever appears. The kid feels bad, becomes capricious. Children do not want to eat, do not play with toys. Infants and infants may experience vomiting due to high fever.
  • Intoxication. When bacteria multiply in the blood, many bacterial toxins appear. They provoke inflammation and significantly worsen the condition of the baby. In young children there is a headache, the guys feel a general weakness. They feel very sick. Due to intense cough, babies often complain of pain in the abdomen or chest.
  • Changing the psyche of the child. During illness, babies begin to behave differently. They are becoming more capricious. Habitual activities do not bring them joy. Playing with peers or toys is not fun. The harder the disease progresses, the more time the baby spends at home, refuses to go out into the yard or on the street. When the body temperature rises, the child tries to lie more. Babies of infancy after a coughing attack may cry, refuse to breast.

Causes of paracoccus in children

Bordetella parapertussis, the causative agent of the paracoclusum, is a member of the Betaproteobacteria class. This gram-negative microbe is a relatively large ovoid rod in shape. Cocci located more often alone, Bordetella immobile. It is a hemophilic bacterium, a strict anaerob. Three exotoxins (pertussis, tracheal and dermerocrotoxin) are distinguished. The sticks of the paracoccus are tropic to the ciliary epithelium of the respiratory tract.

The causative agent of parakoklyusha is similar in pathogenicity to whooping cough. Children attending nurseries, kindergartens, schools are ill. The source of infection is a sick child with no symptoms or a carrier of bacteria (no clinical manifestations).

Paracoclusum spreads through the air. With particles of sputum excreted when coughing, the pathogen of paracoclusum by inhalation gets on the mucous membranes of the uninfected child.

The emergence of paracoccus in children is largely promoted by:

- a large number of people in the room,

- rare airing or lack thereof,

- dry, warm air, contributing to the drying of the mucous membrane of the airways, which leads to the loss of its protective properties,

- chronic pathologies of the organs of the nasopharynx, reducing local immunity,

Getting on the mucous membrane, the pathogen begins to actively divide in the ciliary epithelium of the airways. With the current of cilia flickering, the parabolic pathogen enters the lower parts of the lungs (bronchi of the third and lower order, bronchioles, alveoli).

Under the action of tracheal exotoxin, the mucosal epithelium undergoes necrosis, resulting in cough receptor irritation. A continuous stream of impulse signals is created in the center of the cough, which is located in the medulla oblongata, where a stable focus of excitation is formed. This is the basis of characteristic coughing attacks.

There are no bacteria in the bloodstream. But secondary microbial flora can join, which causes complications.

Symptoms of paracoccus in children

The paracoclosis may be typical, then the symptoms of the disease are similar to the specific manifestations of whooping cough, but with paracoclosis the course of the disease is much easier. If the disease is erased, then paracoclus in children passes under the guise of a lung ARI, accompanied by unproductive cough. When transient (passing) bacteria carrier, there are no signs of body suffering.

The incubation period takes two weeks. At this point there are no obvious symptoms.

Next comes the prodromal period, it lasts about 5 days. Minor Qatari manifestations manifest: from the nose a slight transparent discharge, moderate redness of the throat area, a rare unproductive cough. The well-being of children suffering from paracoclusum remains satisfactory, the temperature is within the acceptable range.

Then, at a certain type of the course of the disease (erased or typical), the next period begins - manifestations of clinical symptoms.

Paracoclusum in children, in the form of cough syndrome, proceeds as:

- Whooping cough form, when, after a short restful period of prodrome, there appears an attack of characteristic cough, accompanied by marked facial hyperemia, swelling of the surface veins, tongue sticking out, reprisals (episodes of noisy exhalation at the end of spastic cough, while inhaling), occasionally ending with fast passing vomiting. Unlike pertussis cough, bouts of spastic convulsive cough occur infrequently and are shorter in duration. In infants, such an attack of cough can provoke a short time stop breathing, which is accompanied by oxygen starvation.

- When the course of the cough syndrome is erased, it proceeds as tracheal or tracheobronchial - episodes of coughing up with coughing up sputum. The diagnosis can be verified only after a specific examination.

The severity of parakoklyush in children emit light and medium. Criteria determining severity:

- the severity of lack of oxygenation during the attack,

- the duration and frequency of coughing

- how the child feels between attacks,

Paracoclusum in a child is rarely complicated. Complications (bronchitis, otitis media, pneumonia), if they occur, they are caused by stratification of the secondary pathogenic flora or exacerbation of existing diseases.

After the child has suffered paracoclus, a lifelong immunity is formed.

Although the symptoms of paracoccus in children, which are typically typical, are specific, the episode of spastic cough is sometimes regarded as a symptom of another disease. There are several main nosologies with a similar clinic:

- Whooping cough. With it, the course of the disease, during the period of spastic cough, is more severe, and often frequent attacks lead to impairment of well-being. The catarrhal period proceeds more clearly.

- SARS, with symptoms of tracheitis, tracheobronchitis. With SARS, catarrhal manifestations are pronounced, significantly worsen the condition of the child, intoxication syndrome is pronounced, there is almost always fever.

- Phenomena of bronchial obstruction of allergic origin. Here it is necessary to take into account the allergic history, to establish the connection between the cough episode and the allergen.

- Foreign body in the airways. The episode of the reprise with cyanosis almost immediately goes away, and with obstruction by a foreign body, the state quickly becomes extremely serious.

Treatment of paracoccus in children

Considering the ease of the course of the disease with paracoclusum, the therapy is carried out at home, when controlled by the local doctor. They are sent to hospital for children younger than a year or for complications.

With paracoclusus, antimicrobial antimicrobial use is unnecessary. For the treatment of manifestations of paracoccus in a child, symptomatic means and the following regimen are used:

- Mode gentle, limiting mobile games, psycho-emotional stress, excessive stimuli, so as not to provoke a cough.

- Nutrition is full, easily digestible, enriched with vitamins, microelements. After vomiting shown feeding and feeding on small portions.

- Aerotherapy, which involves constant airing. For episodes of convulsive cough, accompanied by cyanosis, subsidy of 40% of oxygen by a free stream, using a mask, 3 times a day.

Shown drugs desensitizing, antihistamine action - Suprastin, Erius, Zyrtec, Fenistil, Tavegil, etc.

- Sedative sedatives - Motherwort, Valerian. When overexcited, frequent coughing, Relanium is prescribed, at a dose of 0.3 mg / kg per day injections, at bedtime.

- Cough suppressants that block the cough center (Codeine, Sinekod, Stoptussin, Codelac, Libexin).

- Preparations that improve the state of the pulmonary system surfactant (Lasolvan, Bromhexine).

- Rarely prescribed glucocorticoids, used inhalation (budesonide).

- Drugs that contribute to leveling the negative effects of hypoxia, improving blood flow (Trental, Vinpocetine).

- Folk remedies (fennel decoction, rosehip decoction, lungwort).

Forms and periods of paracoccus

During paracolumn infection, there are 3 periods:

  • catarrhal - lasts about 3-14 days, manifests signs of nasopharyngitis,
  • convulsive (spasmodic cough) - lasts about 2-8 weeks (usually 2-3 weeks, sometimes longer), accompanied by a dry paroxysmal cough,
  • recovery - lasts 2-4 weeks, manifested by a gradual extinction of symptoms.

Paracoclusum can occur in such forms:

  • atypical (or erased) - the disease is not manifested by cough, and there is no periodicity in the occurrence of symptoms,
  • whooping cough - an infection is manifested by coughing attacks that can result in vomiting,
  • bacteriocarrier - the patient has no signs of the disease, but during breathing he releases pathogens pathogens into the environment and is a source of infection.

After infection until the onset of symptoms, it takes from 5 to 8 days (sometimes the incubation period lasts up to 15 days). Further, the child develops manifestations of the paracoccal catarrhal period:

  • deterioration of general well-being: weakness, muscle pain, headache, etc.,
  • a slight increase in temperature (up to 37.5 ° C),
  • runny nose
  • sore throat and sore throat
  • coughing or rare dry cough.

Such manifestations parakoklyusha often taken for the symptoms of SARS. However, the reception of antitussives does not give effect, and the cough gradually becomes more pronounced and paroxysmal.

After the onset of the convulsive period, the child's temperature can normalize and a dry paroxysmal cough occurs, starting after the appearance of precursors (sore throat, anxiety) and manifested by jerky coughing points arising on inspiration. A spasmodic cough is accompanied by so-called reprises, during which a whistling sound is heard on the breaths, provoked by spasm of the glottis. Such cough attacks occur several times a day (usually 5-7 times).

After an attack is complete, mucus is secreted from the respiratory tract, and vomiting can sometimes occur. During coughing, the face and eyes of the patient become red, the veins in the neck swell, tears flow from the eyes, and the eyelids swell. Due to hypoxia, the skin of the face gradually turns blue, and it becomes puffy.

In some cases, severe coughing attacks lead to involuntary urination and excretion of feces. Because of the strong cough, the child becomes lethargic and irritable. On examination of the oral cavity on the frenulum of the tongue, ulcers and white plaque can be detected.

After 2-8 weeks, the patient begins a period of recovery. Cough attacks disappear, cough occurs less frequently, and the child’s condition begins to stabilize.

Complications with paracoclusum are rare. In severe cases of infection, a child may develop bacterial pneumonia, bronchitis, otitis media, pneumothorax, or emphysema. Sometimes severe coughing seizures lead to nasal bleeding, bleeding into the conjunctiva of the eye, or rectal prolapse.

Symptoms of other forms of paracoccus

With the erased form of paracoccus, the patient develops a tracheobronchial or tracheal cough, which is not characterized as paroxysmal. In such cases, the correct diagnosis can be made only according to the results of laboratory tests.

With the pertussis-like form of this infection, the catarrhal period becomes inconsistent. After him, the child has a paroxysmal cough with reprises, which sometimes ends with the occurrence of vomiting. Such a course of the disease is observed in 15-20% of patients. From pertussis, this form of paracoccus differs only in shorter and more rare cough attacks.

The bacteriocarrier of paracoccus is detected in 10-15% of cases of infection with this infection. With this course of the disease, the patient does not identify the symptoms of the disease, but his pathogen is released into the external environment and can become the cause of infection of other people.

Which doctor to contact

When a child has a worsening cough or coughing seizures on the background of ARVI, which ends with abundant mucus or vomiting, you should contact your pediatrician, pulmonologist or infectious diseases specialist. The diagnosis of "paracoclus" can be established only after bacteriological examination or serological tests (RPHA, RA, RSK).

Paracoclusis is provoked by infection of Bordetella parapertussis, accompanied by damage to the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, the central nervous system and bouts of severe dry cough. The signs of this infectious disease are very similar to the symptoms of whooping cough, but are not so intense. Antibiotics are not used for the treatment of paracoccus and symptomatic agents are prescribed for the patient to mitigate the manifestations of the disease.

About parakoklyusha in the program “To live healthy!” With Elena Malysheva (see from 32:23 min.):

Types of tests for whooping cough and paracoclus

Assignment to the analysis of whooping cough and paracoccause is received by the category of patients who are diagnosed with the relevant diseases or are suspected of having them. In total there are several methods of research on paracoclus. Each of them has its own focus.

Even before the appointment of drugs, the child should be tested from the back of the throat, or by bacteriological examination of sputum. The material is sown in a nutrient medium and after 5, in rare cases, 7 days, the first results appear.

What data the results of the analysis for paracoccus and whooping cough in children will be depends on many factors, including:

  1. High-quality training according to all recommendations of the doctor.
  2. At what time the disease had to pass the material on the analysis of the child.
  3. Was the nutrient medium prepared according to the rules.

The average component of the objectivity of the determination at the bacteriological level, though low, is in the order of 25%, but mandatory.

Also, the child should be tested for whooping cough and paraclocus complete blood count. This study will help determine to what level the increase in white blood cells occurred.

It is important to clarify that the degree of development of white blood cells depends on how much whooping cough and paracoccus are developed in a child. In the case when children have a vaccine, a blood test will not show signs of disease.

To determine the presence of the disease is possible only when whooping cough enters the catarrhal phase of its development.

If the disease lasts a week or more, another analysis for paracoclusum is indicated. In this case, a blood serological method is considered relevant for children.

This type of examination is decisive in determining the disease. It helps to determine the level of antibodies, even when the standard procedure for tank sowing becomes ineffective.

A serodiagnosis check for a child is given a double delivery of material at an equal interval within a month.

In more detail about the rules of delivery of the main types of analyzes

When prescribing a child a laboratory test for paracoclus by serological analysis, preparation can play a paramount role for obtaining reliable results.

The most important recommendations for children are:

  1. With regards to food - should be limited to sweet.
  2. Try to eat less fatty foods.
  3. Avoid emotional stress.
  4. Avoid strong physical exertion.

If a child is prescribed medication with antibiotics, this fact will not reflect the results. Surrender should be carried out in the morning and strictly on an empty stomach.

Direct sampling of material for whooping cough and paracocclusum is performed by a standard vein procedure in a volume of 5 milliliters. Regardless of the first result, after 2 weeks the procedure is duplicated.

As for bacteriological research, this analysis can be passed in just a couple of seconds, and it is possible to get decryption in 3 days. Since the procedure itself is straightforward to say, somewhat uncomfortable, in a small child the material is taken from the nose, not from their throats as in older children.

With the general analysis on whooping cough and parakoklyush it is still simpler. This procedure is performed by taking blood from a finger. As a rule, the analysis does not provide for certain special measures, in addition, it is recommended to donate blood on an empty stomach.

basic information

Paracoclusis in children is a fairly common infection. However, in fairness it should be noted that this disease develops much less frequently than pertussis. Such diseases are completely unrelated. Чаще всего паракоклюшем болеют дети 3-6 лет и очень редко малыши до года и подростки.

Что такое паракоклюш?

Симптомы у детей, лечение этого заболевания должны определяться только опытным врачом-педиатром.

Paracoclusum is a disease of acute nature and infectious origin. It is characterized by persistent, dry and paroxysmal cough, as well as the phenomenon of tracheobronchitis.

The symptoms of the disease in question are very similar to the clinical picture of mild whooping cough. Usually, after suffering the disease, a person forms a stable and type-specific immunity. Re-infection is not possible, or its risk is small.

Ways of transmission and causes of illness

The causative agent of the disease under consideration is Bordetella parapertussis. This is a paracoclusum bacillus, which has the same pathogenic properties as pertussis bacillus. It should be noted that it differs in some cultural and biochemical characteristics.

How is paracoclusum transmitted (symptoms in children, treatment will be discussed below)? The source of infection is the sick child, and sometimes the bacteriocarrier. The infection is transmitted by airborne droplets.

The disease under consideration is characterized by periodic bursts of morbidity, as well as epidemic outbreaks in kindergartens and schools.

Forms of Infectious Disease

What forms does a disease such as paracoclusum have? Symptoms in children, the treatment of this disease depends on the type of pathology developed. Experts distinguish several forms of paracoclusum:

  • typical
  • atypical (asymptomatic, bacteriocarrier, erased form).

It should also be noted that this disease can occur:

  • in moderate form,
  • easy form.

Depending on the complications, the disease in question is subdivided:

  • on uncomplicated (with a smooth flow),
  • complicated (with the addition of a secondary infection or exacerbation of chronic diseases).

Parakoklyush: symptoms in children

Treatment, reviews and tips on how to prevent this disease will be discussed below.

The incubation period of this disease lasts for 4-14 days. The clinical picture of paracoccus is characterized by the presence of three periods of development of pathological signs. The first symptoms, or the so-called catarrhal period, may be confused with influenza or acute respiratory infections:

  • sore throat and sore throat
  • dry cough,
  • minor rhinitis.

This period lasts for 3-5 days. Next comes the spasmodic period. It is characterized by the following features:

  • with an atypical form, a wet and obsessive cough with sputum discharge,
  • with a pertussis-like flow, the patient has a paroxysmal cough, which ends with a whistling breath or vomiting (seizures do not occur more than 7 times a day).

According to doctors, coughing episodes develop due to mechanical stimuli, excessive activity or nervous overstrain.

Usually the duration of the spasmodic period does not exceed two weeks.

During the reverse development of the disease, the cough weakens and then disappears completely (in about 3 days). In this case, the temperature in the child remains normal. As for the catarrhal and spasmodic period, then with them the baby may have a subfebrile condition.

Complications

What complications can paracoclusum cause? Symptoms (and treatment) in children of this disease are known to every pediatrician, and the pathology must be identified on time. This is due to the fact that the disease can cause serious complications that are associated with the accession of a secondary infection.

Most commonly, respiratory diseases, including pleurisy, pneumonia, and bronchitis, develop with paracoclusis. There are also complications such as pneumothorax, emphysema, and prolapse of the rectum.

How is diagnosed?

If your baby has a severe dry cough and there is no increased body temperature, then you should immediately contact a specialist (LOR, pulmonologist, pediatrician or infectious diseases specialist).

In making a correct diagnosis, information about the last contact of a child with a sick person is of great importance. Also, the baby is recommended to be tested for whooping cough and paracaute.

In children, to confirm the diagnosis, such examinations are performed:

  • bacterial inoculation of a smear taken from the posterior pharyngeal wall,
  • chest x-ray,
  • a blood test for the presence of antibodies to paracoclus.

Treatment process

How to treat paracoclusum in children? The doctor will tell you about this in detail. In most cases, the treatment of this disease is carried out on an outpatient basis. However, in some situations, the child is still hospitalized. As a rule, this happens if the baby is not yet three years old or the disease is extremely severe. In addition, the child is observed only in the hospital if he has any serious complications.

According to the statements of experienced specialists, there is no specific treatment for this disease. However, to relieve unpleasant symptoms, doctors recommend the following activities:

  • vitamin therapy, desensitizing treatment,
  • ensuring that the room where the patient is located has an optimum microclimate, that is, humid and cool air,
  • oxygen barotherapy, regular inhalations with humid air through a nebulizer,
  • frequent walks in the fresh air (preferably away from highways).

Drug treatment

As mentioned above, there is no specific treatment for children’s paracoclusum. However, doctors still prescribe certain medicines for babies.

Among the medicines prescribed by specialists, sick children can use:

  • sedatives
  • "Tussin Plus" or "Bronholitin" (especially in the catarrhal period),
  • antibiotics (macrolides) in case of a complicated course of the disease (only for children up to one year).

It is impossible not to say that the following procedures are actively used during parakoklush:

Experts say that during the course of such a disease it is extremely important to refuse to take solid food in the form of cookies, crackers, hard fruits and vegetables. You should also refrain from active actions and games that may contribute to the development of paroxysmal cough.

Expert advice and feedback

In order not to infect other children with Paracoclusum, it is strictly forbidden to contact them when walking with a sick baby.

According to the reviews of doctors, vaccination against whooping cough does not protect the child from paratussary pertussis.

To humidify the air in the room where the patient is, you just need to open the windows and hang wet towels or sheets. In such conditions, the disease, in particular paroxysmal cough, will be much easier.

Experts do not advise parents to leave children's cough without proper attention. After all, this symptom very often indicates the development of serious and serious infectious diseases. At the first signs of a child’s discomfort, you should immediately show a pediatrician or some other narrowly focused specialist to avoid the spread of infection and the development of various complications.

What other studies exist and how relevant are they?

In addition to the above, there are other types of research on paracoclus, among which is the method of immunological test. This type of study is based on the determination of antibodies to pertussis sticks and blood is used as the test material. Blood for analysis can be taken both from a vein and from a finger.

Pertussis wand is naturally prone to toxins. Human immunity, in contrast, is extremely sensitive to these toxins and, when they appear, begins to produce Igg antibodies.

That is, if Igg is detected during analysis, the disease can be diagnosed. Also, pertussis and paracoclus occurs in the body in the form of IgA and IgM antibodies. More precisely:

  1. Igg antibodies play a direct role in the formation of the protective functions of the immune system throughout the duration of the disease. If these antibodies are found, then the child at the moment, there is a paracoclosis or whooping cough, or he has already been ill with them.
  2. IgA antibodies in children can appear only if the paracoclosis is in an acute stage of its development.
  3. The following antibodies, IgM, are considered the first precursors of infection. In addition, they can improve in the case when the child is vaccinated.

Another objective study is a general urinalysis. With it, you can evaluate the main properties of urine, sediment, and other characteristics.

The analysis checks the acidity, transparency level and specific gravity of the material. In medicine, this method is often used because it rarely loses its information content, and with its help one can certainly determine at what stage the paracoclusum is located.

An example should be given of another diagnostic test for paracoclus and whooping cough called “latex microagglutination reaction”. This analysis is one of the simplest and less expensive.

The minus of the technique is that the pathogen is applied to the test at the last stage of decay, and because of this, its application is used as a last resort, since there is a high risk of decoding bias.

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