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Platelet norm in the blood of children of different ages: the role of platelets for a growing organism

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Platelets are involved in the coagulation process.

Platelets are represented by small, nucleus-free blood plasma cells. Their shape is ellipsoid, 1-4 microns in size. The formation of blood clots occurs in the tissues of the bone marrow. A platelet consists of a membrane and acts as a protective layer. Under this layer is the lipid layer, and inside the mitochondria.

These cells constantly change and the life cycle is approximately 5-12 days. The destruction of old platelets occurs in the spleen.

The main function of platelets is normal blood clotting. However, there are other equally important functions that nuclear-free cells perform:

  1. Providing the cells in the blood vessels with nutrients.
  2. Protection of vessel walls from damage.
  3. Prevent blood loss.
  4. Do not allow penetration of pathogenic microorganisms.

When the vascular wall is damaged, platelet blockage is created by the platelet and helps block blood flow from the vessel.

Since the platelet has processes, with their help the cells invade pathogenic pathogens and do not allow it to perform a negative function.

These blood elements not only take part in the protection of the body, but can also cause the formation of blood clots when they are oversupplied.

Diagnosis and rate indicator

The blood for analysis taken from the finger

The main way to diagnose the determination of the level of platelets and other blood elements is a general clinical analysis.

If a relative has a history of thrombocytopenia, the doctor may suggest the hereditary nature of the disease in a child.

The average number of platelets in children varies according to age. In newborns, the platelet count is normally 100-420 U / μl. For babies up to one year, the normal rate should be in the range of 150-350 U / μl.

As children grow older, the level of blood cells increases:

  • From 1 to 5 years - 180-380 U / μl.
  • From 5 years to 10 years - 180-450 U / μl.
  • From 10 years to 16 years - 150-450 U / μl.

Deviation from the norm is permissible in 10%. If the difference is more or less than the specified value, then this may indicate some pathologies and abnormalities in the functioning of the internal organs.

If there is a deviation from the norm, additional methods are assigned to a higher or lower side: genetic tests, detection for the presence of antibodies, ultrasound diagnostics, x-rays, endoscopy.

Everything you need to know about thrombocytopenia

The lower the level of platelets in the blood, the more pronounced the symptoms

Thrombocytopenia is characterized by a decrease in platelet levels. In childhood, a decrease in the number of platelets may be due to various diseases:

  • Anemia
  • Acute infections
  • Leukemia
  • Arthritis
  • Lymphogranulomatosis
  • Erythrocytosis
  • Hemolysis
  • Tuberculosis

The destruction of platelets can occur on the background of the immunopathological process, vasopathies, thrombosis in injuries, intoxication, an allergic reaction, lack of certain trace elements, etc.

Thrombocytopenia may occur while taking certain medications: Glipizid, Phenobarbital, Levomycetin, Meprobamate, etc.

A decrease in the concentration of platelets can be observed with severe stress, poisoning, and large blood loss.

Signs of thrombocytopenia in children are different from those in adults. This condition manifests itself with the following symptoms:

  • Point rash on the skin.
  • Bleeding gums.
  • The appearance of bruises and smudges after a slight bruise or weak pressing.
  • Prolonged bleeding with minor damage to the integrity of the skin.
  • Frequent nasal bleeding lasting 15-20 minutes.

Learn more about the causes of platelet lowering can be found in the video:

A dangerous symptom of thrombocytopenia is the appearance of bruises on the face. This symptom indicates a very low platelet count. Such a phenomenon can cause a hemorrhage in the organs or brain. If there is a hemorrhage in the retina, then you can lose sight. With often bursting capillaries in the eyes, you should immediately contact an oculist.

With a low level of these cellular elements, gastrointestinal hemorrhages may appear. Their occurrence is due to damage to the gastric mucosa solid food. In this case, children can detect bloody feces or vomiting with blood.

The danger of this disease is that the listed symptoms appear without pain and other more serious signs that do not cause concern to parents. However, this phenomenon can lead to internal bleeding, which is life threatening.

Why does thrombocytosis arise and how is it dangerous?

There are primary, secondary and clonal thrombocytosis.

Blood clotting disorders and the tendency to the formation of thrombosis due to thrombocytosis. This is a rare disease of the hematopoietic system, which is characterized by an increase in the number of platelets in the blood.

In children, thrombocytosis can occur against the background of tumor processes in the hematopoietic system. Secondary thrombocytosis may occur against the background of existing chronic pathology.

The main causes of development and factors that affect the increase in the level of platelets in the blood:

  • Infectious diseases.
  • Congenital or acquired blood disorders.
  • Prolonged bleeding
  • Acceptance of certain drugs.
  • Condition after surgery (after removal of the spleen).

By external signs, high platelet count is difficult to determine. If the child complains of dizziness, weakness, itching, and there are swelling and pain in their place, then it is necessary to donate blood and check the level of blood cells.

The risk of thrombocytosis is that when an excessive number of platelets accelerates the process of blood clotting. As a result, the plates stick together with each other, which leads to the formation of a thrombus. In the future, the probability of occlusion of the heart or brain vessels is great.

How to normalize platelet count?

Therapy depends on the cause of the indicator deviation.

According to the results of the analysis, an appropriate treatment regimen is selected. To increase the level of platelets, you can prescribe the reception of immunoglobulins, corticosteroids. In advanced cases, platelet transfusions are performed.

It is important to identify the cause of an increase or decrease in platelet levels. Eliminating the root cause, you can bring back to normal indicator. Mild thrombocytopenia treatment is not required.

Immune or autoimmune thrombocytopenia is treated with glucocorticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs. Thrombocytopenia against a viral infection is treated with antibiotics and immunostimulating drugs.

Therapeutic treatment of thrombocytosis in children involves the use of nonsteroidal antiplatelet agents, if thrombosis is pronounced, then use anticoagulants.

It should be noted that the duration of treatment of thrombocytopenia and thrombocytosis for at least six months. In addition to the necessary drugs, the doctor will prescribe a course of taking multivitamins and drugs to strengthen the body.

Preventive measures prescribed by the doctor to keep thrombocytopenia in remission:

  • The child is prohibited from making any vaccines. If necessary, this is carried out in a hospital.
  • In order to prevent should be normalized diet baby. Compliance with the rules contributes to the proper development of blood cells and their sufficient number in the body.
  • It is important to strictly monitor the nutrition of the child and ensure adequate drinking regimen.
  • In the period of epidemics of infectious diseases it is necessary to limit the contact of the child with other people, thus avoiding various infections.
  • It should be at least 1 time per year to take a blood test.
  • It is also recommended to increase the consumption of fruits and vegetables, to prevent dehydration of the body, to control the iodine content in the body. The child should eat as much fruit drinks and compotes of blueberries, cranberries and lingonberries as possible.
  • In case of any indisposition or deterioration of the baby’s well-being, contact your pediatrician.

By following these rules, you can prevent changes in the level of platelets in the blood.

Why do we need platelets?

Another name for platelets is blood platelets (or Bitszocero plaques). This name these cells received due to its structure.

A platelet is a small plate whose size does not exceed 1.5-4 micrometers, separated by a megakaryocyte (a large cell from which bone marrow tissue is obtained).

The shape of the calf plate is maintained by microscopic tubes located along the entire perimeter of the cell. The content of platelets in the blood averages from 60 to 75% of the total, the remaining part (about 25-40%) accumulates in the spleen.

The number of platelets in the blood plasma can fluctuate both upwards and downwards throughout the day. But these fluctuations should not exceed 10%. If the difference during the day is more than the specified value, you can suspect a pathology or abnormalities in the work of internal organs.

The main function that platelets perform in the human body is the formation of platelet clots, which are necessary to prevent blood loss, and participate in blood coagulation processes.

The role of platelets in the functioning of the child's body

Several functions can be distinguished for which a small body needs a certain number of platelets. These include:

  • repair damaged blood vessel cells,
  • participation in cell division,
  • transportation of immune complexes and their attachment to the cell membrane,
  • maintaining the contractility of the vascular walls due to serotonin,
  • isolation of proteins necessary for blood coagulation
  • the formation of blood clots (adhesion) necessary to stop the bleeding and reduce blood loss.

The average number of platelets as the norm for children in the table

The content of platelets in the blood of a child depends on many factors, for example, health status, dietary habits, age, etc. Age in determining compliance with the norms is the main criterion.

The rate of platelets, depending on the age of the child (the table shows the values ​​for healthy children!)

How to determine the level of platelets in the blood?

To determine the volume of blood cells, a complete blood count is used, which is done even for newborns 1-3 days after birth.

Healthy children are advised to donate blood at least 1 time per year for the purpose of early detection of pathologies.

With a hereditary predisposition to thrombocytopenia or thrombocytosis, the pediatrician may prescribe a complete blood count more often, for example, 2-4 times a year. Pathology of the bone marrow, as well as some diseases, require more frequent monitoring.

Do I need special training before passing the analysis?

To make the analysis as accurate as possible, the baby should be properly prepared for blood donation. To do this, follow these rules:

  • the fasting period must be at least 8 (for children under 7 years old) or 12 hours (for children over 7 years old),
  • The material should be collected in the morning (60-120 minutes after waking up),
  • drinking and eating food before the analysis is not allowed (you can give the crumbs some clean drinking water),
  • 1-2 days before donating blood for analysis it is necessary to limit physical activity and activity of the child (if the child goes to school, you should skip the physical education class),
  • In no case should you rub your fingers before entering the nurse's office, as this may affect the results of the analysis (for example, the level of leukocytes, etc.).

How to determine?

If a laboratory blood test revealed a significant decrease in the number of platelets compared with age norms, the child is diagnosed with "thrombocytopenia."

Such a condition is dangerous for a small organism, since with epithelium damage or internal bleeding, no blood can coagulate, which leads to significant blood loss and a sharp deterioration in health (in some cases, even death).

The only way to stop the bleeding can be a transfusion of donor blood with a high content of platelets.

To prevent serious consequences, it is important to know the symptoms and signs of thrombocytopenia in children. These include:

  • frequent nosebleeds,
  • bleeding of the gums, independent of cleaning the teeth,
  • bruises and small hematomas on the body,
  • small rash that occurs mainly on the legs, ankles, hips and buttocks (occurs in 100% of children with this diagnosis),
  • blood streaks in feces and urine.

Not always a decrease in platelets caused by internal pathologies. There are also external causes for which signs of thrombocytopenia can be observed in children.

Reasons for reducing the number of platelets in childhood:

  • medication (allergic to active ingredients),
  • poor and unbalanced diet with reduced iron content,
  • anemia,
  • general intoxication of the body (for example, in case of poisoning with poisons or heavy metals),
  • the presence of anti-platelet specific antibodies in blood cells,
  • bacterial and viral infections
  • Fanconi syndrome (hereditary form of thrombocytopenia),
  • disorders of the thyroid gland,
  • insufficient intake of folic acid with food.

Decreased platelets in newborns and infants

In children of the first year of life thrombocytopenia occurs mainly in the acute form. At the same time, the total number of platelets remains at the same level, but the level of platelet mass in plasma is sharply reduced.

There are several reasons that can lower the number of blood cells.

  • Thrombocytopenia in the mother during pregnancy.

The risk of the appearance of pathology in the neonatal period increases several times if the mother had problems with hemoglobin during pregnancy. This condition is especially dangerous for children in the first 7-10 days after birth, as it can cause sudden bleeding and death of the infant.

  • Prematurity or critically low birth weight.

Nearly 60% of premature babies suffer from thrombocytopenia. Treatment in children of the first year of life (and especially in newborns) is carried out strictly in the hospital. Often in such cases, the mother is discharged from the maternity hospital alone, and the baby is left for treatment or transferred to a children's specialized hospital.

  • Development of antibodies to the mother against the platelets of the child.

It is quite rare (about 5-7% of cases). As a result of the pathology, there is an enhanced disintegration of blood cells and a decrease in their numbers.

  • Viral infections (measles, rubella).

How to increase the number of platelets in a child?

The main importance in the treatment and prevention of thrombocytopenia is given to the normalization of the child's dietary regimen.

To raise platelet levels, the following foods (rich in iron and folic acid) should be included in the baby’s diet:

  • nut fruits (cashews, walnuts, Brazilians),
  • ripe banana flesh (without signs of rotting),
  • cabbage, carrots,
  • pomegranates and pomegranate juice,
  • dried mountain ash and compotes from it,
  • beef and veal,
  • buckwheat groats (preferably green buckwheat, almost 3 times more vitamins and minerals than standard grains),
  • dog-rose fruit,
  • beet juice (you can add beetroot in the raw and boiled form),
  • leaves of young nettle (collected on clean soil),
  • all varieties of fish
  • beef liver,
  • parsley, cilantro, dill.

Thrombocytosis in children

Thrombocytosis is an increase in the number of platelets in the blood to values ​​several times higher than normal. Most often, thrombocytosis is a consequence of a viral or bacterial infection. In severe cases, an increase in blood cells may indicate the development of cancer.

How to determine: symptoms

Symptoms of thrombocytosis are similar to the clinical manifestations of thrombocytopenia, although there are some differences. If your child has at least one of the listed symptoms, you should immediately consult a doctor and pass a blood test.

Symptoms of thrombocytosis in childhood:

  • frequent and severe nosebleeds,
  • blue skin
  • the appearance of subcutaneous hemorrhages,
  • itching and burning in certain areas of the skin,
  • tingling sensation on the skin
  • cold hands and feet at a comfortable ambient temperature,
  • dyspnea,
  • increased heart rate.

The child may also complain of frequent headaches. In some cases, pressure surges and the formation of blood clots are possible.

In order to correctly determine the cause of platelet elevation, it is necessary to diagnose exactly what type of thrombocytosis develops in a child. The treatment regimen and tactics of the small patient will depend on this.

The role of platelets in the children's body

При рождении ребенок получает свой уникальный состав крови, который во многом схож с материнским набором. Определить тромбоцитарный уровень позволит обычный анализ крови, который берут из пуповинной крови или из пальца. Стоит понимать, что With the gradual development of the systems and functions of the body, the quantitative and qualitative composition of blood may change.. This is due to the work and the formation of the adrenal glands, which hormones help to regulate the synthesis of platelet megakaryocytes. Therefore, throughout the period from birth to maturity, completely different indicators can be considered the norm.

Consider an example how platelets in children depend on the developmental stages of the child:

  1. At birth, the most primitive reflexes are preserved, and the body functions are only beginning to be established. Against the background of active growth and development, the spread in terms of the norm is maximum.
  2. In the period from one year to three years, when a child actively learns about the world, learns to walk, talk, and realize himself as a person, the body is controlled by hormones, under the action of which there is a need for intensive production of platelets. This natural protective function will allow you to avoid heavy bleeding during falls (it is impossible to learn to walk without them), as well as protect you against brittle blood vessels, which manifests as hematomas with minor injuries.
  3. When a child gets a little older, the normal values ​​approach adults, however, in the period of hormonal adjustment (12-15 years) errors of 15-20% deviations in each direction are allowed.

It is important to control the level of platelets in the first year of life, since it is during this period that the mechanisms for maintaining health and immunity are laid down. A blood test is capable of helping in this process, which is recommended to take at least 1 time per trimester.

Values ​​of the norm in children

To find out which indicators are considered normal for a given age, a table is presented, where all data is displayed. Indicators are given in thousands per milliliter of blood.

The presence of errors in childhood, as well as the increase in the gap in performance - this is a necessary measure, based on the results of a number of studies. This is especially true of the hormonal adjustment period, when in a healthy organism, with hormonal imbalance, there may be a difference in the number of platelets produced. Platelets in infants have the highest level of error, which indicates the immaturity of the bone marrow and hormonal system.

Anna Ponyaeva. Graduated from Nizhny Novgorod Medical Academy (2007-2014) and Residency in Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics (2014-2016). Ask a question >>

Deviations are considered indicators of the result of the analysis that go beyond the limits of generally established standards. If they are minor, then offer retake analysis. But if the platelet imbalance is supported by the presence of deviations from other blood fractions (leukocytes are elevated), there is a possibility of health problems.

Elevated values

In most cases, an increase in the number of platelet cells is due to the presence of inflammatory process in the body, because their synthesis is articulated with the production of white blood cells. Platelets are a kind of leukocyte assistants that help strengthen the cell membranes and prevent the entry of pathogenic bacteria into them. This condition can be observed in acute respiratory infections and acute respiratory viral infections, but the reasons may be more serious.

The fact is that a lot of diseases that develop against the background of enlarged platelets do not make themselves felt for quite a long time, asymptomatic. Problems are diagnosed by chance, when conducting a routine blood test.

Causes and symptoms

An elevated platelet count is called thrombocytosis, the causes of which may be the following manifestations:

  • oncological diseases associated with blood-forming organs,
  • the presence of chronic diseases that provoke inflammation not only of the organ itself, but also of the surrounding tissues: hepatitis, tuberculosis, cirrhosis of the liver, meningitis,
  • viral blood damage by meningococci, streptococci, staphylococci: osteomyelitis, gout, arthrosis, rheumatism,
  • iron deficiency
  • long-term use of antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal medications that affect the immune system.

The primary symptoms of thrombocytosis have no external manifestations, but with the progression of the disease symptoms can be in such situations:

  • the presence of blood in the feces and urine,
  • itching without visible rash,
  • cold limbs even in the summer months
  • frequent headaches, dizziness and loss of consciousness without cause,
  • symptoms of vegetative-vascular dystonia,
  • tachycardia with progressive arrhythmia,
  • the presence of blood clots in the blood, externally manifested blue in a certain area of ​​the skin, as well as a clear view of the outline of the vessels through the skin.

Features of treatment and prevention

As an auxiliary agent, blood thinners are used (Aspirin, Asparkam, Aspirin-Cardio, Cardiomagnyl). It must be remembered that diluting the blood in an unnatural way with the help of synthetic substances can have a lot of adverse reactions, especially in children.

In cases where the platelet level exceeds the maximum permissible values ​​by 2-3 times - emergency therapy is carried out. To do this, use the procedure of filtering your own blood (hemodialysis). Baby blood is passed through a special apparatus that is able to hold back platelets, leaving the main composition of the blood the same. The procedure is performed under sterile conditions, and is also capable of saving lives in critical situations.

As a prevention, as well as an auxiliary treatment method, diet is used. Children are not recommended a high content of carbohydrates, as well as fats of animal origin (with the exception of dairy products). The diet consists of cereals, vegetables (fresh and steamed), kissels from fresh fruits and berries. Good help to reduce platelets. Products such as:

Make the blood not so concentrated drinking plenty of water will help. The child is offered to drink boiled water in a volume of 30 ml per kilogram of weight. You should drink in small sips, but often (every 15-20 minutes).

Treatment and Prevention

The treatment in this case is aimed at stimulating the production of platelets. If the therapeutic effect of the produced medicinal treatment is not observed, more radical measures are required. The most productive treatment is:

  • injection of donor platelets into the body, the presence of which can stimulate the hormonal system and karyocytes to synthesize their own cells,
  • bone marrow transplantation, which is expensive but the most effective procedure in the case when the problem of low platelets is directly related to the bone marrow cells.

In order to prevent children who have the prerequisites for the development of thrombocytopenia, it is recommended to adhere to a special diet that makes the blood more saturated:

  • red meat
  • a fish,
  • offal: liver, kidneys, hearts.
Exclude from the diet any dishes containing dyes and preservatives.

Thus, in childhood, imbalance of platelet cells may be observed against the background of hormonal changes, which is life threatening. Often, to determine the presence of this problem is visually impossible. Reducing the risk of developing serious pathologies and health problems will allow a routine examination by a pediatrician, as well as blood donation at least 1 time per trimester. With anxiety symptoms, the frequency of analysis can be increased.

What are they needed for?

Such blood cells play a large role in the blood coagulation system.

Thanks to them, in case of damage to the blood vessels, the bleeding stops and the site of damage closes with a blood clot. In addition, on its surface, blood plates carry various biologically active compounds, immune complexes, as well as clotting factors.

Blood plates are formed in the red bone marrow, and after entering the bloodstream, their lifetimes range from two to ten days, after which the platelets are transferred to the spleen, where they are destroyed. At this time, new cells continuously enter the bloodstream. Thus, the platelets are constantly updated, and their total number remains at about the same level.

How is platelet count determined?

Evaluation of the number of platelets carried out by clinical blood analysis. All doctors call this study the most important in childhood. To conduct it, blood from a child can be taken from a finger, as well as from a vein. The smallest children can take blood from the heels. Platelets are counted in a liter of blood, denoting them in the analysis form at 10 9 / l.

A blood test may be prescribed to the child according to plan, even if he does not have any complaints.

An unplanned direction for analysis is given to children who have bleeding gums, episodes of bleeding from the nose, non-stop bleeding after a cut, the frequent appearance of bruises, complaints of fatigue, pain in the limbs and other ailments.

Also, platelets are required to check for anemia, spleen enlargement, leukemia, viral infections, systemic and other diseases that can provoke a change in the number of these blood cells.

What affects their number?

The number of platelets depends on:

  • Age of the child. Newborns have more of them than babies older than a month and older children.
  • Presence of diseases as well as medication.
  • Physical activity. For some time after it, the number of blood platelets becomes higher.
  • Baby food. There are products that can thin the blood, and some foods stimulate the formation of blood cells.
  • Time of day and time of year. During the day, fluctuations in the number of platelets within 10% are observed.

In order for the blood test result to be reliable, and the number of platelets in the analysis form correspond to the actual number of cells in the blood, it is important to follow these recommendations:

  • The child should not eat before taking blood. If a blood sample is taken from a baby, the interval between feeding and handling should be 2 hours.
  • Before analysis, the child should not have emotional or physical stress. It is also important and correct to choose clothes for the child to avoid hypothermia. It is also not recommended to donate blood immediately after the child entered the clinic from the street. Let him rest for 10-15 minutes in the corridor and calm down.
  • If your child is already undergoing any treatment, be sure to warn the doctor that you are taking medications, as they may affect the overall picture.

What are platelets?

Life in platelets is short (up to 10 days), but very responsible. Indeed, thanks to these very cells, a person does not bleed out with wounds, the wounds themselves do not remain forever, but heal, and besides, platelets help our body firmly to defend against various viruses and bacteria.

Platelets are formed in the bone marrow, and are destroyed in the liver and spleen. This process is continuous - some cells are just being born, others are dying - so that in the human body there are platelets young and old, mature and already incapacitated. Therefore, their quantitative composition in the blood is not constant - plus or minus 10% of the norm.

It would seem that if these are such important cells, then is it worth it to operate on such a concept as the norm? Yes, it is worth it: an excess of platelets is just as dangerous for health as their deficiency. The body should maintain a balance between the newly formed cells and those that have already served their own. And this balance is surely checked by pediatricians in their young patients.

What is the normal amount of platelets in children?

The number of platelets depends on many factors, and above all on the child’s age and physical condition at the time of the analysis. Since this indicator is “floating”, its normative boundaries are defined quite widely.

Platelet norm in children of different ages:

In order to determine the number of platelets in the blood of a child, he needs to pass a complete blood count. It is recommended to do this at least once a year in order to timely detect abnormalities that may indicate the presence of health problems.

If the platelet count is below normal

Thrombocytopenia is the name of a disease in which there is a reduced level of platelets in the blood. In children, it can be provoked by the following reasons:

  • heredity
  • oncology,
  • anemia, which is caused by a lack of vitamins,
  • toxoplasmosis
  • thyroid abnormalities,
  • allergies,
  • infectious diseases (for example, measles and rubella),
  • taking medication, in particular antibiotics,
  • prolonged bleeding.

Thrombocytopenia is recorded in every second premature baby. It can suffer from babies whose birth was accompanied by asphyxiation, children with insufficient weight and with weak immunity.

Alert doctors and parents should cause the following facts:

  • for injuries, the wounds do not heal for a very long time, it is difficult to stop the blood for cuts and abrasions,
  • there are a lot of bruises on the child’s body for no apparent reason
  • blood often flows from the nose
  • bleeding gums.

This suggests a very low blood clotting, which is caused by a lack of platelets.

If the cause of thrombocytopenia is a serious disease in which the level of platelets is reduced significantly, then the child is shown additional diagnostics and subsequent treatment in the hospital. If the deficiency of blood cells is not critical, then you can fill it yourself.

If the platelet count is above normal

If the number of platelets deviates from the norm in the direction of increasing, then we are talking about thrombocytosis - a phenomenon in which the blood becomes very thick and viscous. There are several reasons for this. At the same time they are divided into two groups - primary and secondary.

Thrombocytosis is called primary, in which too many platelets in the blood are caused by pathological processes in the bone marrow, that is, where platelets are produced. Tumor cell degeneration leads to their excessive formation.

Secondary thrombocytosis is noted as a consequence of various diseases. Most often, thrombocytosis is caused by:

  • diseases of the liver and kidneys,
  • oncological diseases,
  • viral infections
  • tuberculosis or pneumonia
  • iron deficiency in the body
  • damage to internal organs or surgery,
  • taking some painkillers, antifungals, and anti-inflammatory drugs,
  • excessive exercise.

The children's body is constantly in development, which means that it is constantly experiencing physiological stress. In such circumstances, the chances of a threat of thrombocytosis are very high. It is a threat, because this disease is dangerous with potential blockage of blood vessels with blood clots.

How to normalize the level of platelets in the blood

If an excess or deficiency of platelets is not caused by critical reasons requiring urgent medical intervention, then the balance of these blood cells can be restored at home. The most effective method - to make the right diet.

With a lack of platelets, foods rich in vitamins B, K and A, iron, folic acid and taurine will be helpful. The list of the daily children's menu must include:

  • buckwheat,
  • red meat and fish cooked in any way
  • beef liver
  • hard cheese
  • legumes,
  • eggs, especially yolks,
  • apples,
  • bananas
  • walnuts,
  • vegetables and greens, especially white cabbage, spinach, dill and asparagus.

Extremely useful for thrombocytopenia will be the juice of black chokeberry and pomegranate, hips and nettle.

Contraindicated in the deficiency of platelets products that contribute to blood thinning. This list includes:

  • olive oil,
  • some berries, in particular, blueberries, raspberries,
  • ginger,
  • chocolate.

When thrombocytopenia is recommended to abandon aspirin.

With thrombocytosis, that is, an excess of platelets, you should pay attention to foods rich in antioxidants, iodine and vitamin C, which, conversely, contribute to a better blood thinning and prevent blood clots. So, on the dinner table, behind which sits a child with a high content of platelets in the blood, should be:

  • tomatoes,
  • olive or flaxseed oil,
  • ginger,
  • onion and garlic,
  • figs,
  • citrus,
  • chocolate.

Of the drinks will be useful sea buckthorn and orange juices, green tea, cocoa. In general, when there is an excess of platelets, it is recommended to drink as much liquid as possible - this will help to reduce blood density.

  • from fruits and berries - chokeberry, mango, pomegranate, bananas,
  • from everyday food - carbohydrate and fatty foods, as well as animal fats.

Do not drink carbonated beverages.

Remember that proper nutrition - not a panacea, if the cause of an imbalance of platelets in the blood of a child has become some serious illness. Do not neglect the advice and recommendations of the doctor. As for preventive measures, fresh air and physical education - this is what a child should make friends with in order to have maximum chances for healthy blood.

General blood count indicators

The rate of platelets in the blood of children is calculated by age in thousands of units:

  • newborns - 100 - 420,
  • 10 days of life and up to a year —150 - 390,
  • after the year 180 - 380,
  • у девочек-подростков в период начала менструального кровотечения норма plt составляет 75 – 220.

After 16 years of age, normal platelet counts become lower and reach an adult level of 180–360 thousand, and the transcript will be based on this value.

A blood test is taken on an empty stomach from a finger or toe for newborns. The results table includes red blood cells, ESR, hemoglobin and others. The indicators are reviewed in a complex, suggesting why deviations occur. Emotional and physical exertion, including hypothermia, can change the number of platelets. For verification, do a reanalysis after five days. Usually, the decoding of the analysis is ready the next day, but in a hospital, after a few hours. Most often, an increase in platelets in a child is insignificant, and doctors choose expectant tactics.

In childhood, coagulation abnormalities are often detected in the blood test, as indicated by frequent bleeding from the nose and gums, spontaneous bruises on the body. When complaining of weakness and dizziness, leaking hands and feet, the doctor also examines the content of platelets in the blood of a child.

Indications for blood tests are serious diseases:

  • lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune processes
  • Iron-deficiency anemia,
  • blood cancer,
  • viral infections
  • an enlarged spleen in which the processed blood cells accumulate.

Since the blood cells are constantly updated, the increased blood platelets in a child are observed in the case of:

  1. Overproduction of blood plates in the bone marrow.
  2. Cell utilization problems in the spleen.
  3. Disturbance of circulation during physical and emotional stress, which is typical for young children.

The rate of platelets in children can be violated, regardless of gender and age, but the diagnosis of thrombocytosis is established when the excess number reaches 800 thousand / liter or more. This condition requires mandatory testing.

Causes of thrombocytosis

There are several types of thrombocytosis caused by a violation of the mechanism of blood formation:

  • clonal is associated with the production of defective cells due to bone marrow tumors, which can greatly increase platelet counts,
  • Primary caused by the growth of areas of red bone marrow and excessive production of cells, which is provoked by genetic diseases or occurs in myeloid leukemia and erythremia.

At the same time change the size and shape of cells.

The reasons for the increase in platelets can be grouped as follows:

  1. Reactive thrombocytosis develops against the background of a previous disease (pneumonia, infections of the upper respiratory or urinary tract, iron deficiency anemia, surgery, bleeding or burns). Thrombotic and hemorrhagic symptoms are absent. Secondly, the platelets increase in children on the background of infection, iron deficiency, taking certain medications, chronic inflammation or tissue damage, cancer, removal of the spleen. Practically in 80% this condition passes gently for the child, moderate signs develop in 7% of cases, and treatment is required in 3%.
  2. Essential, or primary, thrombocytosis is manifested in the appearance of multiple hematomas on the body, prone to headaches. The disorder is usually familial and is associated with a gene mutation. The disease is rare: one in a million. The blood platelets of a child increase to levels above 600,000 in μL, and the spleen is enlarged. A prolonged and inexplicable increase in the number of cells, the appearance of deformed or abnormal elements require research, since they can affect blood clotting. The most common symptoms are headache, dizziness, change in vision, numbness or burning pain in the arms and legs.

The level of platelets rises against the background of several conditions:

  1. After removal of the spleen, the destruction of old cells is slowed down, and the formation of new ones leads to their accumulation. The body produces antiplatelet antibodies, trying to reduce the production of platelets.
  2. Inflammation in the body enhances the production of the hormone thrombopoietin, which stimulates the creation of blood cells to suppress the inflammatory process. Interleukins are constantly being produced, and platelets are increased in response. A blood test breakdown reports inflammation.
  3. Malignant tumors produce substances that stimulate megakaryocytes in the bone marrow to produce cells, which is typical of lung sarcoma, kidney hypernefromes, lymphogranulomatosis.

If the body experiences frequent blood loss in case of intestinal ulcers, an increased level of platelets is recorded. Sometimes a change in blood composition becomes a sign of a lack of folic acid. Cause an increased number of platelets in the blood are capable of tuberculosis, anemia, rheumatism, osteomyelitis, bone fractures, amyloidosis.

The drugs have side effects associated with thrombocytosis: "Epinephrine", "Adrenaline", "Vincristina", corticosteroids.

Factors due to which platelets are elevated in the blood can be divided into several groups:

  1. Benign causes. In 13% of cases of thrombocytosis in childhood. The reasons for the increase are associated with medication, blood loss or surgery. Infections affect blood composition.
  2. Severe illnesses. Diseases of the connective tissue, kidney, liver tumors, some types of anemia, polycythemia, inflammatory bowel disease or leukemia affect the indicators. The rate of platelets is exceeded against the background of a mental disorder that stimulates the bone marrow to produce these cells.
  3. Colds and infections. Inflammation or the acute phase of an infectious disease always increase the level of platelets, while the pathogen can be a bacterium, a virus, a fungus, and even a parasite.
  4. Violation of blood formation. Iron deficiency is accompanied by thrombocytosis, and the general condition is characterized by weakness, lack of appetite and irritability. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura usually resolves spontaneously in 80% of cases over half a year.
  5. Lifestyle. Dehydration can occur when carbonated drinks are used instead of water. This condition artificially increases the concentration of blood cells.

Platelets in newborns

Low platelet count in a child is one of the most common hematological problems that occur in the neonatal period. A distinctive feature of the pathology are lesions of the skin and mucous membranes, and in newborns - petechiae, purpura and the risk of intracranial hemorrhage. The condition in which the analysis shows little platelet count in the baby in the first days of life is called neonatal thrombocytopenia. Pathology is determined by a decrease in the number of platelets to 150 thousand per liter of blood. Particularly often, reduced platelets are detected in intensive care units in approximately 22% of cases and in 1 to 5% of full-term births of children.

The complex process of cell production is presented in four main stages:

  1. Development of thrombopoietic factors.
  2. Formation of the megakaryocyte by progenitor cells.
  3. Differentiation and maturation of cells in the process of endomitosis and cytoplasmic changes.
  4. The release of platelets into the circulating blood.

These stages are the same for both adults and infants. However, studies have recognized significant biological differences between the thrombopoiesis of children and adults. The concentration of factors in healthy, full-term and premature infants is higher than in healthy adults. At the same time, immediately after birth, children have reduced the average volume of platelets, but progenitor cells profile faster.

Congenital thrombocytopenia is a pathology associated with mutations of genes that reduce the number of platelets. The average volume of platelets below the norm is recorded in premature babies born to women who experienced severe toxicosis and preeclampsia during pregnancy. The decrease occurs in intrauterine heart disease.

Most often, the child's platelets are lowered due to active destruction as a result of an autoimmune disease or severe intoxication.

Platelets stop bleeding by sticking to the affected tissue and begin the healing process. Pediatricians rarely prescribe a survey when platelets are elevated in infants after infectious diseases, colds and rotavirus. A number that exceeds 1000 units and above is critical. The remaining increase is considered the body's response to infection and inflammation. The absence of complaints about the general condition indicates the absence of a serious pathology.

The platelets of a child who has been taking antihistamines and antibiotics for a long time are slightly reduced. Coagulability is influenced by viral infections, tuberculosis, anemia, cancer and drug allergies.

Weakness, pallor indicate a decrease in platelets, which in the long run threatens the development of hemophilia. A child with a similar diagnosis should be protected from falls, cuts and bruises. The condition of platelets in children under one year is monitored after illness and during the vaccination period. The effects of rubella and measles are associated with a blood clotting disorder.

With prematurity or negative maternal rhesus, low platelet levels in the baby’s blood can be caused by the work of maternal antibodies immediately after birth. This condition is corrected with drugs.

The role of platelets in the child's body

Platelets are blood plates that have no nuclei. They are formed in the bone marrow, partially located in the spleen, and the rest of them enters the circulatory system. On average, the life span of these elements is 10 days. They play an important role in the child’s body by performing the following functions:

  • in case of damage to blood vessels, platelets are attached to their walls, gluing together with each other, thereby preventing blood loss,
  • in obtaining various injuries, they contribute to the restoration of damaged collagen cells,
  • Platelets serve as a barrier to the entry of pathogenic bacteria into the blood.

The quantitative and qualitative composition of blood varies with the development of the child's body, therefore, the indicators of the normal platelet count vary depending on the age category. Children from birth should be regularly tested for blood, so that the number of platelets is always under control. Newborns for this purpose take blood from the umbilical cord or finger.

If a child has spontaneous bleeding, hematomas appear in different parts of the skin, blood inclusions are present in the urine and feces, and blood must be immediately donated for analysis. Such phenomena may indicate fragility of blood vessels, which is the first sign of insufficient platelet production.

Table with norms in children of different ages

The number of platelets is determined by the results of a general clinical blood test. This indicator is one of its most important parameters, because on the basis of its value, the work of the coagulation system is assessed and the ability of the child’s body to cope with heavy bleeding is determined.

Normal levels of platelet levels in infants are shown in the table by month, from the moment of his birth until the age of one year, since it is during this period that it is extremely important to track these values.

In the table, the number of platelets is indicated in thousands per 1 cubic milliliter of blood:

  • for babies from 1 to 2 years old, this indicator should be within the interval of 170-390,
  • from 2 to 3 years - 170-360,
  • in children 3-5 years old, the average platelet volume (MPV) is normally 165-375x109 / l,
  • in children 5-7 years old - 160-380,
  • for primary school children of 7-10 years old - 160-375,
  • in children from 10 to 13 years old - 165-390,
  • in a teenage child of 13–15 years old, the average volume of platelets should be in the range of 160–400x109 / l.

For girls at puberty set special indicators. So, in the first days of menstruation, the number of platelets can vary in the range of 75-220. The average volume of platelets in children 15-16 years of age is set in the range of 160-360x109 / l, 16-18-year-old - 160-400.

Increased platelet volume

In some cases, the MPV is significantly higher than normal values. This phenomenon is called thrombocytosis and can provoke serious consequences. The form of this pathology is relative, when the indicators exceed the upper threshold of the norm by no more than 200 thousand units, and critical. In the latter case, we are talking about twice exceeding the platelet-level limit.

Causes of elevation and symptoms

Often, babies aged 6 months have an increased MPV. Not always such a phenomenon indicates the development of any pathological process. As a rule, an increase in this indicator in infants is associated with a sharp increase in physical activity, since by six months babies are already beginning to actively roll over and try to sit down. In many babies at the age of 6 months, the average platelet counts in the blood are higher than normal values ​​due to the eruption of milk teeth.

The causes of thrombocytosis in children are primary, associated with pathological processes in the bone marrow, and secondary. The latter factors include:

  • hyperactivity,
  • insufficient drinking water
  • taking a number of drugs, such as corticosteroids,
  • non-compliance with the doctor’s recommendations before blood donation,
  • infectious diseases,
  • iron deficiency
  • damage to internal organs or surgery,
  • dysfunction of the spleen,
  • inflammatory processes in the body,
  • Erythremia
  • leukemia
  • leukemia,
  • liver disease,
  • broken bones,
  • previous anemia.
A variety of factors can affect platelet count; the attending specialist should deal with the causes of thrombocytosis.

Thrombocytosis is characterized by a series of manifestations. These include:

  • the occurrence of hematomas with leakage of blood in the tissue (this phenomenon is called purpura),
  • single hemorrhages in the form of points on the skin (petechiae),
  • bleeding in the digestive system, from the nose and mouth,
  • bleeding gums,
  • blood inclusions in feces, urine and vomiting,
  • an increase in the size of the spleen,
  • intracranial hemorrhage,
  • hypersensitivity of the fingertips,
  • itchy skin rash,
  • pain in the kidneys,
  • violation of urination.

Ways to reduce MPV

To identify the causes of increased MPV shows a number of surveys. However, even before the results are obtained, the child is prescribed medication drugs of a group of cytostatics, which lower the level of blood plates. If during the examination a significant increase in the number of platelets is detected, a procedure for platelet apheresis can be prescribed to remove excess cells from the blood. Further cure depends on the factors that provoked an increase in MPV and the form of the disease.

In addition to drug therapy, a mandatory correction of the baby’s nutrition is shown. Products such as bananas, pomegranates, mangoes, walnuts, and wild rose should be excluded from the child’s diet. Significantly lower the number of platelets in a child's baby's flaxseed and olive oil, beets, tomatoes, chocolate, fruits rich in vitamin C, green tea, fresh berries, freshly squeezed orange or sea buckthorn juice. Correction of the baby's nutrition is necessarily agreed with the doctor. If MPV is increased in infants, pediatricians recommend feeding them with mother's milk as long as possible.

To lower the level of platelets can be pre-agreed with the doctor adjustment of nutrition

Dietary products of one-year-old and older age groups should include dairy products, red meat, seafood, vegetables and fruits in the diet. You also need to ensure that the child consumes sufficient amount of drinking water, especially during the summer season.

Low platelet count

A decrease in the number of platelets in the bloodstream is called thrombocytopenia. Such a phenomenon may indicate the development of dangerous pathologies in the children's body. Therefore, it is extremely important to monitor the condition of the baby, to conduct timely blood tests, and if you identify the first signs of a decrease in MPV, immediately contact a pediatrician.

Causes of decline and symptoms

Among the causes of thrombocytopenia are a number of factors. These include:

  • unhealthy diet
  • vitamin B deficiency,
  • cancer of the bone marrow or blood,
  • lupus erythematosus,
  • heavy metal poisoning
  • Verlgof disease.
Poor blood clotting in a child indicates the presence of thrombocytopenia

Attenuated MPV is indicated by such phenomena as bleeding gums and poor blood clotting. Hematomas, which appear on the body of the child for no reason, also indicate a decrease in the number of platelets in the blood.

MPV enhancement methods

In cases where a decrease in MPV is not associated with severe pathologies, platelet count can be normalized with a special diet. The following products effectively increase this indicator:

  • red meat and fish,
  • buckwheat,
  • chicken eggs, especially yolks,
  • liver, mostly beef,
  • legumes,
  • bananas, apples,
  • White cabbage,
  • dill, asparagus,
  • pomegranate juice,
  • отвары из шиповника и черноплодной рябины.
Сок из граната показан при низком уровне тромбоцитов

При низком MPV из детского рациона в обязательном порядке исключаются шоколад, имбирь, малина и черника. Parents should remember that platelet counts can be adjusted using nutrition only in cases where their increase or decrease is not associated with any pathological processes in the body of the baby.

Interpretation in total with other indicators of blood

Complete blood count is a universal procedure for assessing the state of children's health. However, it must be borne in mind that the interpretation of its results should be done by an experienced doctor.

A qualified specialist is not only able to correctly estimate how many platelets in a child’s blood have been detected, but also to correctly interpret this indicator based on the results of other blood components. Only on the basis of the overall clinical picture, the doctor is determined with the methods of treatment and recommendations for the normalization and maintenance of the required number of platelets in the child’s blood.

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