Pregnancy

Anemia during pregnancy - degrees and risks to the fetus

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During pregnancy, the woman's body undergoes significant changes. The amount of blood increases by 20%, which means that your body needs even more intake of vitamins and iron, which are necessary for the production of hemoglobin. In the WHO handbook, iron deficiency anemia is the most common disease during pregnancy. Almost 90% of future mothers suffer from this disease, and it does not depend on the material and social status.

Anemia is characterized by a sharp decrease in red blood cells (red blood cells). They are of great importance for the development of our body. Red blood cells provide oxygen to all internal organs and tissues. With an insufficient supply of oxygen and low hemoglobin, the person feels “broken” and tired. Women in the position often observed anemia 1 degree. With pregnancy, more iron is needed, so the expectant mother should eat a balanced diet and take the necessary vitamins. Otherwise, anemia from a mild form will go into a difficult stage, and this is dangerous for the health of the mother and the fetus.

Anemia 1 degree during pregnancy: the main mechanisms contributing to its development

  1. Changes in hormonal levels, and in particular a significant increase in estradiol, causes a decrease in erythropoiesis.
  2. Iron deficiency, vitamin B12 deficiency.
  3. Multiple pregnancy.
  4. Oxygen starvation, as a result of which redox processes are disturbed.
  5. Immunological changes that are associated with antigenic stimulation of the mother's body, from the side of embryonic tissues.
  6. Accumulation of exchange products during pregnancy.

Anemia 1 degree during pregnancy is determined by laboratory tests, which is why women in the position should so often pass all the necessary tests in order to timely eliminate possible causes that adversely affect the development of the fetus. Anemia is registered if hemoglobin levels are more than 20% below normal. In the mild stage of the disease, the woman does not feel any discomfort, but a decrease in iron stores is reflected in the child. The fetus is constantly experiencing a lack of oxygen, which can cause hypoxia.

Reduction of hemoglobin in anemia in 95% of pregnant women causes the following symptoms: dizziness, fainting, general weakness and drowsiness, or, conversely, sleep disturbance. There may be headaches, hair loss, brittle nails. In addition, the appetite decreases, there are unusual taste tastes.

Prevention and treatment of anemia at an early stage

All pregnant women are recommended to take special vitamin preparations from the very first days. Be sure to include in the menu foods rich in iron and protein (beef liver, meat, dairy products, buckwheat, peaches, pomegranate, spinach, beans, green apples, fish). Ascorbic and folic acids, regular walks, positive emotions and a balanced diet contribute to the elevation of hemoglobin. Everything in the complex gives effective results and helps to neutralize this state.

As a treatment, the doctor prescribes iron-containing drugs and additional medications that improve the absorption of the microelement. Without drugs, treatment is impossible, because with a meal a woman will receive a small amount of iron. Anemia 1 degree during pregnancy requires special attention. Therapy will protect against unpleasant consequences.

What is anemia during pregnancy

Anemia during gestation is iron deficiency during pregnancy. The disease begins to manifest to the second trimester, reaching a peak of its development by the 29-36th week. The mechanism of the formation of the disease is based on the increasing need of the mother's body for iron, because it helps the production of blood hemoglobin. If the item comes in insufficient volume, then there is an imbalance between its consumption and expenditure. Anemia must be treated to avoid negative consequences for the mother and child.

Causes of anemia can be:

  • chronic inflammatory diseases of the genital organs,
  • genetic predisposition (with a genetic disease),
  • insufficiently balanced menu
  • alcohol, smoking,
  • changes in liver disease,
  • neoplasms
  • early re-pregnancy (hypochromia develops),
  • dysfunction of enzymes
  • hormonal disruptions.

Iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women

The element iron plays an important role in the formation of hemoglobin. If there is a shortage, the transfer of oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the organs is disturbed. Iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy (should be distinguished from thalassemia) can be caused by a failure in the absorption of an important substance or a decrease in its consumption. A future mother can get iron only with food, since the body does not synthesize an element. In order for proper absorption to take place, the liver and the small intestine must not fail, since the molecules move due to the proteins of these organs.

Gestational anemia during pregnancy

The definition of "gestation" is translated from Latin as "pregnancy." Ailment suffers up to half of future mothers. Calculate the period from the process of implantation of a fertilized egg inside the uterine wall, which is less than the period set by obstetricians. Gestational anemia during pregnancy applies only to this period, if the disease arose before or after, then it is diagnosed differently.

The disease provokes failures in the process of strengthening the child in the uterine cavity, hypoxia of placental tissues, the development of defective cells of the inner layer of the uterus. In the second trimester, the oxygen starvation of a fetus in the womb may increase due to thrombosis of small capillaries connecting the mother's circulatory system with the placenta.

What is dangerous anemia during pregnancy

Ailment is a deficiency of iron in the body of the expectant mother. Anemia can lead to serious consequences for both the woman and the fetus. The disease can cause toxemia in the second half of the period of carrying a child. Iron deficiency during pregnancy is also dangerous because it can create conditions for preterm birth. Such a scenario is often provoked by severe bleeding during the birth of the fetus into the light (post-hemorrhagic anemia). This is explained by the fact that the disease reduces the ability of blood to clot.

If anemia is not treated, then after childbirth it can lead to loss of milk secretion. A child whose mother had a low content of iron in the body during his gestation receives few resources for proper development. Such disturbances are caused by a lack of oxygen and nutrients. Significantly increases the risk of hypoxia and malnutrition of the fetus. As a result, the baby can be born with underweight, not formed by the immune system.

Anemia 1 degree during pregnancy

The mild stage of this disease is diagnosed in almost all pregnant women. The internal organs can assimilate only their iron norm, although much more is required. Anemia during pregnancy 1 degree can occur with virtually no symptoms, is detected when taking a blood test, samples for serum iron levels. However, diagnostics and timely prescribed treatment are necessary to prevent complications and consequences for the mother and baby. The fruit, even in the absence of manifestations of the disease in women, is experiencing slight hypoxia.

Anemia 2 degrees during pregnancy

At this stage, the lack of iron content becomes more pronounced. Anemia of a moderate degree during pregnancy gives a woman some unpleasant sensations that can affect the health of the fetus. There are external signs, which are found, you need to consult a doctor:

  • the appearance of cracks in the corners of the mouth,
  • hair becomes dry, brittle, strongly fall out,
  • nail plate is deformed, loses its hardness and elasticity.

Signs of anemia in pregnant women

Depending on the degree of anemia, it may either not manifest in any way (anemia of 1 degree), or be accompanied by general weakness and fatigue, dizziness and shortness of breath. In especially severe forms, pre-unconscious and unconscious states may appear.

Anemia 1 degree during pregnancy is often recognized only during a blood test. More serious forms of anemia, complicated by problems of the cardiovascular system, may manifest as rapid heartbeat and exacerbation of coronary heart disease.

In addition to anemic symptoms, sideropenic symptoms are sometimes manifested. They are clear signs of iron deficiency anemia: dry and pale skin, the appearance of cracks on the lips, yellow color of the skin under the nose, increased peeling of the skin, "stuck" in the corners of the mouth, dryness, brittleness and increased hair loss, possible incontinence.

Also it is worth paying attention if a woman has “perverted tastes”. With anemia, a pregnant woman may begin to eat chalk, raw vegetables and other foods that she has not experienced before.

Anemia: determination of severity

Since the symptoms in cases of mild anemia during pregnancy may be absent, it is important to recognize the disease in time to prevent its progression. Determining the degree of anemia according to the clinical manifestations is incorrect, so usually a laboratory test of the blood of a pregnant woman is performed for this.

Deciphering the results of blood tests for hemoglobin:

  • anemia 1 degree - hemoglobin level is reduced by more than 20% of the norm,
  • anemia 2 degrees - the hemoglobin content is reduced by 20-40% of the norm,
  • anemia 3 degrees - the most severe form when hemoglobin is reduced by more than 40% of the norm.

Causes of anemia during pregnancy

The iron coming from food is absorbed into the blood. But not all 100%, but only 10-20, while everything else is derived along with feces.

The iron that has been digested begins to be spent on various processes - tissue respiration, the formation of red blood cells, and so on.

Part of the iron is simply lost along with exfoliation of the skin, blood loss, hair loss and other natural processes.

Even if a woman is not pregnant, iron loss is almost equal to his intake due to monthly menstruation. During pregnancy, iron consumption increases significantly, because you need to nourish and grow an additional organism - your child.

Over the entire period of pregnancy, a woman spends almost all of her iron supply. And, given the modern rhythm of life and the quality of food, it is very and very difficult to fill it up. As a result, the mother's body begins to suffer from anemia.

If the process is not stopped in time, it can lead to serious consequences.

Consequences of anemia 1 degree during pregnancy

Even the initial stage of the disease does not pass without consequences. In the absence of clinical appearances, anemia of 1 degree still cannot but affect the development of the fetus.

A child in the womb suffers from oxygen starvation. It is caused by a violation of the functionality of the placenta and the formation of placental insufficiency due to lack of iron in the blood.

With more complex forms of the disease, fetal development is delayed due to a lack of nutrients.

Food for anemia in pregnant women

Products rich in iron should be abundant in the diet of a pregnant woman. These are chicken eggs (especially yolks), liver, tongue and heart (calf or beef), turkey meat, dairy products, apricots, cocoa, almonds, apples and other products.

If a degree of anemia is found in a pregnant woman, in addition to observing a special diet, iron supplements are necessary so that she does not become more serious.

Anemia during pregnancy: degrees, causes, treatment in pregnant women

Anemia affects more than 20% of all women of reproductive age in the CIS, from 20 to 40% of pregnant women and more than 25% of children. Latent (latent iron deficiency) is observed in 50% of the population, in women it reaches 60-85%. Hidden iron deficiency is when there are no symptoms of anemia, but the indicators of serum iron are reduced.

Diagnosis and treatment of anemia are important even before the onset of pregnancy, in order for the course of pregnancy to occur with the least consequences for the child, childbirth and lactation.

Content

  • Iron in the human body
  • Fe consumption in pregnant women
  • Prevalence of disease
  • Anemia - what is it
  • Why happens in pregnant women
  • Anemia during pregnancy: symptoms
  • Fe deficiency stages
  • Types of anemia during pregnancy and their causes
  • The degree of anemia during pregnancy in hemoglobin levels
  • Implications for the child
  • What is dangerous anemia in pregnant women for childbirth and the postpartum period?
  • Contributing factors
  • Food for anemia in pregnant
    • Foods high in heme iron
  • Treatment of anemia during pregnancy

The role of iron in humans

The 3 most important functions of iron in the body not only of a pregnant woman, but of any person:

  1. Iron is a part of hemoglobin and, accordingly, provides oxygen transfer to all cells.
  2. Fe is a part of myoglobin, a protein found in muscles.
  3. More than 100 enzymes of the human body in micro doses contain iron. These enzymes provide vital metabolic processes, including the synthesis of DNA and ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Iron consumption in pregnant women

Outside of pregnancy, a non-menstruating female body spends about 1 mg of iron daily, taking into account menstruation - 2-2.5 mg.

Consumption during pregnancy:

  • 220 mg for the period of pregnancy
  • 450 mg to increase the number of red blood cells (blood volume increases),
  • 270 mg - for the formation of the fetus,
  • 90 mg - for the formation of the placenta and umbilical cord,
  • 200 mg - loss of blood during childbirth.

In total, the body spends on the provision of gestation 1230 mg, this is 4.4 mg per day. The need for iron during pregnancy increases 9 times.

Causes of iron deficiency anemia

All causes of anemia can be divided into 3 groups:

  1. Insufficient intake or increased consumption. These include dietary restrictions, vegetarianism, pregnancy and lactation, intensive growth and maturation, active sports. During physical exertion muscle damage occurs with its subsequent restoration and growth. The formation of myoglobin, the muscle building muscle molecule, is increasing. And domestic stocks of plasma Fe are consumed faster.
  2. Disruption of intestinal absorption. The body enters a sufficient amount, but does not enter the blood. Observed during resection of the stomach, intestines, gastritis with reduced secretion, dysbiosis, celiac disease and helminthic invasion.
  3. Blood loss This group includes: excessive menstruation, uterine bleeding, uterine myoma and endometriosis, bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract, hematuria, blood donation.

In practice, anemias that occur for 1 reason are rare, usually they are 2 or more. In pregnancy, the cause of anemia is difficult to identify, since many methods of examination are prohibited or difficult. Therefore, it is important to be examined for anemia and treat the diagnosis at the planning stage of pregnancy. This will be the prevention of the development of severe conditions during gestation.

Symptoms of anemia during pregnancy

All of the following signs of anemia in pregnant women can be observed in any expectant mother, this suggests that there is some degree of iron deficiency during pregnancy, but the diagnosis of anemia can be made after a blood test.

Signs of anemia during pregnancy:

  • pallor of the skin and mucous membranes,
  • weakness, fatigue,
  • addiction to fainting
  • muscle weakness, hypotension,
  • headache, tinnitus, dizziness,
  • excitement or depression
  • dry skin and mucous membranes with difficulty breathing,
  • nail change, hair loss,
  • tachycardia, shortness of breath,
  • taste perversion
  • predisposition to infections.

Stages of iron deficiency in the body

  1. A norm is when all blood parameters are within the normal range and there are no clinical manifestations.
  2. Preferred iron deficiency - no clinical symptoms or complaints, but iron metabolism is at the lower limit of normal.
  3. Latent deficiency - when indicators of iron metabolism are disturbed, reduced, but there are no manifestations.

The main and more stable indicator of iron metabolism is serum ferritin, a protein that binds iron. This protein provides a depot of iron. With its decrease, hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell count and their volume, the hemoglobin content in the red blood cell can remain at a normal level.

The degree of anemia in pregnancy by hemoglobin level

The classification according to the degree of anemia for pregnant women is uninformative, since the pregnancy is a physiological condition, but not quite normal. During pregnancy, the indicators in the complex are evaluated, and not only hemoglobin. Но для полноты информации приводим таблицу с классификацией степеней тяжести анемии при беременности.

Anemia during pregnancy and consequences for the child

Consequences of anemia for a newborn baby:

  • Chronic intrauterine hypoxia - 63%, the child receives less oxygen, which he needs for the proper formation of all organs and systems,
  • Anemia of the newborn (17%). This is natural: if the mother has low hemoglobin, then the child will also have it reduced.
  • The threat of premature birth (65%).
  • Fetal growth retardation (32%).
  • Premature rupture of water (39%).
  • Violation of the period of adaptation of the child after birth (24%).

Anemia risk group during pregnancy

There are many factors contributing to anemia in pregnant women. At risk of iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy include:

  • Low socio-economic status of the family. Poor nutrition - reduced hemoglobin levels.
  • A vegetarian diet also causes anemia during pregnancy.
  • Deliberate fasting or malnutrition for the purpose of losing weight.
  • Transferred infectious diseases: dysentery, viral hepatitis, acute pyelonephritis.
  • Extragenital background chronic pathology: chronic forms of tonsillitis, pyelonephritis, rheumatism, heart defects, diabetes, chronic gastritis.
  • Menorrhagia: cyclic and acyclic bleeding in uterine myoma, endometrial polyps, endometriosis, ovarian dysfunction.
  • Often giving birth to women. If a woman gives birth more often than once every 3 years, then the body does not have time to recover after giving birth, chronic anemia occurs. After birth, iron deficiency in the body is compensated after 2-2.5 years.
  • Anemia during previous pregnancies.
  • Pregnancy occurred in adolescence.
  • The hemoglobin level in the first trimester of pregnancy is below 120 mg / l.
  • Complications of pregnancy: early toxicosis, viral diseases, threatened abortion.
  • Multiple pregnancy. Since iron is needed for 2–3 fetuses, anemia always develops with a multiple pregnancy.
  • Many water.

Diet and food for iron deficiency anemia in pregnant

Iron is not produced in the body, and to compensate for its deficiency is possible only with the help of food or medical preparations. The physiological need for women is 18 mg. Only 2.5 mg of iron per day is absorbed from food, while 15-20 times more is taken from drugs.

A balanced human diet contains 15-20 mg of iron, from which no more than 5-10% is absorbed in the intestine. Only with its deficiency in the body, the flow into the blood rises to 25% of that taken with food.

Iron entering the body is represented by two forms:

  • Heme - contained in fish, meat, poultry. It is highly bioavailable and absorbed by 25-30%.
  • Non-haem - is contained in products of plant origin and contains most of the diet - more than 90%. Its absorption is only 3-5% and whistles for the most part from the presence of inhibiting or enhancing factors (folic acid, ascorbic acid).

Products containing heme iron for pregnant women with anemia

Pregnant women should avoid excessive consumption of the liver, it is high in vitamin A, which has a toxic effect on the fetus.

Non-heme products with a high iron content are legumes, nuts and other products of plant origin, but their absorption is difficult. So the level of iron in garnets is not very high, only 0.8%.

Already composing a diet for treating anemia from foods rich in iron? Do not hurry. Anemia during pregnancy cannot be cured with food, vitamin complexes and folk remedies. Only iron supplements can cure this disease.

Anemia during pregnancy: treatment

Among the drugs there are two groups of drugs: for oral administration (through the mouth) - these are tablets and drops, and intramuscular or intravenous administration.

Medicines for oral administration are divided into two groups:

  • salts of ferrous iron (chloride, sulfate, fumarate, gluconate) - Aktiferrin, Hemofer, Sorbifer, Tardiferon, Ferroplex, Totem, Ferronat.
  • ferric salts - Maltofer, Ferrum Lek, Ferlatum.

The principal difference between the drugs is that salts of ferrous iron easier to penetrate into the body, but they have more side effects associated with the reaction of the gastrointestinal tract and constipation. Trivalent iron is worse absorbed, but the side effects are much less. In order to raise the level of iron in plasma, you need several months of intake.

Pregnant women often do not have such an opportunity, then they are offered to offer intravenous or intramuscular administration of the drug (for example, anemia in the last stages of pregnancy and soon birth). The deficient state is quickly compensated and the body begins to intensively use to build red blood cells.

What drug will be prescribed in each case, the doctor decides on the basis of the situation, the expected period of childbirth, concomitant diseases.

Causes of anemia during pregnancy

Prerequisites for the appearance of iron deficiency in the blood can be considered such factors:

  1. Poor nutrition of pregnant, insufficient amount of vitamins in the diet. This may be due to diets, irrationally composed menu, low living conditions.
  2. Diseases of the digestive tract can cause anemia, especially if they are accompanied by bleeding. Together with the loss of blood, the human body is deprived of many useful elements. Diseases of the stomach and intestines also reduce the absorption of nutrients from food.
  3. Changes in the hormonal system can affect the production of red blood cells, which also leads to a decrease in hemoglobin.
  4. Another reason for anemia is considered a decrease in immunity, which is a natural phenomenon after the onset of conception.
  5. A lack of protein in the body, vitamin B12 and folic acid also lead to iron deficiency in the blood.
  6. Any heavy bleeding causes anemia.

Some women are more likely to develop the disease. Anemia of iron during pregnancy often develops in such persons:

  • vegetarians
  • women who have undergone several pregnancies
  • pregnant adolescents
  • previously suffered from dysentery, pyelonephritis, hepatitis,
  • those who suffered from heavy bleeding during menstruation,
  • women with plenty,
  • pregnant women carrying twins
  • women with chronic rheumatism, tonsillitis, enterocolitis, gastritis, duodenitis,
  • suffering from heart defects,
  • those with anemia during previous pregnancies,
  • become pregnant during lactation,
  • diabetes patients
  • women suffering from early toxicosis, threatened miscarriage, viral diseases suffered during pregnancy.

Types of anemia

Iron deficiency anemia is usually classified according to severity. Depending on this indicator, there are three types of disease,

  • Anemia 1 degree during pregnancy is considered the easiest manifestation of the disease, the level of hemoglobin in this case is 110-91 g / l,
  • Grade 2 is diagnosed in the case when the hemoglobin index is at around 90-71 g / l,
  • Grade 3 anemia is considered a serious disease, and the hemoglobin level is less than 70 g / l.

Mild anemia during pregnancy occurs in a sufficiently large number of women, this phenomenon does not cause any discomfort and it is possible to identify the initial degree of iron deficiency only with a blood test. If time does not pay attention to the lack of hemoglobin, a mild degree can develop into more severe.

The second degree of anemia during pregnancy is already physically felt. A woman may experience some weakness, fatigue, light dizziness. Iron deficiency affects skin condition. This disease affects the child negatively, as he does not receive enough oxygen through the blood.

Severe anemia is treated with medication, in stationary conditions and under the supervision of a physician. This condition is very dangerous for the development and life of the child, as well as for the health of his mother.

What threatens iron deficiency anemia of the mother and her child

Anemia during pregnancy can have unpleasant consequences. Lack of iron can cause late toxicosis, with anemia in the blood decreases the number of necessary elements: nickel, cobalt, manganese, zinc.

Hemoglobin deficiency reduces the immunity of women, worsens the course of redox processes. Approximately one third of women with anemia suffer from early toxicosis, with the disease of the second and third degree the risk of developing gestosis is 48%.

Almost half of pregnant women with anemia threaten miscarriage, at least 40% are susceptible to placental abruption. Approximately the same number of patients suffer from low blood pressure, and one third of pregnant women have placental insufficiency.

In addition to the above-mentioned threats, the unpleasant consequences of iron deficiency anemia can be: poor labor, premature birth, severe postpartum hemorrhage.

Anemia during pregnancy is fraught with consequences for the child. With a strong oxygen starvation, the development of the fetus slows down or stops altogether, the baby after birth may experience various diseases and defects.

Even when the expectant mother suffers from mild anemia, her baby is often born with a low level of hemoglobin in the blood and in the first year of his life his body simply cannot form the right amount of iron.

The consequences of this phenomenon can be frequent colds, acute respiratory viral infections, pneumonia, allergic diseases, enterocolitis and other diseases.

Principles of nutrition with iron deficiency

Of the foods most saturated with iron, red meat can be put in the first place. It is from meat that the human body can absorb at least 30-35% of the necessary substance.

Iron is contained in other products, but the percentage of its absorption is slightly lower and does not exceed 17%.

To prevent the development of anemia or to cure this disease at an early stage, a pregnant woman is recommended to introduce such food into her regular diet:

  • chicken or quail eggs, the most useful part of which is the yolk,
  • pork, beef, veal or chicken liver,
  • veal,
  • turkey meat
  • chicken or pig hearts,
  • spinach,
  • apricots,
  • almond.

The ratio of nutrients consumed directly affects the level of iron in the body. In the initial stages of carrying a child, a woman should eat at least 75 g of proteins, 85 g of fat and 350 g of carbohydrates daily.

The caloric value of food should be approximately 2700-2800 kcal per day. Starting from the middle of the second trimester, the norms of nutrients can be increased by eating about 130 g of proteins, 100 g of fats and 420 g of carbohydrates per day.

The caloric content of food at this stage should be up to 3200 kcal per day.

All the beneficial substances can be extracted from the products that are most rich in them. For example, good sources of protein are beef, tongue, heart and liver, chicken and quail eggs, and milk.

As sources of lipids, cheese, sour cream, cottage cheese, cream are considered the best option. A variety of cereals and cereals, beans, as well as fruits, vegetables, dried fruits, berries and nuts are rich in carbohydrates.

In the diet of women must be present fresh greens and natural honey, if it is not allergic.

Drug treatment of iron deficiency anemia

With anemia of the second and third degree, a properly formulated diet is not enough, iron deficiency will have to be filled with drugs.

Fortunately, today there are many iron-containing drugs, many of which can be safely used in the process of carrying a baby during the lactation period. The effect of drug treatment is not fast and visible results appear at 2-3 weeks of this therapy.

By this time, hemoglobin begins to increase in the blood of the future mother, and the normal production of red blood cells is established only at 5-8 weeks of treatment.

Iron supplements are usually taken orally. They include ferrous ferrous iron and some other components: folic, ascorbic or succinic acid, cysteine, fructose, etc. These additional substances contribute to a better absorption of iron by the maternal organism.

To take iron supplements is desirable in the process of eating, because it is then that the effect of therapy will be more rapid. But you need to take into account the fact that certain products and some medicines can slow down the process of absorption.

Iron-containing drugs are usually prescribed in combination with ascorbic acid.

The daily dose of iron for most pregnant women should not exceed 55 mg, overdose of the drug can lead to disruption of the digestive tract.

Essential Vitamins for Iron Deficiency

The development of anemia during pregnancy affects not only iron deficiency, but also a deficiency of other vitamins. That is why, even from the first weeks after conception, expectant mothers are recommended to use various vitamin complexes for pregnant women. Let us consider in more detail which vitamins are especially important for the health of a woman and the normal development of her child:

  1. Tocopherol or vitamin E is considered an excellent antioxidant. It participates in the formation of the placenta, is responsible for the blood supply of the uterus and ovaries, helps the production of progesterone, the main hormone of pregnancy. Vitamin E is rich in such products: parsley and spinach, tomatoes, wild rose, salad, vegetable oils, especially olive, corn and sunflower.
  2. Ascorbic acid, known to us as vitamin C, has antioxidant properties and is directly involved in the absorption of iron by the human body. Among other things, this vitamin is responsible for the production of interferon, which means that the immunity of the future mother largely depends on the amount of consumed ascorbic acid. You can get vitamin C from lemons and other citrus fruits, from rose hips, raspberries, black currants, cabbage, bell peppers and baked potatoes.
  3. Vitamin B9 or folic acid is involved in the hematopoietic process. The lack of this substance leads to a deficiency of red blood cells and contributes to the development of anemia. It is necessary to use folic acid at all stages of pregnancy, and it is desirable to begin reception of vitamin even during planning of conception. Among the foods rich in folic acid, you can select nuts, honey, green vegetables, liver, yeast.
  4. Vitamin B6 accelerates metabolic processes, is responsible for the absorption of proteins, is involved in the production of hemoglobin and red blood cells. To fill the deficiency of this substance and to prevent the development of iron deficiency anemia, it is recommended to add legumes, red meat, fish, and nuts to your diet.
  5. Vitamin B12 is involved in the production of red blood cells, affects the formation of DNA and RNA cells. The lack of this vitamin is one of the factors for the development of iron deficiency anemia. The main sources of this substance are animal products: fish, eggs, meat, cheese, and brewer's yeast.

What causes anemia?

A woman carrying a baby is always anxiously awaiting the day when her child will be born. But during this period, many negative changes are observed in the pregnant woman’s body. This is especially true of those women who have problems with immunity before pregnancy.

In the first trimester, existing violations are compounded even more. One of the most common manifestations is mild anemia during pregnancy.

You should know that in pregnant women, iron deficiency is quite common. However, it is also necessary to understand that the normal development of the fetus without this trace element is impossible, therefore the need for it increases at least twice.

In addition, the likelihood of anemia (anemia) occurs if there are:

  1. Exacerbation of chronic diseases that are currently available. A woman should take this fact into account even before conception, in order to avoid further exhaustion of the body. Due to chronic illness, iron cannot be absorbed normally.
  2. Hormonal disruptions.
  3. Unbalanced nutrition, resulting in a shortage of the necessary micronutrient.
  4. Frequent pregnancies (if less than 2 years pass from the moment of birth to the next conception).
  5. Low blood pressure.
  6. Excessive uterine bleeding that occurred during previous births.
  7. Multiple pregnancy.
  8. Miscarriage.

The disease can be revealed in future moms who are not yet 17 years old and in those who are 35 years old.

If a woman is not indifferent to her health, she will definitely find out how high the probability of her mild anemia is.

It is important not to forget about prevention in order to maintain hemoglobin at the required level. The test results will show how serious the situation is.

The disease has 3 degrees:

  • light - hemoglobin values ​​- 90-110 g / l,
  • average - 70-90 g / l,
  • heavy - less than 70 g / l.

That is, pregnant women whose hemoglobin is lower than 110 g / l are automatically credited to the risk group. They are diagnosed with first-degree anemia.

In addition, care should be taken by women suffering from:

  • toxicity and urge to vomit, which is why the body cannot absorb iron in the right amount,
  • сильных менструальных кровотечений, которые беспокоят более 5 дней,
  • недугов гинекологического характера в период вынашивания ребенка,
  • заболеваний крови.

There is anemia and vegetarians, because the rejection of animal products provokes a shortage of vitamins and minerals.

The disease at the initial stage usually does not manifest itself. But this does not mean that danger does not exist. Expectant mothers should know that anemia can result in premature labor or miscarriage. And even if there are no complications, iron deficiency can also be detected in the baby.

You will need to donate blood for tests regularly. Only in this way will the disease be detected at the very beginning of its development.

If there is a disease, pregnant women complain about:

  • feeling weak
  • shortness of breath
  • dizziness,
  • fainting.

Also anemia declares itself:

  • hair loss
  • brittle nails,
  • yellowing of the skin on the palms,
  • the occurrence of cracks in the corners of the mouth.

Do not ignore the condition that is accompanied by problems with the stool (diarrhea or constipation), as well as the destruction of the bony tissues of the teeth.

Problems with hemoglobin levels can be expressed as:

  • stomatitis,
  • atrophic gastritis,
  • rapid pulse and heartbeat,
  • pain discomfort in the heart,
  • urinary incontinence, when a woman coughs, sneezes or laughs,
  • incontinence during the night's rest,
  • regular catarrhal ailments.

Possible complications

Pregnancy is a condition when the female body has to cope with huge loads. In the presence of anemia, many women have complications that are characterized by the disruption of all organs and systems.

If the disease does not begin to heal on time, then you will have to deal with:

  1. Spontaneous abortion.
  2. Premature birth.
  3. Placental abruption before the prescribed time.
  4. The discharge of amniotic fluid.
  5. Bleeding during childbirth.
  6. Hypotrophy (intrauterine developmental delay).
  7. Gestosis.
  8. Oxygen starvation of the fetus.
  9. Postpartum infectious complications.
  10. The birth of a stillborn baby.
  11. Weakness of labor.
  12. Hypogalactia (low secretory capacity of the mammary glands).

Thanks to hemoglobin, oxygen and nutrients that are needed by both pregnant and baby enter the blood.

Accordingly, if this microelement is small, which happens when there is a shortage of iron, the embryo begins to suffer from oxygen starvation.

The consequences of anemia are disappointing.

In particular, the child can be observed:

  • sharp weight loss,
  • a delay in the development of internal organs and all systems in general,
  • dysfunction of the respiratory system,
  • iron deficiency anemia,
  • mental retardation.

Such children often suffer from allergic manifestations, infections of viral origin, an inflammatory process in the lungs, as well as enterocolitis.

Diagnostic features

The disease is dangerous because if there is a mild degree, then often there will be no bright symptoms. But the embryo will certainly feel the undesirable changes that occur in the mother's body. The less hemoglobin, the oxygen starvation will be stronger.

Whatever the signs of the condition of the pregnant woman was accompanied, the final diagnosis is established after receiving the test results.

Usually in the first trimester, it is difficult to detect the presence of pathology. This is easier to do in the second trimester, or in the third, because due to the rapid development of the fetus, the need for nutrients increases significantly.

If hemoglobin goes down a little, then there is nothing wrong with that. Serious measures should be taken when there is a significant deterioration in performance. For this reason, tests are required to pass 1 time for one or two weeks.

Because of anemia of the first degree, an unnatural organ insertion may be observed, therefore, the sooner the disease is diagnosed, the easier it is for the pregnant woman to correct the condition. Therapy involves the observance of the correct diet and taking medications with vitamins.

Based on the results of the examination, the doctor will decide which remedial measures will be most effective.

This takes into account:

  • general state,
  • gestational age.

Iron deficiency is eliminated with the help of preparations containing this microcell. You should be careful, though, because there are drugs that can cause undesirable effects. The doctor will determine in what quantity the drug should be taken and for how long.

Mild degree is treated with:

Only long-term use of such funds (from 6 to 9 weeks) guarantees the normalization of blood parameters. And even if improvements have appeared, the course should not be interrupted.

In order for iron to be absorbed better, it is recommended to use ascorbic and folic acids.

Usually prescribed drugs are in tablet form. But intramuscular administration is also possible. This occurs in the presence of acute gastrointestinal tract diseases, and also if the body does not tolerate certain components of the drug.

The intake of vitamins C, as well as B9, cobalamin and pyridoxine also contributes to the good absorption of an important trace element and stimulates the blood formation process.

Self-medication is not allowed. Reception of means is supervised by the attending physician.

Do not do without diet. If the diet is properly prepared, then you can eliminate a slight degree of anemia without any problems. It is clear that preference should be given to products in which iron is present.

A pregnant woman should eat, for example:

  • fish
  • boiled eggs
  • meat,
  • vegetables,
  • fruits,
  • nuts and so on.

If you care about health, pay attention to prevention, regularly undergo tests, then anemia can be avoided.

What is anemia?

In the blood there are many different components, each of which is extremely important and plays a certain role in the blood circulation and blood supply of all organs and tissues.

So, hemoglobin is involved in the transport of oxygen, which is simply necessary for all cells. For the formation of hemoglobin requires iron, which enters the body from the outside, that is, along with the food consumed.

If the amount of incoming iron is insufficient, then hemoglobin will be formed in smaller volumes. In this case, talking about anemia.

In total, there are three stages of this state:

  • 1 degree. In this case, the amount of hemoglobin in the blood is 91-110 g / l. There is no deviation from the norm, there are no serious consequences for the organism.
  • With stage 2 of hemoglobin in the blood from 71 to 90 g / l. The deficit, though not critical, is significant, some tissues begin to suffer.
  • Grade 3 is characterized by a quantity of less than 70 g / l. This condition can be critical, since all cells will experience oxygen starvation.

Prevention

To avoid anemia, at the planning stage of pregnancy you need to take care of this. Meals should be balanced.

It is useful to note iron-containing complexes. If anemia already takes place, the treatment is simply necessary, and after conception, the dose of drugs increases, as the consumption of hemoglobin increases.

We can only add that the health of the future baby is largely dependent on the responsibility of his mother. And remember that the best advice can only give an experienced doctor after the examination!

Anemia during pregnancy - the extent and symptoms, treatment and consequences for the fetus

Anemia has the ICD D50 code. The disease is characterized by an insufficient concentration of iron in the body. In such conditions, there is a violation of the synthesis of red blood cells in the blood. Anemia and pregnancy - incompatible concepts, because the disease can damage the fetus and mother.

Anemia during gestation is iron deficiency during pregnancy. The disease begins to manifest to the second trimester, reaching a peak of its development by the 29-36th week.

The mechanism of the formation of the disease is based on the increasing need of the mother's body for iron, because it helps the production of blood hemoglobin. If the item comes in insufficient volume, then there is an imbalance between its consumption and expenditure.

Anemia must be treated to avoid negative consequences for the mother and child.

Causes of anemia can be:

  • chronic inflammatory diseases of the genital organs,
  • genetic predisposition (with a genetic disease),
  • insufficiently balanced menu
  • alcohol, smoking,
  • changes in liver disease,
  • neoplasms
  • early re-pregnancy (hypochromia develops),
  • dysfunction of enzymes
  • hormonal disruptions.

The element iron plays an important role in the formation of hemoglobin. If there is a shortage, the transfer of oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the organs is disturbed.

Iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy (should be distinguished from thalassemia) can be caused by a failure in the absorption of an important substance or a decrease in its consumption. A future mother can get iron only with food, since the body does not synthesize an element.

In order for proper absorption to take place, the liver and the small intestine must not fail, since the molecules move due to the proteins of these organs.

Why anemia develops

When a new life is born in the womb, the organism of the future mother rebuilds her work. Now it functions with a double load, supplying the fetus with nutrients, oxygen, protecting it. Increasing the load on all organs and systems is the main reason for the decrease in the protective forces of the female body. As a result, various complications arise, including anemia, which is characterized by a decrease in the red blood cell (erythrocyte) index in the blood. Pathology arises because the fetus actively "takes" iron from the mother, without which the formation of red blood cells is impossible.

The diagnosis of “iron deficiency anemia” by an obstetrician-gynecologist puts her patient if her hemoglobin level is below the normal level of 110 g / l. The first degree of anemia is characterized by a hemoglobin index of 90-110 g / l, the second - 70-90 g / l, the third - below 70 g / l. If, according to the results of the blood test, the level of red blood cells is below 40 g / l, then it is said to have a severe degree of iron deficiency anemia. But such a condition is not typical for pregnant women, because with low hemoglobin and a child it is sometimes not possible to conceive.

In the period of the formation of the fetus, its active growth and iron consumption it is often necessary to replenish the substance in the mother's body with food. When this does not happen, iron deficiency anemia occurs. Most often this is her first degree. This pathology is more characteristic of women who have a genetic predisposition to its appearance. Also, the condition occurs in expectant mothers with chronic or infectious diseases of the internal organs, in women who have repeatedly given birth, carrying twins, suffering from toxemia during pregnancy. Anemia of the first degree may be characteristic of women with heavy menstruation before pregnancy, minors who have overcome the thirty-year milestone, have bad habits.

Symptoms of first degree anemia

It should be noted that iron deficiency anemia is diagnosed according to the results of a general blood test. In early pregnancy, it is manifested by fatigue, increased irritability, drowsiness, and low performance. A woman complains of weakness, weakness in the body, headaches, dizziness, tinnitus, the appearance of "flies" in front of her eyes. With slight physical exertion, for example, climbing the stairs, the expectant mother is having a rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath. Sometimes symptoms of anemia of the first degree are dryness and peeling of the skin, separation of nails, loss of hair on the head.

Treatment of anemia

Most often, obstetrician-gynecologists prescribe drugs with an iron content. These are Tardiferon, Sorbifer, Ferropleks, Aktiferin, and also vitamin B12 (cobalamin) in injections. The dosage of drugs and the scheme is determined individually, based on the general condition of the future mother. Doctors emphasize that the tablet form of the above drugs should drink juices, because the latter are rich in ascorbic acid, which promotes the absorption of iron.

It is recommended to strengthen the diet of the expectant mother with iron-rich foods. These are liver, buckwheat, carrots, pomegranates, pomegranate juice, walnuts.

What is the danger of first-degree anemia

It is worth noting that the initial form of pathology today is well treatable. It is enough to follow a doctor's prescription, adjust the diet - and in a week the expectant mother will feel much better.

And if iron deficiency anemia does not attach importance, then its first degree will outgrow into the second and may complicate the course of pregnancy. The baby will not receive enough nutrients, will begin to suffer from hypoxia (oxygen starvation), which is fraught with placental abruption, premature onset of labor, the occurrence of bleeding. A normal level of hemoglobin in the blood of a pregnant woman is the basis of healthy gestation.

Signs of anemia

Detect a mild form of anemia can be after passing a general blood test. Unlike severe forms, which are characterized by a manifestation of increased heartbeat and exacerbations of ischemia of the heart muscle, mild anemia does not manifest.
Dangerous manifestations of anemia symptoms are:

  • increased dryness of the skin,
  • pale skin
  • the presence of cracks in the lips
  • the appearance of a yellow tint on the skin near the nose,
  • increased peeling of the skin,
  • the appearance of cracks in the corners of the mouth,
  • brittle and dry hair,
  • depletion of hair follicles

The woman begins to pervert taste preferences. If there is anemia, a pregnant woman can start eating chalk, raw vegetables and other foods that have not been attractive to her before.

Severity and definition of anemia

The degree of manifestation of anemia is determined by laboratory studies, observation of the clinical picture does not give positive results.

A blood test that a woman gives for hemoglobin levels may be as follows:

  • Anemia I degree - the level of hemoglobin is reduced by twenty percent from the norm,
  • Anemia II degree - hemoglobin is reduced by 25-45% of the standard indicators,
  • Anemia III degree - a severe type of illness, hemoglobin is reduced by 45% of normal values.

Editorial Board

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Causes

The iron that remains in the human body begins to be consumed by the systems for its functioning, for example, it is necessary for respiratory processes in the tissues. Particles of iron begin to sweat and peel off the skin, with blood loss, hair loss, and other processes.

If a woman is not in an interesting position, she loses iron as much as she gets. This is due to the menstrual cycle and the blood that is lost. When carrying a child, iron consumption by the body begins to increase several times, since it is not just consumed, but goes on nutrition and maintaining important functions of the child. It affects the rhythm of modern life and poor diet, and to fill the amount of hemoglobin needed is difficult.

The main reasons for the development of anemia:

  • Chronic diseases - inflammatory diseases in internal organs and diseases in gynecology.
  • The lack of normal nutrition - the presence of vegetables, the absence of meat products, which contain a lot of iron.
  • The difference between the genera is not more than two years.
  • Spontaneous miscarriage or bleeding that existed during pregnancy.
  • Reduce blood pressure.
  • The presence of several fruits in the womb.
  • Pregnant age to 17 or older than 35 years.

Diagnosis of anemia 1 degree and treatment

The main treatment for anemia is nutrition. Compliance with dietary intake, which is saturated with beneficial micro and macro elements. And also the food should be rich in protein molecules and iron. Чтобы повысить содержание белка в женском организме во время беременности назначают употребление продуктов, наподобие гематогена.

Если беременную женщину положили в стационар, специалистами разрабатывается программа лечения. Для купирования малокровия назначают препараты с железом. First, the weaker, if they have a slight effect, then strong drugs. This is aimed at restoring hemoglobin to normal levels.

Restore the main sources for the replacement of iron in the body.
The third stage is maintenance therapy, which allows you to maintain hemoglobin values. Doctors developed a diet and other measures that contribute to the normalization of the state of the woman's body.

In addition to traditional methods of treatment, the doctor prescribes unconventional methods, which he considers necessary, taking into account the peculiarities of the woman during the child's bearing. When using some recipes from vegetables, you need to make sure that the woman does not have an allergic reaction.

Often used vegetable infusions of carrots, beets and radishes. These roots allow you to maintain hemoglobin at the required level, saturate the body with useful minerals and vitamin complexes. You can use oats, milk, honey, wormwood.

When anemia is detected, it is necessary to quickly take steps to eliminate it. In the future, it adversely affects the body of a woman and the body of the baby.
In the presence of anemia, the possible consequences:

  • The occurrence of early toxicosis,
  • The onset of late gestosis,
  • Threatened miscarriage
  • Lowering blood pressure
  • The development of pathological processes in the fetus,
  • Weak labor activity
  • The appearance of severe bleeding during the birth process and after,
  • The child may develop respiratory tract diseases.

The presence of iron deficiency anemia in the mother, which did not attach importance to the effects may manifest in the baby. Due to the fact that the fetus lacks elements and minerals with blood, there will be a development of pathological processes.

Every woman needs to be attentive to health and take measures to eliminate changes in the body during the period of carrying a child.

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The worst thing is that this filth through the pores and blood accumulates in the organs and can cause cancer. We strongly recommend not using the products in which these substances are located. Our editors tested shampoos, where Mulsan Cosmetic took the first place.

The only manufacturer of all-natural cosmetics. All products are manufactured under the strict control of certification systems. We recommend to visit the official online store mulsan.ru. If you doubt the naturalness of your cosmetics, check the expiration date, it should not exceed 11 months.

Degrees of severity

The effects of anemia on the fetus also depend on the severity of the pathology. The table describes the hemoglobin standards in the blood of a woman during pregnancy and the severity depending on the deviations.

The first degree of anemia is also called mild pathology. The second is moderate anemia. With a hemoglobin level of 70 g / l and below, the disease is a severe and extremely severe form.

Possible consequences for mother and child

Many future mothers do not understand why experts pay so much attention to the level of hemoglobin in the blood. However, the concern of physicians has good reasons. When pathology in the body disrupts the process of oxygen delivery. The woman's health deteriorates, and the fetus suffers from hypoxia even with mild anemia. Consequences for the future mother can be as follows:

  • increased early and late toxicosis,
  • severe swelling,
  • development of bleeding during and after childbirth,
  • miscarriage, premature birth,
  • weak labor activity
  • placental abruption,
  • the birth of a dead child
  • development of postpartum complications,
  • high or low blood pressure
  • deterioration of blood clotting,
  • reduced immunity
  • exacerbation of chronic diseases
  • polyhydramnios
  • no lactation.

The consequences of pathology for the fetus develop due to oxygen starvation. The child is in danger due to the violation of the formation of internal organs and systems. Complications may be:

  • intrauterine death,
  • congenital pathologies of internal organs,
  • undeveloped central nervous system,
  • low birth weight
  • poor weight gain
  • hereditary anemia,
  • premature birth
  • reduced immunity
  • disruption of the respiratory system,
  • pathology of the skeletal system
  • slow healing of the umbilical wound,
  • muscle weakness in the newborn.
Anemia during pregnancy may adversely affect the health of the newborn

Diagnostic methods

Diagnosis of anemia is based on a general blood test. The results of the study determine the level of hemoglobin, the number of red blood cells, platelets and leukocytes, the ability of the blood to carry oxygen molecules. If a low hemoglobin level is detected, additional tests are appointed to clarify the state of the internal organs and the causes of pathology.

Additional diagnostic methods include:

  • Blood chemistry. Particular attention is paid to indicators indicating the reserves of iron in the body, the binding ability of blood serum, the level of trace elements and vitamins, bilirubin.
  • Feces for hidden blood. The study may indicate bleeding in the digestive tract.
  • General urine analysis. Informative about the work of internal systems and organs.
  • Ultrasound of the liver, kidneys, stomach.
  • Ultrasound of the fetus. In the study, you can detect polyhydramnios, find out whether anemia affected the child.

Treatment methods

In the treatment of anemia 1 severity focuses on proper nutrition. In moderate to severe forms of the pathology, the doctor also prescribes drug therapy. Also conduct preventive treatment of fetal hypoxia. Drugs for treatment are selected depending on the course of the pathology and associated symptoms. Drugs are administered orally or intravenously.

Used drugs

Treatment of anemia is usually carried out with drugs in pills and solutions. Intravenous drip medication is administered only in cases where the patient is diagnosed with gastrointestinal diseases that prevent the absorption of drugs, or pathologists, in which it is impossible for drugs to enter the stomach.

Tablets and solutions are taken with meals. The duration of treatment is determined by the doctor depending on the severity of the disease. The minimum therapeutic course is 1 month. During therapy, the patient donates blood for analysis to control hemoglobin levels. Droppers are put by experts - they do this only in a hospital setting. The table lists the drugs used to treat anemia in pregnant women.

Anemia 3 degrees during pregnancy

The last stage of the disease requires immediate medical attention and inpatient treatment. Anemia grade 3 during pregnancy can cause irreparable harm to the development of the fetus.

Under such circumstances, premature labor, miscarriages or the birth of a dead child are possible.

If the disease in this stage is identified when planning children, then doctors regard it as a clinical indication for treatment.

Signs of anemia during pregnancy

Symptoms of anemia in pregnant women occur during the transition of the disease to the second stage, they are expressed by the following manifestations:

  • increase in the frequency of heart beats,
  • increased fatigue, drowsiness and general weakness in the body,
  • the appearance of irritability and nervousness,
  • pains in the heart,
  • appetite disturbance,
  • dizziness, nausea, vomiting,
  • metabolic disorders, malfunctions of the digestive system,
  • drop in concentration,
  • fainting
  • numbness of the limbs
  • dryness and blanching of the skin,
  • brittle nails and hair,
  • peeling of the skin in the palms and feet,
  • the appearance of cracks in the corners of the lips.

What to eat for anemia during pregnancy

Diet for anemia is aimed at compensating for iron deficiency. For anemia, certain foods should be eaten during pregnancy. The following describes what is better to consume during the illness, what are the features:

  • Best of all, the element is absorbed from meat (pork liver, heart, turkey, beef).
  • Seafood (fish, mussels, shrimp).
  • Vegetables and fruits (spinach, apricots, tomatoes, cauliflower, Bulgarian pepper, strawberries, kiwi, apple).
  • Groats (for example, buckwheat).
  • Folic acid will help in the prevention of anemia (turnip, cabbage, lentils, citrus, lettuce, broccoli, dried apricots, raspberries, nuts).
  • Vitamin B12 is found in eggs, beans and meat.

Contraindications for anemia

In some cases, contraindications for anemia lie in recommending doctors to end the pregnancy. The decision is made at a consultation, may take effect up to 12 weeks. However, the right of final choice belongs to the woman. The following types of anemia may be contraindicated in pregnancy:

  • severe degree of chronic iron deficiency,
  • hemolytic (at which red blood cells break up),
  • aplastic,
  • sickle cell,
  • disease arising on the background of leukemia,
  • if the disease is accompanied by Verlgof disease.

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