While carrying a child, the woman feels the happiest man on earth. But not always everything goes smoothly. Quite often, representatives of the fair sex, who are in an interesting position, have various problems. One of the reasons for concern is the low placentation during pregnancy. 20 weeks is a borderline period by which the location of the placenta may change, and it may rise higher. We will understand in detail in this issue.
Low placentation during pregnancy
20 weeks - this is the period until which the doctors do not render any verdict and just wait. Quite often, such a pathological location of the placenta is detected at the next ultrasound and has no signs.
The placenta can smoothly move from the very bottom of the uterus to its upper part until the middle of the term of a progressive pregnancy. This happens in most cases. However, there is a small percentage of women who have a low placentation in pregnancy for 20 weeks or more.
Why is the placenta low?
Why is low placentation diagnosed during pregnancy (20 weeks)? The reasons may be as follows:
- Incorrect positioning of the uterus.
- Inflammatory and infectious diseases suffered before pregnancy.
- Neoplasms in the uterine walls.
- Prior surgery and curettage.
- Age of women after 40 years.
- The second and more pregnancy.
Due to the fact that the baby seat is close to the pharynx or even overlaps it, the woman may feel bad. Almost all pregnant women with this diagnosis have a decrease in blood pressure. Because of this, a woman in an interesting position may feel weak and dizzy.
In some cases, a woman may lose consciousness. With these symptoms, you should see a doctor as soon as possible.
The occurrence of bleeding
Due to the fact that there is a low placentation, 20 weeks and later periods can be characterized by the appearance of bloody discharge from the genital tract. In this case, we are talking about a detachment and the threat of abortion.
Such a consequence of the low presentation of the children's place should be corrected as soon as possible. Otherwise, there is a threat not only to the life of the child, but also to the health of the mother.
Oxygen starvation of the embryo
Low placentation during pregnancy (20 weeks or more) may threaten to cause hypoxia in the fetus. Due to the fact that the main part, through which the baby receives nutrients and oxygen, is located at the very bottom of the uterus, the blood supply may be somewhat hampered or impaired. The best conditions for the development and progression of pregnancy are created in the upper part of the reproductive organ.
Another consequence that may result from a low location of the placenta is the impossibility of performing a natural birth. If the children's place is at a distance of less than five centimeters from the internal pharynx, in most cases, doctors recommend a planned surgical intervention.
If natural labor is permitted, then when the cervix is opened, the placenta will partially or completely block the passage of the infant. This can threaten not only his health, but also be fatal. That is why competent specialists do not want to risk the life of the mother and child and perform a cesarean section.
First of all it is necessary to observe rest and care. This will help avoid bleeding and threatened abortion.
Do not lift heavy objects and overwork. Try to rest more and be in peace. Not recommended for long trips by car and travel.
In almost all cases, when the children's place is located close to the throat, sedatives are prescribed to the pregnant woman, for example: Valerian tablets or motherwort tincture.
Try not to make sudden movements. In some cases, doctors forbid even sneezing or coughing strongly to their pregnant patients.
Treatment of complications
If bleeding occurs, it is urgent to take a horizontal position and call an ambulance. Most likely, you will be offered hospitalization. Never refuse recommendations of the expert and do not argue with him.
The main treatment is the prescription of drugs that stop the blood. These may include the following drugs: Tranexam tablets, Dicineon injections and other drugs.
In some cases, the location of the placenta may change just before the birth. That is why experts often carry out ultrasound and find out where the children's place. After finding out all the data on the placenta, the doctor decides how to deliver.
You should not panic much if you have a low placentation during pregnancy for 20 weeks. Feedback from women suggests that in most cases, the baby seat rises higher and takes the correct location in the reproductive organ.
Otherwise, an experienced specialist will give you good advice and make the right decision about the method by which the delivery will be carried out. Trust the professionals and be calm for your health and the life of your baby.
The course of pregnancy in an optimal way involves placing the placenta in one of the provisions: on the bottom of the uterus or body, on the side walls, on the back wall, with gradual migration from one place to another. This happens depending on various factors, but the most important thing is the availability of a good supply of blood to the uterus wall. Often the body is not located on the front wall, undergoing constant modifications. In addition, in such cases, some injuries are possible, which a woman in a position should avoid and avoid.
Placenta previa is called any localization in the lower parts of the uterus in any configuration. There is a similar pathology with a frequency not exceeding 1% of all deliveries.
The complete development of the placenta ends only 16 weeks after fertilization. The placenta is able to filter the blood that enters the body of the nascent baby from toxic substances and drugs.
Causes of low placenta
A placenta can develop in the lower uterine lobes due to two very important ones, one of which concerns the very ovum, the second directly to the mother. Experts identify a number of main factors affecting it:
- chronic inflammatory diseases of the female reproductive system,
- the presence of changes in the uterus in the form of scarring due to previous surgical interventions,
- performing abortions,
- the presence of fibroids in the uterus,
Sometimes the problem is the deterioration of the attachment of the ovum to the lining of the uterus. If the location is out of time, the beginning of the process of formation of the placenta may in turn be disturbed. In such cases, the fertilized egg moves too low along the wall.
Symptoms of low location of the placenta
The most frequent and most important symptom with low placement of the placenta is abundant and light bleeding. Depending on how the organ is located, this symptom may be more pronounced or mild. Often, only one-third of pregnant women experience blood secretion during pregnancy and two-thirds during labor.
Often the symptoms of placenta previa develop gradually, increasing to the third trimester of pregnancy. Before bleeding occurs, a woman often feels painful sensations in the lower abdomen of a whining character. In addition, there is a reduction in the uterus itself.
Sometimes a partial presentation gives less pronounced symptoms, so its diagnosis only occurs at the end of the gestational period, while with complete pathology it occurs during routine check-ups at the gynecologist.
Selections are often bright red.. In most cases, they are provoked by physical exertion, long standing, standing, bowel movements and sex. Although it is rarely possible to excrete blood during sleep or rest.
In certain cases, with severe bleeding, prompt delivery and emergency medical care for the woman in labor is indicated. This way you can save her life.
Frequent bleeding can cause anemia in a pregnant woman, loss of normal working capacity and increased fatigue. Because of this, the fetus may not receive a normal amount of nutrients, as well as oxygen, which can lead to hypoxia. The most serious consequence is miscarriage of the fetus.. In some cases, termination of pregnancy is necessary, if the pathological process is very strong, and the intensity of blood loss is high. Bleeding almost always occurs during childbirth with such a problem.
Diagnosis of placenta previa
The beginning of the diagnosis of a low location of the placenta is often the pregnant woman's complaints about bleeding. Their frequency and the period of occurrence are directly dependent on the location of the placenta. This may occur both in the early stages and in the future. 12-13 or 14-15 weeks.
First of all, after receiving complaints, it is necessary to exclude other possible reasons for them through an inspection. Thus, it is possible to identify the presence of uterine trauma or the pathology of her cervix.
A vaginal examination also identifies some signs of an abnormal location of the placenta. At the same time, it should be carried out as carefully and carefully as possible so as not to harm the woman and not provoke the possible occurrence of another bleeding.
Today the most effective and informative examination of this pathology is ultrasound procedure. It not only confirms the fact of the problem, but also gives clear information about how the placenta is located, what is its structure, as well as its magnitude. Using ultrasound, you can identify the level of its detachment, and assess the movement along the wall of the uterus.
The main criterion to which attention should be paid during the examination is the distance from the edge of the placenta to the zone of internal os. At 28-40 weeks indicates a pathology distance less than 5 centimeters. Up to week 27, a conclusion is made according to the ratio of the value of this indicator to the head of the fetus.
If pathology of the location of the placenta was discovered, it is very important to conduct a dynamic study in order to identify its possible migration. For this, ultrasound is performed for 16 or 17 weeks, from 24 to 26 and from 34 to 36 weeks.
For a better inspection, an examination is performed while filling the bladder at an average size. This diagnostic method also makes it possible to detect some other problems, such as an accumulation of blood in the form of a hematoma.
Key information about low placentation
It is known that after fertilization of the female egg by the male sperm cell, a fertilized egg is formed. For successful transformation into a full-fledged person, he needs to find a suitable place for implantation in the internal cavity of the maternal uterus. Normally, these are the back wall or the bottom of the body.
Along with this, under the influence of various sorts of factors, the embryo can be implanted in some other place. This usually happens when the embryo simply does not have time to reach the destination.
As noted, low placentation is referred to if the placenta is 5-6 cm below the internal os. Increasing in size, low-lying placenta can simply block the birth canal, which will prevent the natural delivery.
However, in the process of pregnancy, the situation often changes for the better. As the child grows, the uterus also increases in size, with the result that the placenta attachment point also rises, and the threat to the fetus decreases.
Under any circumstances, when making a diagnosis, low placentation, a woman should be under qualified medical supervision, because This pathology in rare cases leads to some complications, for example, placental abruption, fetal hypoxia, etc.
In accordance with the averaged statistical data, in multiparous women, low placentation is noted more often than in patients with the first pregnancy. For the timely detection of pathology and taking measures to improve the condition of the woman and the fetus, a pregnant woman should undergo an ultrasound regularly. The specific periodicity of the research will be determined by the doctor. As a rule, they are made between 12-16, 22-25 and 32-34 weeks.
Low placenta and delivery
The order of delivery is determined by the individual characteristics of a particular situation. In approximately 90% of cases, the location of the placenta is normalized by itself and, in the absence of various obstetric pathologies and the patient's normal state of health, the child is born in a natural way. In the process of labor, specialists constantly monitor the woman’s well-being, the volume of blood lost, the pulse, pressure, the condition of the fetus and other relevant parameters.
If the placenta is located at a distance of more than 6 cm from the cervix, no complications should arise. At a smaller distance, the fetal bladder, as a rule, is opened by a specialist beforehand. The doctor presses the placenta with the baby’s head, which prevents the first from peeling.
If at the end of the period the distance between the placenta and the internal pharynx is less than 2 cm, delivery is usually carried out by caesarean section. Also, this procedure is resorted to in the case of heavy bleeding or other complications.
Thus, the low placentation, although it is a fairly serious pathology, with constant and expert supervision by specialists and compliance with the recommendations received by the pregnant woman, childbirth usually takes place without significant complications and a healthy baby is born.
Respond to adverse changes in your condition in a timely manner, follow medical recommendations and be healthy!
Causes of low placentation in pregnancy at week 20
Sometimes there are deviations in the location of the placenta in the uterus, determine its location using ultrasound. At the same time, it turns out that it is located in the lower part of the uterus and, in some cases, is capable of blocking the internal pharynx.
The causes of this phenomenon during pregnancy can be the following:
- Multiple pregnancy.
- Problems with the uterus, such as underdevelopment of the organ.
- The consequences of abortion or any infectious diseases.
- Also affects the patient's age - the risk of such pathology increases after 35 years.
Most often, such a pathology may occur in those women who have not the first pregnancy, for example, there were already two or more, there is also a risk of low location of the placenta with endometritis and the presence of cesarean section scars.
To reduce the risk of a low placentation, you should follow a healthy lifestyle.
The exact cause of this pathology in pregnant women has not yet been identified, but it can be noted with complete certainty that a low placenta can lead to a number of complications, up to abortion.
Doctors put women with such a pathology under special control and, in some cases, are placed in a hospital for constant monitoring. But, do not panic to the expectant mother, if this pathology is detected at week 20, as a rule, due to the growth of the fetus, its attachment rises, and, until the moment of delivery, it should settle down at a normal level.
Measures to eliminate the low location of the placenta
Pregnancy is a joyful phenomenon for every woman, but, unfortunately, it does not always go smoothly, and various deviations can occur, in particular, the distance to the placenta is increased. This means that the placenta is attached to the walls of the uterus close to its cervix.
Such a pathological condition requires close attention of doctors and the adoption of certain measures:
- Provide rest.
- Restriction of physical activity, up to bed rest, while the doctor prescribes drugs that help reduce the contractile activity of the uterus.
- Other drugs are also prescribed for the preservation and normal development of the whole gestational sac, such as Utrogestan or Duphaston.
The doctor may prescribe a blood transfusion in order to prevent a drop in hemoglobin levels. Also prescribed drugs that allow you to strengthen the walls of blood vessels, sex life, gymnastics with such a diagnosis is completely prohibited.
Pathology is the position of the placenta from the pharynx of 6 cm or less.
Низкое расположение плаценты подразделяется на несколько видов, например, нижний край плаценты едва касается канала шейки матки, при такой патологии женщина может родить ребенка естественным путем. Если плацента частично перекрывает канал шейки матки, то в этом случае врач назначает кесарево сечение. The same applies in case of complete overlap of the cervix by the placenta by the placenta. Fortunately, not all pregnant women have this condition until birth, as the placenta migrates, due to the growth of the fetus, it rises higher and higher.
What threatens the presence of low placenta previa during pregnancy
Every pregnant woman needs to be prepared for any abnormalities to occur. An example of such a deviation may be a low location of the placenta. Typically, the placenta is located approximately 6 cm from the internal os of the uterus. If the placenta is located below, then in this case, the doctors make a diagnosis - low placentation or presentation. With this arrangement, the placenta may partially or completely block the cervical canal.
In addition, it may face other negative consequences:
- During active movements of the fetus, especially in late pregnancy, the placenta may be damaged.
- In addition, the fetus has a risk of hypoxia. The fact is that the cervix is supplied with blood is not so active and, when the placenta is located in this place, the child may receive less oxygen.
- Bleeding is also possible due to damage to the lining of the placenta, and even placental abruption can occur.
In no case with low placentation can not use traditional medicine.
A low location of the placenta can interfere with normal delivery if it, with its lower edge, barely touches the cervical canal. In this case, natural childbirth is still possible.
If the channel is blocked at least partially, then the woman cannot give birth herself, in this case, treatment and cesarean section will be required.
The danger of this pathology lies in the fact that it practically does not manifest itself, and such a pathology can be identified only on planned ultrasounds.
Types of low attachment of the placenta
The placenta is a temporary organ that forms only during pregnancy and performs a number of important functions, such as breathing, feeding, and also contributes to the formation of immunity, etc. During pregnancy, this organ may, for various reasons, begin to form in the lower part of the uterus, which is considered pathology.
There are several types of low location in the uterus:
- The location of the placenta on the lower wall of the uterus - in this case, the placenta partially or completely covers the cervical canal. As a result, natural childbirth in women is impossible and when the term comes to give birth, it will be necessary to do a cesarean section.
- The location of the placenta on the anterior wall of the uterus - while there is a risk of damage to the placenta directly by the fetus. There is also a risk of the umbilical cord entanglement of the fetus and its partial squeezing, which can lead to an insufficient supply of nutrition, oxygen, etc. to the fetus.
- The regional location of the placenta - with this pathology, either the placenta of the uterine throat is completely overlapped, or partial overlap occurs.
Doctors can find low disposition at almost any gestational age, but more often, pathology is detected during the first planned ultrasound. When making such a diagnosis, a woman should not worry yet.
Regional pathology also implies a delivery by caesarean section.
In most cases, due to the growth of the fetus, the uterus is stretched in length and, because of its increase, the placenta is raised to an almost normal position.
Recommendations for low placental during pregnancy at week 21
Low placental pathology can be detected by doctors at almost any time, usually it is detected even during the first ultrasound. But usually, by the second trimester, the rate, but in some cases, the placenta is still omitted. If this is the case, then in this case the doctor prescribes additional studies (week 21, second trimester) and gives recommendations to the woman, how and what to do to prepare for normal childbirth.
- The most important thing for a woman to do is calm down, in almost 90% of cases, pregnancy proceeds normally and ends with the birth of a healthy child.
- If possible, try to create a favorable atmosphere around you.
- Try not to worry and not worry.
It is forbidden to have sex, sports, it is also impossible to lift and carry weights. If possible, you should limit the number of walks, you should try to walk less and rest more.
During the rest, you should put a pillow under your feet, this may help raise the placenta up.
With a low placentation, you should be monitored regularly by a doctor and follow his recommendations
You can wear a bandage to maintain the abdomen. Be sure to listen to the recommendations of the doctor to take medicines that are prescribed, for example, Curantil. If necessary, go to the hospital, choosing the best reviews. Placental is not a disease, but a special condition that requires more attention of doctors. The placental state requires not so much treatment, as the adjustment of the condition. And, if a woman will comply with all recommendations, then she has a chance to raise the placenta. To what extent you need - to the norm, no more.
Tips: what to do if the placenta during pregnancy is low
To ensure the needs of the fetus with oxygen, blood, a kind of organ is formed, which is called the placenta. It is formed in the uterus in the place where the embryo attached, most often, its localization is located at the bottom of the uterus.
Sometimes the fetus is found below the uterus close to the uterine mouth.
This localization of the fetus and placenta is detected by ultrasound. This pathology threatens with the fact that natural delivery is impossible, and doctors resort to a cesarean section.
- With a low location of the placenta, as a rule, no symptoms are observed.
- In some cases, there may be any signs, such as a stomach ache.
- Sometimes it can bleed slightly, in this case, you should immediately go to the hospital, as this may indicate detachment of the placenta, which requires immediate medical intervention.
If such a diagnosis is made, then the most important thing for a pregnant woman is not to worry, in most cases, the process is normal. The main thing is to follow all the recommendations of the doctor, for example, if a diagnosis of a reduced placenta is made, intimate relationships and physical exercises, sudden movements, weight lifting, etc. should be excluded.
What is the placenta in pregnant women: description
The placenta is needed in order to ensure communication of the unborn child with the mother. The placenta does not appear immediately, it is gradually formed from the chorion. Chorion consists of 2 parts - germ cells and loosened uterine epithelium cells. The placenta is in the form of a flat cake, one side is attached to the uterus, and the other is facing the baby. First, at the beginning of pregnancy, it is small and, as the growth of the fetus increases, its size and thickness increase. Traditionally, the placenta is formed in the area of the bottom of the uterus or its body, both on the back wall and on the side. Less commonly, the placenta is located on the front wall of the uterus. In any case, despite the place where the placenta is located, its location is considered normal.
The placenta is able to move due to a change in the structure of the uterus, due to which its level occupies a normal position, thereby improving the blood supply to the child, oxygen and nutrients. But, if it is located in the region of the bottom almost on the wall of the uterus, and partially or completely overlaps the pharynx, in this case, doctors speak of a low-lying placenta.
But various deviations can be observed, it can be located too low, omission can threaten with insufficient supply of a child with blood, oxygen, etc. In this case, it is necessary to treat by certain restrictions on physical activity. Also, doctors are trying to make the bad placenta bounce back, and the expectant mother gave birth to a healthy baby.
Treatment and prevention of low placenta
Low location of the placenta treatment determines in direct proportion to the physiological state of the woman. For a gestational age of 35 weeks with good fetus formation, often doctors prescribed drug therapy. In addition, it is very important to limit any physical activities that may adversely affect the disease. Does this mean complete immobility? By no means! Just a woman is recommended to adhere to bed rest. It is also forbidden to have sex.
There are no medications that would have the function of raising the placenta or influence the development of its development in the desired area of the uterus. In some cases, self-elimination of this pathology occurs through migration (week 25). This is because the thickness of the myometrium increases significantly. Despite this, intensive therapy treatment is necessary. To do this, use drugs, intramuscular and intravenous injection. Among them, experts allocate the following funds:
- antispasmodic and tocolytic drugs to improve the extensibility of the lower uterus,
- medications to reduce the tone of the uterus myometrium (especially important at 18 - 19 weeks),
- iron preparations for repeated bleeding, leading to iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women,
- drugs for normalization of blood circulation in the placenta,
- glucose and magnesia in the form of intravenous injections,
- vitamin complexes and some supplements
- glucocorticosteroids to prevent the elimination of respiratory disorders in the fetus during the birth period.
For non-severe bleeding and normal pregnancy, conservative treatment is applied. But this is if we are talking about 30 or 32 weeks, and if there is such a dangerous 20, 21 or 22 week, when there is a shortage of red blood cells and the uterus actively raises its bottom. For any manifestations of blood, a woman should stay in the hospital in the hospital. If the condition is exacerbated, then the only way to solve the problem is an artificial interruption of pregnancy.