Weak immunity, poor ecology, bad habits of parents - all of these and many other factors cause various diseases in newborns and toddlers. Recently, doctors are increasingly faced with viral and bacterial infections, as well as allergic diseases, one of which is allergic bronchitis in children.
The mechanism of development of allergies in children
Allergy is an abnormal, over-reaction of a person’s immune system to a substance called an allergen. Children are especially prone to this condition for two reasons:
- Hereditary predisposition It is not entirely correct to assume that allergies are inherited. Rather, the likelihood of the disease in a child depends on the presence of the disease in the next of kin (parents). So, if one of the parents suffers from allergies, the risk of a baby getting sick is up to 40%. If both parents are allergic, the crumb will fall ill with a probability of up to 75%.
- An incompletely formed immune system. In addition to the appearance of allergic reactions to foods that are not age-appropriate, drugs, or aggressive detergents, children may also have allergies to harmless things. These include household dust, dairy products, pollen, etc.
As a rule, allergy begins with minor manifestations: a small runny nose, skin redness, watery eyes. If coughing is also connected to these symptoms, we can talk about allergic bronchitis in a child, reviews of which indicate the seriousness of the disease.
Types of allergic bronchitis
Allergic bronchitis - the body's reaction to the presence of allergens, which is accompanied by a strong coughing without coughing up sputum.
There are several types of allergic bronchitis in children.
- Atopic - this type is characterized by a sudden onset, rapid deterioration of the condition and pronounced symptoms, giving rise to the possibility of rapid diagnosis.
- Infectious-allergic - the nature of the disease lies not only in the presence of the allergen, but also infection of the body.
- Tracheobronchitis - affects the bronchi and trachea of a child.
- Allergic obstructive bronchitis - is characterized not only by the inflammatory process in the bronchi, but also by the violation of their patency, which causes difficulties with breathing and without treatment can lead to serious negative consequences.
When a child has a strong cough, you can not self-medicate. Only a doctor will be able to confirm or refute the diagnosis and determine the form of the disease.
The causes of the disease
Factors of allergic bronchitis, as well as any other disease that has an allergic nature, are effects on the body of an aggressive substance - an allergen.
To provoke an illness in children can:
- household chemicals (air freshener, washing powder, dish detergent, etc.),
- waste products of domestic animals (saliva, wool),
- cigarette smoke,
- foods that are considered especially allergenic (chocolate, peanuts, citrus fruits, strawberries, chicken eggs),
- hygiene products (cream, shampoo),
- household dust,
- plant pollen,
- vaccines (most often there is a reaction to the DPT vaccine).
The unresolved respiratory tract infections (ARVI and others) can provoke the onset of allergic bronchitis.
Symptoms of the disease
The very first symptoms of children's allergic bronchitis should alert the parents and become a reason for a visit to the pediatrician.
- The child complains that there is frequent sneezing and itchy nose.
- The appearance of shortness of breath, most often at night. This symptom is due to swelling and spasm of the bronchial tree. In the absence of an allergen in the immediate vicinity, the symptom becomes weaker.
- Tearing, red eyes.
- Nasal discharge.
- Cough without sputum; sometimes a coughing up of viscous yellow secretion can be observed.
- Wheezing and whistling when breathing. Also, the baby may complain of difficulty breathing, especially when breathing out is difficult.
- There may be complaints about the difficulty of swallowing. This is due to swelling of the mucous throat.
- Characterized by a painful feeling and a feeling of constriction in the chest.
- With obstructive allergic bronchitis, there is a recession between the ribs with each breath.
Distinctive features of an allergic nature of bronchitis are the absence of hyperthermia and seasonality. Unlike bronchitis caused by a viral infection, in allergic bronchitis, subfebrile temperature can be observed (not higher than 37.3 ° C), and the disease manifests itself depending on the season when the allergen is present.
After going to a doctor with suspected allergic bronchitis in children, the diagnosis of the disease plays an important role in prescribing the correct treatment.
Methods of diagnosis in allergic bronchitis:
- bronchoscopy, or tracheobronchoscopy, - examination of the respiratory tract with a tube (bronchoscope) in order to detect diseases of the bronchi, trachea and larynx,
- peak flow measurement is the measurement of the air flow rate during expiration,
- allergy tests, or allergic diagnostic tests, is a diagnostic technique that determines the body's sensitivity to different allergens,
- bronchography - assessment of respiratory noise,
- pulse oximetry - determination of the degree of blood saturation with oxygen without invasive intervention,
- blood test for gas composition,
- pulse oscillometry - evaluation of the patency of bronchial branches,
- Analysis of respiratory function (external respiration function) - measurement of the amount of air trapped in the respiratory tract during inhalation and exhalation.
Allergy tests and the method of respiratory function are not carried out for children under five years of age.
Allergic bronchitis regimen
Recovery and prevention of recurrence of the disease primarily depends not on the medications taken or procedures performed, but on the patient’s desire and discipline. In the case of treatment of allergic bronchitis in children to monitor their lifestyle is necessary for parents.
Mandatory measures for allergic bronchitis:
- regular wet cleaning
- maintaining in the room where the child is allergic, optimal temperature and humidity,
- avoidance of allergens - unfortunately, if necessary, you will have to abandon keeping pets and walking in spring gardens during the flowering period,
- the use of vitamin complexes and the use of hardening to strengthen the immunity of the crumbs,
- the warm atmosphere in the family where the baby is brought up is very important.
Another important place in the daily routine of an allergic child is a diet for children with allergic bronchitis. It consists in the use of hypoallergenic foods, as well as compliance with the drinking regime.
Unfortunately, the treatment of bronchitis with an allergic nature of origin is impossible without the use of medication.
Drugs prescribed for AB:
- Antihistamines (Suprastin, Fenistil, Diazolin).
- Drugs that thin and sputum (Ambroxol, ACC).
- Adsorbents, the action of which is aimed at removing the allergen.
- Antikleotrienovye drugs that reduce the power of the inflammatory process.
- Bronchodilators, expanding the bronchi and thereby facilitating the release of sputum ("Berodual", "Volmax").
- Alkaline inhalations, including with mineral water.
One of the most popular anti-allergy products is Suprastin, whose instructions for use in children are as follows:
- at the age of 1-6 years, take 1/4 pill 3 times a day or 1/2 1/2 times a day,
- from 6 to 14 years prescribed half a tablet of the drug 2-3 times a day.
In addition to the use of drugs to achieve the desired therapeutic effect in allergic bronchitis, physiotherapy procedures are widely used:
- massage, including acupressure,
- the impact of sinusoidal modulated currents (SMT) - normalizes external respiration in a child,
- pulsed low-frequency magnetic field - improves the baby’s immunity, normalizes the bronchial patency,
- dynamic electroneurostimulation - a method of influencing biologically active points with the aim of removing the inflammatory process.
The complex of medical treatment and physiotherapeutic procedures usually shows good results, returning the child to a normal life.
Folk remedies for bronchitis caused by an allergen
To enhance the effect of the prescribed treatment, the use of traditional methods of treating children's allergic bronchitis is acceptable.
For this purpose, the following means are used:
- vegetable juices (carrot, black radish with garlic) - effectively relieve strong bouts of debilitating cough,
- herbal decoctions (coltsfoot, linden flowers, calendula, yarrow, Althea root) - help to get rid of the inflammatory process and withdraw thick sputum from the bronchi,
- agave juice - buried in the nose to relieve swelling,
- Onion honey is recognized as a good remedy for bronchitis, including allergic. For 1 liter of water, you need to take 2 onions and 1 tablespoon of honey, cook all this over low heat for 2-3 hours, and then give the child to drink 2-3 tablespoons after eating.
Even folk, at first glance absolutely harmless, can be used to treat children only after consulting a pediatrician.
Behavior in acute attack of the disease
A characteristic feature of all allergic diseases, including bronchitis, is their sudden exacerbation when an allergen appears to which the patient is sensitive. With a sudden attack of coughing or choking in a child, it is important for adults to react in a timely manner to alleviate his condition, and possibly save his life.
Actions for exacerbation of allergic bronchitis:
- give the child an antihistamine prescribed earlier by a pediatrician or allergist,
- if possible, eliminate the allergen,
- make inhalation with the drugs "Berodual" and "Pulmicort" - the effect of these medicines is aimed at relieving the obstruction.
Even if a decision is made to relieve an attack with the most harmless drugs, for example, Suprastin, instructions for use in children should be studied before use.
Any disease, including its exacerbations and relapses, is easier to prevent than to cure. Allergic bronchitis in children is not an exception to this rule.
- exclusion from the diet of the baby highly allergenic products,
- preventing contact with the allergen, whether it is cigarette smoke or pet hair,
- keeping the house clean and with optimum humidity and temperature conditions,
- thorough treatment of any infectious diseases, even if it is not serious, at first glance, ARVI,
- to harden the child to strengthen the immune system,
- heal children on the sea, in the mountains, arrange trips to nature, preferably in the coniferous forest.
If you follow these simple rules, the child will be able to live a full life without unpleasant manifestations of allergy.
The lack of adequate treatment of obstructive allergic bronchitis can lead to a number of negative consequences.
Possible complications of the disease:
- developing into bronchial asthma,
- systematically increased blood pressure
- problems in the cardiovascular system,
Timely diagnosis and treatment of children's bronchitis, which caused allergens, will help prevent serious complications.
The causes of the development of this disease in children
Allergic bronchitis in a child occurs against the background of various allergens entering the respiratory system:
- Pollen of flowers of various plants, trees, etc. For our climate, the occurrence of such allergens in the inhaled air is observed from late spring to early autumn.
- House dust or dust that forms on old furniture or books. If a child inhales such allergens at home or away, it can trigger allergic bronchitis.
- The particles of feather and fluff of animals, which are used for the manufacture of pillows and featherbeds.
- Pet hair particles. Not necessarily that they lived at home. They can be near the place of games and recreation of the child.
- Other less obvious substances with allergic activity (chemical compounds in powders, soaps, perfumes, etc.).
In addition to the immediate causes, there are also contributing (contributing) factors. Contribute to the occurrence of such a disease
- Decreased activity of the immune system, for example, after an infectious disease, poisoning or due to congenital or acquired immunodeficiencies.
- Hereditary predisposition to allergic reactions and bronchial asthma.
- Regular contact with airborne allergens.
- Frequent symptoms of bronchitis that did not respond to adequate treatment.
- Adverse environmental conditions - dampness and cold, in which the child is constantly.
To the question whether asthmatic bronchitis is contagious in children, one can definitely say no. The main pathogenetic reason for the development of this disease is an allergic reaction. It leads to a specific inflammation in the bronchial tree, and also narrows the lumen of the respiratory tract. This in turn leads to symptoms similar to asthma - a bronchospasm causes a decrease in respiratory volume of the lungs and expiratory dyspnea (it is difficult for the child to exhale - inhale is normal). An allergic reaction in the bronchi contributes to the development of infectious inflammation, therefore such bronchitis in children is more often chronic, and it constantly recurs.
Symptoms of the disease
The main symptoms and treatment of allergic bronchitis in children are directly related to the noninfectious inflammation reaction developing in the bronchi. To establish the final diagnosis and accurate determination of the causative allergen, it is necessary to consult a pediatrician, allergist, and in some cases, a pulmonologist.
Signs of the development of an allergic form of bronchitis are generally similar to common cold bronchitis. Suspected pathology can be on the following symptoms:
- General malaise, weakness in a child.
- Increased overall body temperature. However, unlike bronchitis on the background of a respiratory infection with an allergic inflammation of the bronchi, the body temperature does not exceed 37 ° C.
- Dry rales, heard even at a distance, and shortness of breath.
- Dry cough that can manifest seizures.
- No signs of infection - redness of the throat, body aches, etc.
- Other manifestations of an allergic reaction are rash-like urticaria, itchy skin, allergic rhinitis.
Parents should note that the symptoms of allergic bronchitis are associated with the presence of an allergen in the air. They are observed during the flowering of weeds, with the appearance of a new pet, the change of laundry detergent, etc. When such a disease occurs for the first time, it is quite difficult to establish its true reason even for doctors. Repeated episodes, as well as a full diagnosis, allow us to establish the true cause of the disease, highlight its main symptoms and prescribe the correct and effective treatment. Otherwise, there is a high risk of transition of bronchial inflammation to bronchial asthma with a chronic course.
Diagnosis of the disease in a child
How to recognize and how to identify allergic bronchitis in a child will tell the doctor. To establish the diagnosis required:
- Inspection of the child and clarification of the main complaints of the little patient and his parents. Proper conversation between a doctor and a child over 2 years old helps establish a preliminary diagnosis.
- Auscultation and lung percussion. Determining the type of pulmonary rales and type of respiration is very important for assessing the type of inflammatory response, as well as the area of lesion of the bronchial tree.
- General blood analysis. In the case of allergic bronchitis reveals an increase in blood eosinophil levels.
- X-ray of the lungs and chest organs. Excludes pneumonia and other pathological processes that can cause cough and shortness of breath in a child.
Treatment of pathology in children
Parents are very concerned about how to cure bronchitis in a child, especially when it comes to the chronic form of the disease with frequent episodes of exacerbation. In infants and young children, respiratory failure may cause developmental delays, neurological problems, etc. On the net you can find a lot of information on how to treat bronchitis in a child 3 years and older. Often, it says that the treatment of such a disease is not complicated; a large list of traditional and alternative medicine is given. In fact, the process of not only diagnosing allergic bronchitis, but also treating it is extremely difficult and does not always lead to persistent remission.
Modern treatment of allergic varieties of bronchitis is divided into:
- Basic - it is directed directly to the elimination of the inflammatory reaction in the bronchi.
- Emergency - aimed at eliminating the effects of the inflammatory response, i.e. on already developed bronchospasm (it is manifested by coughing, difficulty exhaling).
- Symptomatic - with the addition of infectious inflammation.
Basic treatment includes:
- Antihistamines. Affect the release of histamine, a mediator that provokes an allergic reaction in the bronchi.
- Anti-inflammatory nonsteroidal drugs. Suppress the inflammatory allergic reaction in the bronchial wall.
- Glucocorticosteroids. They are used if antihistamines and nonsteroids are ineffective.
- With the established allergen, the body is desensitized - small doses of it are administered so that the immune system gradually stops inadequate response and “gets used” to it.
- Bronchodilators - a means of increasing the lumen of the respiratory tract.
- Antipyretic. They allow to stop the phenomenon of hyperthermia, as well as intoxication.
- Antitussive and expectorant drugs. They help relieve cough in a child, as well as contribute to the discharge of sputum.
- Antibiotics. Shown only when the temperature rises above 38.5 ° C.
Medications for bronchitis are often prescribed through inhalers and a nebulizer. These methods are good because they help deliver the drug directly to the pathological focus, bypassing the liver and systemic circulation. In the complex of therapy, physiotherapeutic methods and breathing exercises are also recommended.
Prevention and prognosis of recovery
For the prevention of allergic bronchitis, doctors recommend general measures to increase the activity of the immune system and avoid contact with allergens and infectious agents. When parents ask what to do if the child often suffers from bronchitis, pediatricians recommend a complete diagnosis of the body and establish the true cause of the disease. Such an approach will make it possible to fully heal a child under the age of 16, when he becomes an adult.
Thus, allergic bronchitis, in contrast to the "traditional" inflammation of the bronchi, has a number of important features:
- always associated with an allergen,
- manifested mainly by difficulty exhaling and coughing,
- in typical cases there are no intoxication signs (they appear only when an infection is attached),
- not antibiotics are effective, but anti-inflammatory drugs (antihistamines, nonsteroids, glucocorticosteroids).
What is allergic bronchitis in children?
The disease is associated with the development of allergic inflammation in the wall of the bronchus, followed by a narrowing of its lumen. Clinically characterized by paroxysmal dry cough, wheezing, shortness of breath.
Causes of allergic bronchitis:
- food allergens
- infectious allergens,
- pollen allergens,
- household allergens (house dust, house dust mites),
- epidermal allergens (epidermis and animal saliva, wool),
The role of viral infection in the development of allergic bronchitis in children
A significant risk factor for the development of allergy in a child is mother-borne infections during pregnancy. The fact is that viruses are able to rebuild the immune response of the fetus. SARS often accelerates or intensifies the development of obstructive bronchitis, bronchial asthma.
Especially unfavorable in terms of the development of respiratory allergies are respiratory syncytial infection, influenza, parainfluenza. In babies with allergic obstructive bronchitis, a viral infection can cause severe complications.
How to recognize allergic bronchitis in a child?
First of all, allergic bronchitis distinguishes paroxysmal dry cough with a whistle. The temperature for this disease is not typical. Symptoms of bronchitis are aggravated by the contact of the child with a causal allergen.
This can be a walk in the park during the flowering of trees and herbs, eating allergenic foods, sleeping on a feather pillow, and so on. With the exclusion of the allergen symptoms of the disease disappear.
It is no secret that in the air, no matter how clean it is, all sorts of viruses, bacteria and allergens are always present. Which with every breath rush into our body. On any part of the path, they can “attach” to the mucous tissue of the tissue, “settle” there, “settle down” and begin to multiply, thus causing an inflammatory process. If this occurs in the upper respiratory tract (nasopharynx, larynx), we get diseases such as rhinitis, laryngitis, pharyngitis, sinusitis, or for example, tonsillitis or tonsillitis. And it also happens that hostile viruses, microbes or allergens penetrate deeper - into the lower respiratory tract - that is, into the bronchi and the lungs themselves. In this case, the inflammations usually have such frightening names as bronchitis, pneumonia, etc.
Diagnosis of allergic bronchitis:
- Special allergy examination with the formulation of skin tests or blood tests for specific immunoglobulins E.
- Examination of respiratory function (FWD).
It is difficult for children under 5 to conduct a study of respiratory function, so they are given pulse oximetry, or a blood test for gas composition to assess the degree of respiratory failure.
Treatment of allergic bronchitis in children
Based on the main principles of allergy treatment and relief of bronchial obstruction in order to restore bronchial patency.
1. Elimination of cause-significant allergen:
- hypoallergenic life and diet,
- prevention of contact with pollen of plants during flowering,
- elimination of contact with domestic animals with epidermal hypersensitivity.
2. ASIT - allergen-specific immunotherapy.
The gold standard of allergy treatment today. The method allows to achieve immunity of the child's body to allergens.
The treatment is long and requires constant monitoring of the process. The essence of the method is the introduction into the organism of microdoses of the allergen in increasing sequence.
For children, the method of sublingual specific immunotherapy was specially invented (doses of allergen in droplets are taken under the tongue). In Russia, the use of drugs company "Stalliergen". Therapy can be performed on children from 5 years of age.
3. Antihistamines. Appointed courses for the period of exacerbation. Long-term uncontrolled intake of drugs in this group is undesirable.
4. Bronchodilator therapy. Here our main friend and helper is a nebulizer. Held inhalation with Berodual and Pulmicort for the relief of obstruction.
5. Expectorant drugs. Used in an inhalation form, you can also use the tablet form, syrups and solutions for ingestion.
Well proven drug Ambrobene. With inhalation use of the drug begins to act almost immediately, within a few minutes. Perfectly dilutes sputum, activates surfactant production.
6. Glycyram (ammonium glycyzirinate). Medicine prepared on the basis of licorice root. Available in tablet and granular forms. Reduces bronchospasm, stimulates the adrenal glands.
7. Anti-leukotriene preparations. It is known that during allergic processes in the body increases the production of leukotrienes. These substances are able to reduce the muscles of the bronchi, increase the secretion of mucus.
The group of these drugs is Singular. The drug is prescribed by the course of three months. The effect occurs during the first month of admission.
First aid for a child with an exacerbation of allergic bronchitis
An exacerbation of persistent cough, accompanied by whistling, and an increase in the number of respiratory movements (shortness of breath) indicates an exacerbation of obstructive bronchitis.
- Before the arrival of an ambulance or the arrival of a doctor, you can carry out inhalation with berodual via a nebulizer. Up to the age of 6, the dose of Berodual is 8–10 drops, the older children are prescribed 15–20 drops. Berodual must be diluted with two milliliters of saline
- with the ineffectiveness of inhalation with Berodual apply inhalations with Pulmicort at a dose of 0.25 mg / ml 2 times a day,
- Suprastin helps to stop an allergic reaction quickly,
- It is obligatory to exclude the contact of the child with the allergen, if it has been detected earlier.
Non-drug treatment of allergic bronchitis
Physiotherapy techniques are widely used in pediatrics. Treatment of allergic bronchitis is not an exception.
- Sinusoidal modulated currents (SMT) are used in the post-attack period of bronchitis. The course of therapy helps to improve the performance of respiratory function, positively rebuild pulmonary hemodynamics.
- Pulsed low-frequency electromagnetic field. Eliminates autonomic dysfunction, improves the immune system, improves the patency of the small bronchi.
- Dynamic electroneurostimulation (DENS). Reduces allergic inflammation in the airways. Good use in remission. The duration of the procedure is on average 20 minutes.
Children in remission will take a course of massage well. Moms can independently carry out acupressure baby. Acupressure techniques are simple and effective.
In this article, we reviewed the main risk factors for the development of allergic bronchitis in children, and discussed in detail the diagnosis and treatment. The main thing that parents should know is the basic principles of first aid in case of obstruction in a child, as well as the observance of the doctor’s instructions on the organization of hypoallergenic life.
The role of viral infection in the occurrence of pathology
At the moment, the role of viral infection in the development of allergic diseases is not fully understood. It is known that viruses that are tropic to the respiratory tract can damage the respiratory epithelium.
Thus, the chance of contact of foreign agents with immunity cells increases, which may serve as the beginning of an allergic reaction.
In addition, there is a theory that viruses, embedded in the genome of human cells, change their function. Thus, the genetic material of the virus causes the body to respond inadequately to certain antigens. The theory is unconfirmed.
Another possible mechanism of viral exposure is a constant immune load. That is, a large number of immune cells accumulate on the surface of the bronchi, which must respond to viruses. But these cells give a cross-immune response to other foreign agents.
Thus, particles whose antigenic structure has similarities with viruses become allergens. The theory is also not confirmed.
Another unfounded theory is intrauterine infection of the fetus with viruses. There is no evidence that mothers with viral infections during pregnancy are more likely to have children with allergic bronchitis. In addition, not all viruses are able to penetrate from mother to fetus.
Symptoms of the disease
Allergic bronchitis in children is manifested by several symptom complexes. It has signs of an allergic reaction and bronchitis.
It is possible to suspect the disease if the child has the following symptoms:
- Runny nose As a rule, it occurs first. The discharge from the nose is liquid and transparent, it becomes difficult for the child to breathe, he constantly needs to evacuate the contents of the nasal cavity.
- Sneezing Occurs with a cold. Upon contact with the allergen, the child often begins to sneeze. Thus, the body tries to get rid of the alien agent.
- Tearing. Allergen gets not only in the respiratory tract, but also in the eyes. They become red, puffy, the child as if constantly crying.
- Cough. It is characteristic of bronchitis. As a rule, sputum or not, or it appears after a few days - viscous and in small quantities. Dry, painful cough can occur at any time of the day, as a rule, it has a paroxysmal character.
- Dyspnea. Appears in the event that obstruction of the bronchial tract is expressed. The child becomes restless, any physical exertion, including crying and crying, leads to a significant increase in respiration.
- Respiratory failure. Occurs in severe cases. The fingertips of the child and the nasolabial triangle acquire a bluish tint. Especially well expressed during any physical activity. In young children, the equivalent of such a load may simply be the sucking of milk.
Symptoms of allergic bronchitis can vary in severity and appear in a different order. Not all signs may be present in one child.
Danger of pathology
At the moment, allergic bronchitis in children is regarded as an atypical form of atopic asthma. The disease has a chronic progressive course. This means that every time you make contact with an allergen, your child will experience symptoms of allergic bronchitis.
Over the years, they can only increase. Disappear completely allergic reaction can not.
Over time, allergic bronchitis can turn into typical attacks of atopic asthma. Every contact with the allergen will be accompanied by asthma attacks. This significantly reduces the quality of life and limits human activity.
Non-drug treatment of the disease
Non-drug methods can only be used in combination with the main treatment. These methods include various methods of physiotherapy. They are prescribed during remission in order to reduce the risk of an exacerbation.
In addition, physical therapy is important for these children. Particular attention should be paid to exercises that develop the muscles of the upper shoulder girdle, since they are auxiliary respiratory muscles. Also widely used breathing exercises, in which the child is taught to properly inhale and exhale.
Sometimes, only by moving to the mountains or on the coast, you can achieve a complete cure of allergic bronchitis. It is also favorable for the state of these children to rest at the sea, because salt water helps to restore the respiratory epithelium damaged by allergic inflammation.
Causes of Allergic Reactions
Factors of allergic bronchitis:
- Pollen and other parts of plants
- Household chemicals and body care products,
- Vaccinations against infections
- Cold or heat
- Bacteria and viruses,
- Dead dust mites.
Treatment of symptoms of bronchitis is ineffective if the cause of the allergy is not identified. It is important to bear in mind that the body may produce cross-allergic reactions. The main therapeutic measures should be aimed at their elimination.
Children born during the winter months are more likely to suffer from allergic bronchitis. This is due to the fact that they rarely walk in the fresh air. Therefore, if there is no possibility to go outside, it is necessary to carry out airing and wet cleaning in the room where the child is constantly located.
The primary task for effective treatment is to identify and eliminate contact with the allergen. The treatment is:
- Acceptance of antihistamines. It can be tablets, syrups, sprays, injections. The doctor will prescribe the necessary medicine, taking into account the age of the child and symptoms of the disease. Modern antiallergic drugs do not have a hypnotic effect, are not toxic to internal organs. Take them up to 1 week, then, with a steady improvement overturned. If a child does not have a newly diagnosed allergic obstructive bronchitis caused by a reaction to the annual flowering of any plants, it is advisable to start taking antihistamines when the plants are still in the bud stage.
- Reception of means for detoxification for fast removal of an allergen from an organism. It may be filtered, activated carbon, enterosgel, etc., these drugs have no restrictions, but it is worth remembering that they need to be taken at different times with other drugs. Medicines are adsorbents and can significantly reduce the effect of other tablets.
- Expectorant remedies in the form of syrups are a more convenient form of intake for children.
- Bronchodilators in aerosols - well expand the bronchi and reduce spasms.
- Inhalation with mineral water, bronchodilators, alkaline solutions, infusions of medicinal herbs. When the temperature rises, only nebulizers inhalation are possible, thermal procedures are excluded.
When allergic bronchitis contraindicated aroma oils, warming ointment on herbal ingredients.
- Physiotherapy procedures aimed at reducing obstruction, inflammation and increased metabolic processes in tissues.
- В более старшем возрасте можно провести лечение аллергенами, на которые наблюдается реакция. The doctor in small doses introduces an allergen. The immune system begins to work in the direction of the production of antibodies to the stimulus, the patient, as it were, is being vaccinated against allergies.
- Symptoms of obstructive nature facilitates an increase in the consumption of warm drinks.
Making life easier for a child with allergies
Allergic obstructive bronchitis requires special conditions from the environment of the child, reducing the number of relapses.
- Hypoallergenic diet. Food should not be scanty, while maintaining calorie content, you must choose foods that the child does not have allergies. It is important to consider the possibility of cross-allergies.
- In the apartment where the child lives, to carry out daily wet cleaning, minimize the presence of carpets in the premises. The air must be fresh (airing) and moderately humid (using humidifiers).
- Parents should stop smoking in the room where the child is.
- Minimize the use of perfumes and other products that have a pungent smell. Often they are the provocateur of obstructive phenomena.
- Regularly harden the baby to improve the immune system.
- Observe drinking mode: a sufficient amount of fluid normalizes the body, at the beginning of the exacerbation of the disease contributes to better removal of sputum.
- In the season of flowering allergen try not to go out.
Allergic bronchitis is a lifelong affliction that, with a negative dynamic, can develop into bronchial asthma. If you seriously approach the issue of treatment and lifestyle, it is possible to overcome the disease and it will manifest itself very rarely.
What it is?
Allergic reaction, which develops as a result of the child’s contact with the allergen substance, may manifest differently.
In some cases, a prolonged inflammatory process that affects the organs of the respiratory system, in particular the bronchi, develops in the child’s body.
Their nerve endings are affected, involuntary contraction of muscles in a given area develops, the blood circulation process is disturbed.
This leads to characteristic signs of disease (the child begins to have a strong cough, most often dry, paroxysmal, breathing is difficult, while listening to specific rales).
How to distinguish from the usual?
It should be borne in mind that the cause of normal bronchitis is ingested infection.
Allergic bronchitis, in turn, develops due to an allergic reaction caused by contact with an irritating element (allergen).
When infectious bronchitis occurs characteristic clinical picture, significant deterioration of health, severe hyperthermia. In allergic bronchitis, these signs are absent.
That is, the baby’s well-being does not deteriorate (except for periods of coughing), there may be a slight increase in body temperature.
However, an accurate diagnosis can only be made after consultation with an allergist, which assigns a small patient special laboratory tests (skin test), allowing to identify hypersensitivity to a particular irritant element.
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Who is at risk?
Allergic bronchitis develops in a child, regardless of age and gender. The main criterion is the propensity for allergies.
Most often this manifests itself at a very early age. At risk are also children living in adverse conditions habitat.
Features of the flow
Allergic bronchitis develops as a manifestation of an allergic reaction to a substance – irritant.
As a result of the child’s contact with such a substance, in the area of the bronchi, certain changes develop at the cellular level.
In particular, the cells begin to secrete a particular substance, increasing in size. This leads to edema of the bronchial mucosa, the development of the inflammatory process. Disease has a protracted nature course, a tendency to frequent relapses.
Unfortunately, it is impossible to fully eliminate the cause of the pathology, therefore, to alleviate the child’s condition, to prevent the risk of relapse, it is necessary to identify the allergen as early as possible and minimize contact with it.
Forms of the disease
Depending on how clearly the clinical picture of the disease is expressed, which areas of the bronchial mucosa are affected, several forms of pathology are distinguished:
- atopic. Characterized by the rapid development of the clinical picture, the brightness of the symptoms. Diagnosed during bronchoscopy,
- obstructive. This form is considered quite dangerous, since the inflammatory process extends to the laryngeal area, which causes its swelling. As a result, the lumen of the larynx narrows, the breathing process becomes difficult. A patient (especially younger children) may develop asphyxia, oxygen deprivation, with all the negative consequences that this entails.
- allergic tracheobronchitis. The inflammatory process in this case takes place in the area of the bronchi and trachea,
- infectious-allergic bronchitis. It is characterized by a blurred clinical picture, with the result that the disease is difficult to diagnose. It has a sluggish, but protracted course.
Read about the methods of food allergy treatment in children in our article.
Symptoms and signs
Allergic bronchitis causes disruption of the respiratory process, and this, in turn, may lead to various consequencesaffecting the state of the child’s body in the most negative way.
Therefore, it is very important for parents to determine in time the presence of the disease. And for that need to have an idea about the clinical manifestations of pathology. Symptoms of the disease are as follows:
- The child complains of feeling unwell, becomes sluggish, irritable.
- There is hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating), characteristic of hyperthermia, although with allergic bronchitis the body temperature does not rise (or rises slightly).
- The child feels itching and discomfort in the nose, sore throat.
- There is a dry cough, worse at night.
- Viscosity of sputum changes. This is manifested in the fact that the child's breathing is complicated, accompanied by specific wheezing.
Complications and consequences
In the absence of proper treatment, allergic bronchitis can lead to various unpleasant consequences and complications, dangerous to the health of the child. So, there are cases when allergic bronchitis caused the development of asthma.
In addition, long-term inflammatory processes that develop in the body during a disease can also affect other internal organs, in particular, the lungs.
This leads to the development of pneumonia - a dangerous disease that may end the death of the baby.
What is the danger of allergic obstructive bronchitis in children? It is known that the development of the obstructive form of allergic bronchitis significantly affects the organs of the respiratory system.
In particular, edema of the mucous membrane of the larynx develops, which leads to a narrowing of its lumen, impedes the flow of oxygen into the body.
This leads to such dangerous phenomena as suffocation, oxygen starvation. If this happens for a long time, the internal organs and systems of the patient are affected, and their work is impaired.
Help with the attack
Coughing and choking in allergic bronchitis can be quite strong, so it is important for parents of allergic children to know how to give first aid to the baby, to alleviate his condition. For this you need:
- Soothe baby. A child during an attack may experience fear, panic, cry a lot. This further aggravates the condition. If there are no contraindications, the baby can be given some kind of sedative.
- Inhalation with the use of special tools, which include substances glucocorticoid group, salbutamol.
The use of special inhalers gives a noticeable positive effect, since the active components fall directly into the area of the bronchi, stopping manifestations of an attack.
For the treatment of allergic bronchitis used such methods of physiotherapy as:
- hypoxytherapy - the child inhalation of special air, poor in oxygen content,
- halotherapy - the use of special artificially created salt climate, in which the child is placed for a certain time,
- UHF exposure - allows you to restore the body's defenses, eliminate inflammatory reactions,
- UV irradiation - helps to eliminate inflammation.
A positive therapeutic effect may be the stay of a child suffering from allergic bronchitis. in special climatic conditions (in specialized sanatoriums).
It is important to remember that the sanatorium is best to choose in the climate zone, familiar to the baby.
Otherwise, the child’s condition can be aggravated, since such factors as acclimatization and adaptation to new conditions can lead to negative consequences.
Herbal decoctions (chamomile, coltsfoot) contribute to the dilution of sputum, eliminate inflammation, facilitating coughing. In addition, herbal decoction soothes the child, relieves anxiety.
Use popular recipes as an independent method of treatment it is impossibleas an effective therapy should be comprehensive. Herbal decoctions must be taken orally in small quantities (¼ cup 3-4 times a day).
Features of care and mode of the day
A child suffering from allergic bronchitis needs special care. So, it is recommended:
- If on the street dry, hot, or vice versa, frosty weather, the child is best not to go out. This also applies to the flowering period of the plant when seasonal allergies are increasing.
- In the room where the child is located, it is necessary do wet cleaning as often as possible. It is recommended to remove items from the room that most often accumulate dust (soft toys, carpets, heavy curtains). It is important to monitor the humidity in the room. It is best to purchase a special humidifier.
- At night, near the bed of the baby, you can put a small container filled with water with the addition of 1-2 drops essential oil.
- Compliance hypoallergenic diet - An important condition for successful treatment. All foods that can trigger an allergic reaction (milk, honey, nuts, seafood, smoked meats) should be excluded from the baby’s diet.
- Reception required vitamin preparations. This helps to strengthen the natural defenses of the body of the baby.
With the development of civilization, diseases arise that have not previously been diagnosed. Allergy is a previously unknown disease, which now suffers a large number of people. Very often children are exposed to it. Allergic bronchitis is widespread among kids. If such a diagnosis is made to a child, then it must be under the supervision of a physician to avoid the occurrence of complications.
Symptoms of allergic bronchitis in children
The factors that are present in children with allergic bronchitis appear brightly. Symptoms of an emerging disease are coughing. It can be characterized by the following features:
- seizures that are in reflex spasms of the respiratory tract,
- occur at night, but sometimes can occur during the day,
- in the later stages of the disease, sharp spasms can cause sputum separation,
- sputum is a light, thick enough mucus,
- coughing can be caused by stress, exercise, and negative emotions.
In addition, cough, the disease in children can be accompanied by sore throat, burning sensation in the nose. Children have a negative effect of bronchitis in an emotional sense. They become moody and irritable. In children, appetite and sleep deteriorate. All this weakens their immunity even more.
Symptoms of allergic bronchitis are manifested not only by coughing, but also have other features:
- difficulty breathing out than breathing in,
- dry rales, in some cases - wet.
A characteristic feature of bronchitis are symptoms that arise and stop completely unexpectedly. After several bouts of coughing that may disturb him several times a day, the child feels an improvement in his condition. There is a feeling of complete recovery.
Allergic bronchitis in children is a relapsing course. Exacerbations may occur several times a month. Their duration ranges from 2 days to several weeks.
If untreated, the acute form of bronchitis in a child becomes chronic. At night, there is an increase in cough, but this is not always the case. The danger of the disease lies in the fact that over time, bronchitis can turn into bronchial asthma.
Allergic obstructive bronchitis in children
Obstructive bronchitis can manifest itself in the following forms:
The most dangerous occurrence of bronchitis in acute and chronic form for children under 3 years of age.
The main factors causing bronchitis:
- structural features of the respiratory system of the baby,
- health status before the onset of the disease,
- the influence of the external environment.
In turn, the first factor includes some features in the form:
- the anatomical structure of the diaphragm in a child,
- narrow airways in babies compared to older children,
- finding the bronchial tissue in an enlarged state.
The second factor includes:
- predisposition to allergies,
- prematurity of the newborn,
- perinatal infections,
- early weaning of the infant,
- colds in children under one year,
- weakening of the protective functions of the body,
- genetic predisposition.
The environmental factors include:
- passive smoking,
- environmental pollution.
The inflammatory process that causes the appearance of bronchitis can occur due to one or several reasons. However, direct contact with an allergen can trigger the disease.
Children under 4 years very often suffer from obstructive bronchitis due to diseases of ARVI.
The main signs of the disease:
- breathing, which is accompanied by wheezing and whistling,
- paroxysmal cough, sometimes leading to vomiting,
- lack of temperature
- it is easier for the baby to breathe out than to breathe.
The disease begins after contact of the child with an irritant or without obvious reasons in the case when there is an increased sensitivity to viruses.
With obstructive bronchitis, children may experience acute choking or coughing attacks. The patient should be helped:
- when an attack occurs in a child under 3 years old, you need to call an ambulance,
- eliminate interaction with the stimulus,
- rinse throat nose
- provide fresh air to the room
- unzip the clothes
- make inhalation if the diagnosis of bronchitis is confirmed and treatment is prescribed,
- in the absence of an inhaler, take the baby to the bathroom and turn on hot water,
- give the child an antihistamine and expectorant medicine,
- drink a warm liquid (tea, milk or compote).
When an attack does not stop for half an hour, it is imperative to contact a hospital.
When treating allergic obstructive bronchitis, it is necessary to:
- observe drinking regime,
- moisten the room of a sick child,
- keep calm
- carry out inhalation with saline.
To facilitate the condition of children, it is recommended to do massage (drainage, vibration).
Excellent results showed special exercises for the respiratory system.
Drug treatment for obstructive bronchitis includes:
- bronchodilators (Salbutamol, Berodual, Eufillin),
- glucocorticosteroids (butesonide, mometasone, beclomethasone).
Therapy for obstructive bronchitis is directed to:
- preventing contact with the irritant that caused the allergy,
- reduction of symptoms of the disease,
- removal from the bronchi of sputum.
Prevention of allergic bronchitis
Preventive measures in children are directed to the elimination of the allergen and the treatment of respiratory pathologies.To reduce the effect of the stimulus you need:
- constantly carry out wet cleaning in the room of a sick child,
- change your baby’s bedding at least once;
- remove indoor flowers, carpets and soft toys from the child’s room,
- refuse to keep a dog, cat, hamster, parrot in the apartment,
- be sure to destroy cockroaches and other harmful insects,
- exclude from the child's food products that cause allergies.
The most important method of preventing allergic bronchitis and excluding its development into bronchial asthma in children is to ensure safe living conditions, timely diagnosis and treatment of the disease.