Yellow body during pregnancy


You have probably heard that every month a woman experiences all 4 seasons. Her hormonal background constantly fluctuates, her mood and well-being change all the time, and, as my colleague says, cats and children run away from her, which is not surprising.

Many of us do not even know what processes occur in the female body every time - from month to month. And all this for the sake of the one and only - possible conception.

We know that normally every 21-35 days in the woman's body begins ovulation - the release of an egg from a grapheus vesicle (mature follicle). She leaves her home in the hope of meeting a viable sperm and becoming fertilized. And if this does not happen, then next month another egg repeats the same fate, of which there are tens or hundreds of thousands in the ovaries.

Ovulation is not the only preparatory stage on the path to a possible conception. After the rupture of a follicle, a body is formed from its granular cells, which by the color of the substance contained inside is called yellow. The corpus luteum is a temporary endocrine gland in the female body. Its main function is the production of female sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone). Progesterone, also called a pregnancy hormone, creates favorable conditions for the implantation of the blastocyst into the uterine cavity and further bearing of the fetus. It suppresses the contractile activity of the uterine muscles and prepares the endometrium for further active growth. At the same time, progesterone prevents the onset of the next ovulation, activates the breast-producing zones of the mammary glands, in a certain way influences the nervous system of the expectant mother, preparing it for bearing and childbirth.

If there is not enough progesterone in the body, then the woman cannot either become pregnant (the fertilized egg does not cling to the uterus) or carry the baby (the unprepared endometrium rejects the body alien to him).

Misconceptions about the yellow body

Due to lack of knowledge and information, some women are sometimes mistaken about the corpus luteum. And its functional features.
The most common misconceptions are:

  1. The corpus luteum is a sign of ovulation. In fact, this is not the case, since this endocrine organ does not disappear before the onset of menstruation. In addition, on the day when the egg leaves the follicle, there is still no yellow body.
  2. After its aging, the corpus luteum forms scars on the ovaries. This is actually the case, however, such a natural biological process does not affect the fertility of a woman until the onset of menopause. As gynecologists say, there is a percentage of women who have these scars heal over time.
  3. The corpus luteum turns into a cyst. This happens only in cases where the temporary gland has not completed its development in a timely manner. If the size of the cystic formation exceeds 3 cm, then it requires medical intervention and timely removal.
  4. The corpus luteum exists throughout pregnancy and disappears only after childbirth. In reality, everything is a little different and the endocrine gland exists until the placenta is formed in the second trimester of pregnancy.
  5. The appearance of the corpus luteum always talks about pregnancy. It is not always so. As already mentioned, the corpus luteum may appear outside of pregnancy, forming on the day of ovulation and existing before the onset of menstruation. If fertilization has occurred, then it exists until the second trimester.

Yellow body on ultrasound

On the monitor of the ultrasound examination apparatus, the yellow body has the appearance of a small sacciform process, located near the ovary. If it is not visible at the time of inspection, then this may indicate diseases of the reproductive organs. By the way, delayed menstruation can also be the cause.

If successful fertilization occurs and the embryo develops, then the corpus luteum during pregnancy at the earliest periods has a size of about 1.8 cm. When the doctor fixes more than 2.2 cm, there is no ovulation and there is no growth of the follicle, it means that we are talking about a follicular cyst. Such a symptom is not a reason for immediate response, it is enough to observe it for several cycles and it is quite likely that this problem will resolve during the menstrual period.

Ultrasound diagnosis, as a rule, can be carried out through the anterior abdominal wall and with the introduction of a vaginal sensor. In preparation for the procedure, the patient must empty the bladder.

Yellow body size:

  • from 1.8 to 2.2 cm are normal parameters, when the chances of successfully becoming pregnant are very high,
  • 2.1-3 cm - during pregnancy, such process sizes indicate a normally occurring process. Outside of conception, a follicular cyst can manifest itself,
  • more than 4 cm is an obvious sign of a cyst.

The luteal gland is visualized as an oval sac in the ovary. If not found, it means that there are problems in the endocrine system. When the fetus is visible on the monitor, but there is no yellow body, the threat of termination of pregnancy.

There are cases when the corpus luteum is too small and there is a risk that progesterone will be produced too little. To prevent miscarriage, a pregnant woman should more often take a blood test for hormones so that the gynecologist can control the amount of this hormone.

In order to save the child, the attending gynecologist must conduct hormone therapy with progesterone.

Problems in the development of the corpus luteum

In medical practice, there are only two main causes of disorders associated with the corpus luteum during pregnancy: cystic formation and the lack of activity of the corpus lutea, fraught with miscarriage.

Such a pathological case, as hypofunction, can be a serious complication and threatened abortion.

Its main features are:

  • bleeding,
  • highlighting brown daub,
  • tone,
  • detachment of the ovum.

If the ultrasound doctor confirmed this diagnosis, then the reduced activity of the yellow body is corrected with the help of drug therapy and, as a rule, the patient is prescribed progesterone. Taking the drug on schedule and in the correct dosage, you can stabilize the condition and the fetus will continue its intrauterine development.

Considering another problem of pregnancy - ectopic conception, it can be noted that in this case the corpus luteum produces an extremely low amount of hormones. This allows you to timely identify the pathology and take appropriate measures. The corpus luteum, located in the ovary, has a direct effect on pregnancy and is responsible for the formation of the placenta, as well as the development of the embryo.

If a yellow body cyst was detected in a patient outside of pregnancy, then it is quite possible to conceive a child, since ovulation may occur in another ovary.

Cystic education during pregnancy

Suspicions of a cyst in the corpus luteum appear when the patient undergoes an ultrasound diagnosis, when a specialist examines the size of the endocrine gland.

A cyst of the yellow body during pregnancy is not dangerous to the health of a pregnant woman and her baby, but the expectant mother may feel characteristic pain in the lower abdomen. Pain may increase during intercourse and physical exertion, so care should be taken to avoid rupture of the cyst or its twisting.

However, against this background, the neoplasm is able to disappear on its own at the beginning of the second trimester or after the birth of a baby. Sometimes it happens that against the background of the formation of the placenta in the second trimester of pregnancy, the corpus luteum continues to increase. In this case, it can turn into a cyst.

Even when pregnancy is not visible, an ultrasound scan may show a cyst, which is formed from the endocrine process in the place where the follicle has burst. Such a disease, as a rule, does not bother a woman and basically she does not even know about the appearance of a cyst. An ultrasound examination is very necessary, since the corpus luteum helps to assess the general condition of the patient's reproductive system, whether it is possible to conceive a child and how the pregnancy proceeds in general. In conclusion, it should be summarized that the formation of the corpus luteum in the ovary of a woman is a normal reproductive process, which should occur every cycle. The larger the corpus luteum, the better the pregnancy will be. In this case, preventive examinations and the attending gynecologist should be regular.