Secondary infertility in women: causes, diagnosis, treatment


Secondary infertility is the inability to conceive and bear the fruit in the presence of one or more children. Secondary infertility is possible after unsuccessful birth, miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy and abortion. In men, it is diagnosed after 6 months of unsuccessful sexual acts without contraception.

The couple are diagnosed after a year of attempts, provided that no problems have previously occurred. The concept of primary infertility among the population is more widespread, because in this case it means serious injuries - the inability to have children at all. Secondary infertility occurs at least, but attracts less attention because of the presence of children.

Due to the fact that secondary infertility implies the presence of a child, even the partners themselves often ignore the problem. The aging of the body leads to the fact that infertility turns into an absolute inability to conceive a child again.

With the carelessness of relatives, friends, and even doctors, such couples suffer from psychological problems no less than they are initially fruitless.

Secondary infertility in women causes

  1. Age. After 30 years in the body of a woman changes occur that affect fertility. Therefore, starting from 35, many of them are fruitless. It is not necessary to postpone the birth of a child, because with age the chances of miscarriage increase. In some women, the sex cells are so exhausted that they prevent even conception.

Abortion. Postpartum complications and abortions affect reproductive function. Repeated delivery through caesarean section, followed by bleeding, inflammation and illiterate abortion often lead to infertility.

The fact is that surgical intervention can injure the endometrium of the uterus - the most important to do for conception and fetal development. A healthy endometrium thickens during the period of ovulation, ready to fix the egg, but the damaged layer becomes scarred and loses sensitivity. Hormones.

Disruptions in the endocrine system are one of the common causes of infertility. This may be a deficiency or excessive production of hormones by the thyroid gland, large amounts of prolactin, the predominance of free male sex hormones, and the malfunction of the ovaries.

Infertility is one of the side effects of hormonal disruption, along with polycystic, endometriosis (proliferation of the uterine wall), tumors, disruptions of the menstruation cycle. Today, the endocrine problems of infertility are successfully treated. Gynecological diseases.

Acute and chronic pathologies caused by infections can occur without symptoms, but cause infertility. These include inflammation of the fallopian tubes, cervix, ovary, dysbacteriosis. Women with tumor formations (cysts, myomas, polyps) are at risk. This reason is eliminated with timely and proper treatment.

Causes of secondary infertility in men

  1. Varicocele or varicose veins of the seed channel. Over the years, the disease becomes the cause of 55-80% of men diagnosed with secondary infertility. It is noteworthy that pathology arises for many reasons and therefore the chance to get hold of it is enormous. This may be a genetic predisposition, stress on the muscles, tumors in the peritoneum, systemic failures.

Infectious and inflammatory processes in the genitals. Sex with a large number of women is fraught with regular problems with the genital tract. Abnormal processes in the testes, urinary tract and prostate gland contribute to the development of infertility.

It is necessary to avoid or promptly treat epididymitis (inflammation of the epididymis), prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland), orchitis (inflammation of the testes), vesiculitis (inflammation of the seminal vesicles).

  • Hypothermia Low temperatures are extremely detrimental to the male genital organs.
  • Injuries.

    Damage to the external and internal genital organs (especially injuries to the scrotum) can lead to infertility. Internal damage caused by surgical instruments.

    Common causes

    1. Incompatibility partners. Sometimes a man and a woman do not match each other on an immunological level. Often the cause cannot be clarified, then the case is called unclear (unexplained). Incompatibility may occur at the conception of the first child (primary infertility) or after the birth of several children (secondary infertility).

    Medicine is trying to deal with such causes, but the treatment is always difficult.

  • Acceptance of hormonal drugs, the effects of radiation and chemotherapy.
  • Bad habits.
  • Improper diet and, as a result, obesity.
  • Stress and chronic neurosis.
  • Bad environmental situation.

  • Difficult working conditions (pollution, chemicals, temperature extremes).
  • Signs of secondary infertility

    The main symptom of infertility is the absence of pregnancy. Symptoms of infertility are called symptoms of the disease that caused it. In women, they are always more pronounced than in partners.

    Failures in the menstrual cycle signal violations in the body. Since women's health depends on the regularity of menstruation, you should closely monitor all the nuances of this process. It is recommended to keep a diary of all menstrual cycles, because the reproductive function depends on the duration of each of them.

    The most common cause is a deficiency of the luteal phase, during which the corpus luteum matures, producing hormones for pregnancy. With a short phase, an insufficient amount of progesterone is produced, the epidermis in the uterus does not have time to prepare, and the fertilized egg just does not fix.

    Problems with the ovaries are expressed by acne, short-term menstruation, obesity. Obstruction of the fallopian tubes can be diagnosed by abdominal pain, discomfort during intercourse, yellow discharge and difficult menstruation.

    Infectious and inflammatory processes cause itching, swelling of the external genital organs, discharge, pain during urination.

    Hormonal disorders lead to exhaustion or obesity, abnormal growth of hair, deterioration of vision, disruptions in the menstrual cycle in women.

    Signs of secondary male infertility are almost always revealed after diagnosis. The fact of infertility can be identified years after the development of the pathology.


    Identification of secondary infertility takes place in several stages, including such studies:

    1. General blood analysis. Gives a simplified picture of the state of the body, but helps to identify the centers of many symptoms.
    2. Tests for infectious diseases. In the diagnosis of infertility, syphilis, chlamydia, hepatitis, cytomegalovirus, herpes should be excluded.
    3. Tests for hormonal abnormalities. You need to make sure that important female hormones are produced correctly (lutein, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, prolactin, thyroid hormones).
    4. Blood clotting test.
    5. Ultrasound of the pelvis, peritoneum, thyroid gland. A man should undergo an ultrasound scrotum.
    6. Colposcopy (examination of the vagina and cervix through the introduction of an optical device).
    7. Spermogram allows you to determine the quality and quantity of sperm.
    8. Studies of hereditary deviations. The most effective method is spouse karyotyping. He is studying the blood of partners for chromosomal abnormalities. Karyotyping also allows you to determine the percentage of the probability of genetic abnormalities in the fetus.
    9. Sonogisterography - ultrasound examination of the fallopian tubes.
    10. Hysterosalpingography - x-ray of the fallopian tubes.
    11. Postcoital test or Shuvarsky's test - determination of sperm motility in the cervix. Conflict between partners at this level can lead to infertility.

    Secondary infertility: treatment and methods of artificial insemination

    Getting rid of secondary infertility is to remove the root cause. If no abnormalities were diagnosed, it is worthwhile to establish a regular sex life based on the calendar of the woman's menstrual cycle. Basal temperature measurement and ovulation testing will help in this matter. The day when the morning basal temperature is close to 37.2 ° is considered the best for conception.

    It is necessary to carry out prevention of inflammation and timely treat existing ones. Secondary infertility due to hormonal disorders is treated with the help of special preparations, which are selected individually. Also complete correction of a hormonal background is made.

    If there are adhesions, cysts, fibroids, then laparoscopy is applied (surgical dissection, cauterization and removal). In parallel, it is recommended to take anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Artificial insemination with sperm of a partner or donor is used in the case of immunological incompatibility (when spermatozoa are unable to function properly in the uterine environment).

    Greater chances of success are given by IVF - in vitro fertilization, when the process is performed artificially and the embryos are placed in the uterus after the connection. IVF recommended for obstruction of the fallopian tubes.

    The procedure makes it possible to carry out all stages of the development of the embryo, which are impossible in the fallopian tube of a woman with obstruction.

    Most of the cases of artificial insemination still accounts for IVF. With the ineffectiveness of all measures resorted to surrogate motherhood - carrying the child from the egg and sperm of the spouses in the womb of another woman.

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    Infertility 2 degrees in women: what is it, what is the difference between secondary infertility and primary infertility, diagnosis, treatment, whether folk remedies help

    Sometimes a woman can not get pregnant despite the fact that conception in her life at least once, but took place. This condition is called secondary infertility. For diagnosis, it does not matter whether the first pregnancy has ended in childbirth or not.

    At first glance it may seem that grade 2 infertility is not such a hopeless state as the first sterility. However, for a couple it is no less tragic.

    If the woman’s life has already been pregnant, but now it’s impossible to conceive a baby, then you need to find the reasons that triggered the changes. Sometimes the problem is solved quickly and easily.

    Main reasons

    Finding the causes of secondary infertility in women is an important point when choosing treatment tactics. The main goal of diagnostic and therapeutic manipulations is pregnancy.

    It is important for both partners to undergo a detailed examination and to know the state of reproductive health.

    From the completeness of the clinical and diagnostic picture depends on how correctly the method of treatment will be chosen and how quickly the desired conception will come.

    Inflammatory diseases

    The leading place in the list of causes of impaired fertility in men and women is occupied by infectious-inflammatory processes in the pelvis.

    The lion's share of infections is sexually transmitted, but some may occur due to decreased immunity, for example, bacterial vaginosis.

    Without presenting a particular threat at the very beginning, the pathology spreads through the vagina (vaginosis, vaginitis) to the cervical canal (cervicitis, endocervicitis), and then passes into the uterus (metritis, endometritis).

    The culmination of ascending inflammation is the defeat of the appendages (salpingitis, oophoritis, adnexitis). The body, trying to protect itself, secretes a large amount of mucus, resulting in adhesions between the organs. Tube infertility often occurs due to hydrosalpinx - accumulation of fluid in the fallopian tube.

    Inflammation of the uterine lining often occurs after an abortion. If a woman cannot become pregnant in the future, she will be diagnosed with infertility 2. Adhesions after cesarean section may also prevent conception in the future, causing displacement of the ovaries and fallopian tubes.

    Hormonal disorders

    Sometimes secondary infertility in women occurs due to hormonal imbalance. You must understand that everything in the body is interrelated.

    The work of the thyroid and pancreas, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system and the ovaries is regulated by the mutual secretion of hormones. When a violation of the functions of a change in another.

    Grade 2 sterility in women can cause hormonal diseases such as:

    • endometriosis,
    • polycystic
    • hypo- and hyperthyroidism,
    • endometrial hypo- and hyperplasia,
    • insulin resistance and others.

    If, when it is impossible to become pregnant, the patient experiences irregularities in the menstrual cycle and ovulation is absent, then it is safe to speak of hormonal disturbances.

    Secondary infertility is determined in every fourth woman after 35 years. The most favorable period for conception is the time period from 20 to 30 years. With each subsequent year, the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the eggs in the ovaries deteriorate.

    Modern women are in no hurry to acquire offspring. Delaying pregnancy until better times, they are engaged in a career or simply enjoy life. When giving birth to a firstborn at 30 and later, couples think about their second baby closer to their 40th birthday. Unfortunately, with the age of a woman the probability of a successful conception and the birth of children without pathologies is directly proportional to the decrease.

    Immunological incompatibility of spouses

    One of the immunological causes of secondary infertility is the formation of antisperm antibodies in a woman or a man. Doctors are actively studying this process to this day. Under certain factors, it is assumed that the genetic material is found in the body’s immune system.

    The latter perceives cells as alien, since they contain only half the set of chromosomes (23 instead of 46). As a result, the body begins to struggle with its own reproductive system. Curing immunological infertility is not always obtained in traditional ways. Often couples have to resort to assisted reproductive technologies.


    An important role in the process of conception is played by lifestyle, nutrition, physical activity and the mode of partners. Bad habits are not formed overnight. They come with age.

    First, pregnancy occurs without difficulty, but after a while, the woman is diagnosed with secondary infertility. According to statistics, women who regularly drink alcohol, the inability to conceive is formed five times more often.

    Even if the pregnancy comes, then under the influence of negative factors, it may be interrupted in early or late periods.

    Secondary infertility in women: signs and treatment

    Secondary infertility is a pathology, as a result of which a woman with one or more children cannot become pregnant again.

    In addition, secondary infertility is also considered to be the situation when, for the first time, a woman had a failed birth, an ectopic pregnancy, a miscarriage or an abortion. This pathology can be diagnosed in both women and men.


    Secondary infertility is a treacherous disease that women are subject to at any age. In order to get rid of the disease, it is already required a year after unsuccessful attempts that do not lead to the conception to go to a medical institution, since the earlier the disease and its causes are identified, and the complex treatment is prescribed, the more favorable the prognosis will be.

    Causes and methods of treatment of secondary infertility in women

    Every year the number of couples who cannot become parents increases, although they live a regular sex life.

    There are 2 types of infertility: primary, when a young woman has never become pregnant, and secondary infertility, if there is already one child - the firstborn, but it does not work to conceive 2 children after 12 months of regular sex life.

    But it happens worse when the first pregnancy occurred, but for some reason it was not possible to save it, and getting pregnant again becomes a problem - they also consider secondary infertility.

    What diagnostic measures can be taken?

    After a year has passed, but it never happened to get pregnant, do not despair. You need to visit a gynecologist, who will offer to be examined to determine the cause of secondary infertility in a woman.

    Approximately 3 months before the visit, it is necessary to draw up a schedule for the beginning and end of menstruation, and also to conduct a test for determining ovulation, measuring the basal temperature, inserting a thermometer into the anus. It is desirable to do this procedure immediately after waking up, when the menstruation is over. All data is recorded in a notebook. When ovulation occurs, the thermometer will show the temperature from 37 ° C to 37.2 ° C.

    A gynecologist can take smears for the presence of various infections in the body: mycoplasmosis, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, herpes viruses, and others. These microorganisms cause inflammatory processes that affect the conception of a child.

    The next stage of diagnosis is to identify the activity of hormones. Для этого сдается кровь из вены, обязательно натощак на 5 — 7 день менструального цикла.

    Проверяются нормы содержания половых гормонов, гипофиза, яичников, надпочечников и щитовидной железы в организме женщины.

    A visit to the ultrasound room can help identify the many causes of infertility.

    The ovaries will be checked, as well as the phased state of the surface layer of the uterus - the endometrium, and the time of maturation of the follicle.

    To detect the biological compatibility of spouses, the presence of antisperm antibodies is checked, they may not pass spermatozoa to the egg cell.

    In addition, studies are carried out with the help of modern devices of the internal state of the uterus, the patency of the tubes is estimated. Thanks to laparoscopy, it is possible not only to identify all possible causes of infertility, but also to eliminate them - it is to separate the adhesions, remove the cyst.

    In the course of the diagnosis, the health of the man is checked. You will need to visit a urologist, to pass sperm for analysis, to undergo an ultrasound examination, to undergo blood tests. Only then do the doctors decide what is best to take and how to treat.

    Treatment of secondary infertility

    Fortunately, in most cases, a woman can cure some diseases and eliminate the causes of infertility. This is possible with accurate diagnosis and professional therapy.

      When determining thyroid dysfunction, the endocrinologist will prescribe hormone therapy.

    After some time, the thyroid gland will begin to function harmoniously, the work of other vital organs will normalize, and you will be able to become pregnant. If you find inflammatory and pathological processes in the genitals of a woman, you will have to deal with their treatment.

    The gynecologist will prescribe antibacterial and anti-inflammatory drugs. The childbearing function should resume again after a while. In some cases, advice is shown nutritionist. A woman is prescribed vitamins and microelements. It is recommended to walk, perform morning exercises and give up bad habits.

  • When adhesions, polyps and cysts are detected, medication or surgery is prescribed.
  • Unfortunately, there are cases when it is impossible to cure secondary infertility. These include:

    • serious complications after abortion,
    • the presence of adhesions on the fallopian tubes, which cannot be eliminated,
    • uncorrected hormonal changes.

    Modern methods of re-conception

    What to do if after 2 - 3 years after the treatment is not possible to get pregnant? Many couples are offered modern ways to have children.

      IVF - artificial insemination in the laboratory.

    For this, the mother's egg cell is taken, it is fertilized and placed in the woman’s uterus so that it is fixed there. Fetal bearing surrogate mother. This method is used in cases where a woman can not bear a pregnancy.

    The egg cell is fertilized by artificial means and placed in the uterus of a surrogate mother, she bears a fetus.

    All of these methods are expensive and not all succeed. The causes of secondary infertility in women are many, but they are most often treatable. Therefore, it is necessary to consult a doctor in time and follow all his instructions, only then it will be possible to give birth to a healthy child.

    First degree infertility

    Most often, the inability to become pregnant is due to the presence of infections or inflammation in the body, not only in women but also in men. Many of these diseases are asymptomatic or not cause serious concern. Meanwhile, they usually cause infertility 1 degree, miscarriage and the onset of infertility 2 degrees. That is why all couples are strongly advised to be tested for infectious diseases before trying to conceive a child. The most common causes of infertility are:

    Pathological increase in the cells of the inner layer of the uterus, which can be caused by different reasons - from hormonal failure to poor heredity. According to statistics, endometriosis occurs in every 10th woman over 25 years of age, and “rewards” her not only with infertility, but also with painful menstruation, and other problems.

    Obstruction of the fallopian tubes

    As a rule, the problem is caused by adhesions, which are the result of inflammation. The adhesions process has several stages: at the initial stage there is enough medication, then surgical intervention may be required.

    Neoplasms in the ovaries and uterus

    Ovarian cyst is a formation located inside the ovary or on its surface with a cavity inside. Cysts can grow to a significant size, preventing the release of the egg and the onset of pregnancy. Myoma - a benign tumor of the uterus, it can be both a cause and a consequence of infertility.

    These diseases can be caused by both inflammation and hormonal disruption. The good news is that they are all treated, in many cases - even without surgery. All that is needed is to consult a qualified doctor who can diagnose the disease in time and prescribe treatment.

    Other causes of primary infertility

    There are a lot of diseases that can affect reproductive function. We mention the three most common groups:

    They can lead to a failure of the menstrual cycle (up to complete amenorrhea) and impaired production of eggs (qualitative and quantitative)

    Infertility of the first degree can be caused by an immune disease, as a result of which the woman's body perceives the partner's spermatozoa as harmful organisms and produces antibodies for their destruction. In fairness it should be noted that the production of antisperm antibodies is usually the result of inflammation of the genital organs.

    The inability to conceive a child may be due to congenital or acquired disruption of the structure of chromosomal pairs. To identify these disorders can be using karyotyping.

    Finally, we should not forget that problems with conception can be the result of male infertility. Its stages are determined in the same way as the degree of infertility in women.

    3. Postponed gynecological diseases

    Inflammatory diseases of the fallopian tubes (salpingitis, hydrosalpinx), cervix (cervicitis), ovaries (oophoritis), dysfunctional uterine bleeding require immediate treatment, as they often cause infertility.

    In addition, tumor processes in the genitals (fibroids, cysts, polyps, etc.) can lead to infertility.

    In all these cases, the cure of infertility is possible with timely adequate therapy aimed at eliminating the underlying cause of the disease.

    4. Complications after abortion

    Surgical abortions can also cause secondary infertility in women. Instrumental intrauterine devices can irreparably damage the inner layer of the uterus - the endometrium, it loses sensitivity, scarring, and this does not allow the fertilized egg to stick and receive proper nutrition from the mother.

    5. Incompatibility of spouses (immunological infertility)

    It does not always appear immediately, but often occurs over time, after the birth of the first or subsequent children. Associated with the formation in the body of a woman sperm antibodies that destroy sperm.

    It does not always appear immediately, but often occurs over time, after the birth of the first or subsequent children.

    Treatment of immune incompatibility can be quite complicated, so often for such conception couples have to resort to assisted reproductive technologies (IVF, ICSI, PIXI).

    Possible causes of secondary infertility

    The reasons for this condition are actually quite a few. And the later the couple turns to a specialist for help, the worse, because with age, the reasons for secondary infertility are added.

    • Age. Recently, the age of primiparous women has changed markedly. To give birth to the first baby at 30 is quite normal. It is clear that a woman is in no hurry to “wind up” the second and subsequent children, and if she decides, it does not always work. It is all about the fertility ("fertility") of a woman who is very dependent on age. It is believed that it is easiest to get pregnant between the ages of 15 and 30, after which the chances of conceiving a child will decrease. After 35 years, the diagnosis of secondary infertility, doctors put a quarter of all women.
    • Hormones. It is these "mysterious creatures" the most unpredictable. Thyroid problems often cause infertility. For example, with hyperfunction of the thyroid gland (when the production of its hormones increases), the production of pituitary hormones decreases, on which the regular menstrual cycle depends first of all. It is clear that in case of malfunction of the hormones of the pituitary gland, the menstrual cycle itself gets lost, which entails a lot of consequences in the form of many gynecological diseases (uterine fibroids, endometriosis). However, thyroid hypofunction also affects the ability to become pregnant, as it leads to an increased production of pituitary hormones, which can also inhibit the production of ovarian hormones. That's how everything is interconnected and sometimes too confusing.
    • Gynecological diseases. It follows from the above that gynecological diseases can also cause secondary infertility. Polycystic ovaries, uterine fibroids, inflammatory diseases of the fallopian tubes, cervix, vagina and ovaries require immediate treatment, as they often cause infertility. Obstruction of the fallopian tubes may occur due to endometriosis.
    • Abortions and other injuries of the uterus. Gynecological "cleansing" mercilessly damages the internal cavity of the uterus - sometimes the entire endometrium layer is scraped. Thus, the egg matures calmly and even fertilizes, but there is nothing to attach to it - the uterus is not able to do this if its functional layer is damaged. Surgery in the uterus (including cesarean section) also ends in a bad way, as they leave behind adhesions, scars, polyps, which in turn also affect conception processes not in favor of wanting to have children. Fortunately, it is possible to cope with these conditions.
    • "Biological incompatibility." This state is a real mystery for doctors and scientists, if the couple already have a child, and the second (or third and subsequent) can not conceive. The causes of secondary infertility with “biological incompatibility” can neither be revealed nor explained.
    • Lifestyle. Many people can immediately say, in our time, very few people lead a full-fledged healthy lifestyle, and this is the reason that almost every fifth woman cannot become a mother. Bad habits, poor diet (even frequent thoughtless diets), promiscuous sex life - all this can turn into infertility, both primary and secondary.

    Do not forget that not only the woman is the culprit of infertility. Male infertility is also not uncommon and its main reasons are as follows:

    • Obstruction of vas deferens,
    • Hormonal disruptions
    • Psychosexual disorders
    • Sexually transmitted infections
    • Varicose veins of the ovary and others.

    Action plan for secondary infertility

    The very first and most important thing: do not postpone the visit to the specialist if you have been “working on your second child” for a year, and there is no result. And do not panic! After all, secondary infertility can be cured, the main thing is to find its causes and eliminate them. Be prepared for frequent visits to all sorts of doctors and get ready to take a lot of tests.

    • Examination by a gynecologist. It is necessary to prepare for it in advance, recording for at least 3 months the date of the beginning and end of each menstruation, measuring daily basal temperature or conducting ovulation tests. All the information you have collected will help the doctor immediately orient and prescribe examination and treatment.
    • Tests for infections. You will be checked for gonorrhea, mycoplasmosis, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, ureaplasmosis, herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), because these infectious diseases lead to inflammatory processes in the body, and they in turn do not affect the conception process . To do this, you most likely will take gynecological smears on infectious agents. Blood tests for antibodies to infections, as a rule, give false positive results.
    • Tests for hormones. When passing these tests, you need to adhere to some recommendations (for example, you need to donate blood strictly on an empty stomach and for 2-4 days of the menstrual cycle), which the doctor will give. This analysis will help determine whether the level of "male hormones" (DEA-S, 17-OH-progesterone, testosterone) is elevated, how the pituitary hormones, which are responsible for the regularity of the menstrual cycle (FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone), LH (luteinizing hormone), prolactin), as well as ovarian hormones (E2 (estradiol), progesterone), adrenal glands (cortisol) and thyroid gland (T3 free, T4 free, TSH, antibodies to TPO).
    • Ultrasound. It will be done at least three times during the menstrual cycle, examining the state of the endometrium in each particular phase, determining the presence and development of the dominant follicle. The doctor also examines the condition of the uterus and ovaries.
    • Hysterosalpingography (helps to determine the patency of the fallopian tubes), hysteroscopy (examination of the uterus from the inside using a special optical device), laparoscopy (this procedure not only identifies possible causes of infertility, but also eliminates them, removing, for example, endometriosis, disconnecting spikes it.d.).
    • Analysis of antisperm antibodies that can block spermatozoa, "not letting" them to the egg.

    A man also needs to visit a urologist or an andrologist, pass tests for infections, undergo an ultrasound scan, pass sperm for spermogram and MAR-test.

    Having passed all these "tests", doctors will make an accurate diagnosis and prescribe treatment. Insemination will help to “conceive a child” (when purified spermatozoa are injected into the uterus), or IVF (in-vitro fertilization), or donation of germ cells and embryos. Modern medicine offers many ways to "fight" with secondary infertility.

    But do not forget about the main thing: about prayer and faith. The birth of a baby is a true miracle. And only God is able to send us the joy of experiencing motherhood. Be happy!

    Especially for Tanya Kivezhdiy

    Secondary infertility (infertility after childbirth)

    The diagnosis of “secondary infertility” is confirmed in the event that within 12 months from the date of birth, without using any methods of contraception, with an active sex life, the woman did not become pregnant. Also included in this diagnosis are cases of chronic miscarriages.

    A significant problem in the treatment of secondary infertility in a woman who has previously given birth is a long neglect of the problem. Having given birth to one or more children, confidence in one's health appears and non-conception is blamed on minor health problems, stress or bad habits.

    Causes of infertility in women after childbirth

    There are many reasons that can prevent re-pregnancy:

    1. The reproductive function of the female body is closely related to the age range: from the point of view of medicine, the most successful age for conception is 15-30 years. Upon reaching the 30th anniversary, a decline in fertility begins, and after 35 a sharp decline, up to infertility (in a quarter of the women studied). If the birth of a second child was postponed until that age - the possibility of conception is significantly reduced for quite natural reasons. Also, studies have shown that in women after reaching this age, miscarriages occur 2 times more often. 2. Violations of the hormonal background - endocrine system problems (hypo- and hyperfunction of the thyroid gland, hyperandrogeny, ovarian dysfunction, hyperprolactinemia) affect the pituitary and the production of female sex hormones. As a result of this failure, the menstrual cycle is disturbed, and the likelihood of the occurrence of such diseases as polycystic ovary, endometriosis, and uterine myoma increases. All these diseases interfere with conceiving a child and carrying it. 3. Diseases of the gynecological sphere - focal inflammation in the area of ​​the fallopian tubes, cervix, ovaries. The patency of the fallopian tubes is disturbed, which prevents the onset of pregnancy. 4. Consequences after scraping and abortions - unqualified medical care can result in secondary infertility if the endometrial surface is damaged. 5. The incompatibility of the pair at the biological level is still an unsolved medical mystery. This effect sometimes appears after the joint children have already been born. Incompatibility is difficult to diagnose and trace the root cause. 6. Lifestyle - being with modern society, few people manage to lead a healthy lifestyle, because now it’s not just about bad habits - smoking, drinking alcohol or drugs. Few people manage to adhere to proper nutrition, daily routine, actively go in for sports, and avoid emotional stress. Self-medication, ill-conceived diets and promiscuous sex life can also cause infertility.

    Secondary infertility in men

    Male infertility is just as common as that of the female half of the population. Причины его таковы: 1. Варикозное расширение вен — заболевание сосудов, влияющее на кровоснабжение всех органов, в том числе и системы размножения. Варикоцеле (расширение вен семенного канатика) признано причиной вторичного бесплодия у 55% исследованных мужчин. 2.

    Sexually transmitted diseases, infectious and inflammatory processes - hypothermia, sexual disorder (STD pathogens) affect the viability of sperm and health in general. 3. Hormonal disruptions - the representatives of the stronger sex are also subject to problems from the endocrine system.

    Age features, lifestyle and stressful situations adversely affect the general hormonal background. 4. Obstruction of the vas deferens caused by inflammatory processes. 5. Consequences of radiation, hormonal and chemotherapy. 6. Complications after operations on the urinary tract, bladder, prostate gland. 7. Injuries to the scrotum. eight.

    Lifestyle - bad habits, high fatigue, inactivity and unhealthy diet. 9. Psychosexual disorders.

    Examination and identification of the cause of secondary infertility

    Attentive comprehensive examination involving all possible methods (laboratory, instrumental) is the main component of successful treatment of secondary infertility.

    The set of measures to identify the root causes of infertility consists of the following examination options:

    1. Before visiting a gynecologist, a woman should keep records regarding the menstrual cycle: 3 months to fix the time, conduct ovulation tests and measure the basal temperature. After collecting these data, go for a general examination to the doctor, pass the scrapings, smears (the male partner passes these tests and is examined by the urologist). 2. Determination of the presence of STDs. If there are not enough general tests and there are doubts, additional tests are appointed based on a cervical and urethral scraping. 3. Blood is taken for hormones (thyroid, adrenal glands and pituitary). 4. Ultrasound of the pelvic organs, in women it makes sense to conduct several surveys in different phases of the menstrual cycle. 5. Colposcopy of the cervix to eliminate erosion and study the structure of tissues. 6. Inspection of the fallopian tubes to determine their patency. 7. Test immunological compatibility of partners. 8. For men, tests are also carried out to determine the state of the prostate gland, semen, ultrasound of the reproductive and excretory system. Based on the data obtained as a result of a comprehensive survey, the further treatment system for one or both partners is determined.