Speech therapist in kindergarten
What develops and corrects speech therapist? understanding of speech and activization of speech activity active vocabulary of grammatical structure of speech with fluent speech and systematic hearing and general motility
the ability to listen to the speech of a speech therapist, distinguish the names of objects, actions, signs, understand the generalized meaning of words, form understanding and practical assimilation of the plural form of nouns, form the assimilation of some forms of inflection: endings of singular nouns in the accusative case, coordination of adjectives with masculine and feminine nouns, present tense verbs, past tense endings masculine and feminine. Formation of vocabulary and grammatical structure of speech
Development of coherent speech to learn how to write simple sentences (two words with demonstrative pronouns “this”, “here”, three words with a direct complement) and how to compose a short descriptive story, retelling, story from a picture using questions to form skills of dialogical speech .
acquaint with articulation organs, develop auditory attention, acquaint with sounds “A”, “U”, “O”, “I”, “E”, “Y”, form the prosodic side of speech, form mastering the rhythmic structure of speech to learn to perceive by ear and correctly reproduce the simple syllable structure of words. Formation of phonemic perception and sound pronunciation
Features speech child 3-4 years
On average, the vocal reserve of children aged 3 to 4 years old includes about 1,500–2,000 words. A three-year-old child treats sounds and words with interest: he creates his own words and word forms, tries to rhyme, eagerly pronounces sounds and syllables at the request of an adult. At the same time, the level of speech development of a child under 4 years old cannot yet be called high. At this age, children cannot always compose a clear story from coherent sentences, make many grammatical mistakes in speech, and also can inaccurately use case endings and prepositions. Also, in speech development of a child under 4 years of age, problems with pronunciation are often observed. The speech apparatus of a baby at this age is not sufficiently developed to cope with complex sounds, for example, sonorous ([p], [l]) whistling or hissing ([c], [br]). Children 3-4 years old confuse sounds, replace them with similar ones, and also quite often rearrange or replace syllables in words. All these shortcomings are considered features of the child’s speech development and do not require special correction. Other symptoms point to serious violations, for example, when a child confuses the names of body parts or cannot compose even the simplest sentences. The remaining minor shortcomings of speech (undeveloped pronunciation, grammatical errors) are temporary, however, for their early elimination, it is necessary to engage in the development of the child’s speech.
How to develop a child's speech in 3-4 years? From 3 to 4 years of age, parents can practice speech development of a child without recourse to a speech therapist. In the presence of strong speech defects at this age, it is necessary to visit a dentist, who can determine the presence of physical defects in the structure of the articulatory apparatus that violate correct pronunciation (incorrect bite or short hyoid bridle). Consultation of a neurologist is obligatory at the age of 3 years, since during this age period many children develop fears, sleep disorders, and also, some children may experience various neurotic states. Many of these conditions are age-related and pass independently without treatment, however, in some cases, the child may need the help of competent psychologists or medication support.
As for the usual shortcomings of children's speech, they can be corrected without professional help. When a child utters a word incorrectly, adults need to gently correct it. It is most convenient to do this with the help of question phrases: it is better not to tell the baby directly how to pronounce the word, but simply to ask him again, using the word correctly. Also, parents and friends need to follow their own speech. You should not use the word parasites, as well as use a lot of diminutive forms. It is better to initially pronounce the words correctly, so that the child remembers and repeats them as they should sound. For the full development of speech, a child of 3-4 years old must read as many tales and poems as possible. At the same time, it is important to discuss the read with the child: ask him questions about the plot and the characters of the work, thereby provoking a retelling. At this age, children remember poems and songs very well, and learning them will help not only improve the child’s pronunciation, but also be a good exercise for developing memory. In addition, it is necessary to instill in the child a love of creativity and needlework. The development of the speech of children of 3 years is directly dependent on fine motor skills, so if a child plays with small objects, his speech will be improved more actively. You can make clay sculptures or plates with a baby, weave beads, teach him to tie shoelaces or make appliques.
By following a few simple rules, you can prevent your child from speaking:
- Almost everyone knows that adults are the main subject to follow. You should not talk to the kid, imitating his tongue. When a crumb begins to speak, his speech is very poor due to the fact that his articulation is poorly developed. Watching the adults, the little man is constantly trying to copy them, and if you "lisp" with him, the little one just has no place to take an example to form the correct articulation.
- Encourage the desire to ask questions, try to explain to your child as much as possible everything that interests him. Praise him for his curiosity.
- Constantly communicate with the baby - talk to him, tell him about everything, and, of course, listen carefully to him, give him the opportunity to express his thoughts, do not interrupt him. Every day, read books, poems.
- Provide your child the opportunity to regularly receive new experiences, chat and play with other children. Ask your child about what he did when you were not around.
- Regularly turn on toddler records with songs, poems, fairy tales and classical music.
I wish you success! And remember: I AM ALWAYS YOU RADAH!
Features of speech development of a child from 3 years
On average, the vocal reserve of children aged 3 to 4 years old includes about 1,500–2,000 words. A three-year-old child treats sounds and words with interest: he creates his own words and word forms, tries to rhyme, eagerly pronounces sounds and syllables at the request of an adult. At the same time, the level of speech development of a child under 4 years old cannot yet be called high.
At this age, children cannot always compose a clear story from coherent sentences, make many grammatical speech errors, and can also inaccurately use case terminations and prepositions.
Also in the speech development of a child under 4 years of age there are often problems with pronunciation. The speech apparatus of the baby at this age is not sufficiently developed to cope with complex sounds, for example, sonorous (“p”, “l”) whistling or hissing (“c”, “w”). Children 3-4 years old confuse sounds, replace them with similar ones, and also quite often rearrange or replace syllables in words.
All these shortcomings are considered features of the child’s speech development and do not require special correction. Other symptoms point to serious violations, for example, when a child confuses the names of body parts or cannot compose even the simplest sentences. The remaining minor shortcomings of speech (undeveloped pronunciation, grammatical errors) are temporary, but for their prompt elimination it is necessary to engage in the development of the child’s speech.
How to develop a child's speech in 3-4 years?
From 3 to 4 years of age, parents can practice speech development of a child without recourse to a speech therapist. In the presence of strong speech defects at this age, you can visit the dentist, who can determine the presence of such factors that violate the correct pronunciation, such as the wrong bite or short bridle. As for the usual shortcomings of children's speech, they can be corrected without professional help.
When a child utters a word incorrectly, adults need to gently correct it. It is most convenient to do this with the help of question phrases: it is better not to tell the baby directly how to pronounce the word, but simply to ask him again, using the word correctly.
Also, parents and friends need to follow their own speech. You should not use the word "parasites", as well as the use of many diminutive forms. It is better to initially pronounce the words correctly, so that the child remembers and repeats them as they should sound.
For the full development of speech, a child of 3-4 years old must read as many tales and poems as possible. At the same time, it is important to discuss the read with the child: ask him questions about the plot and the characters of the work, thereby provoking a retelling. At this age, children remember poems and songs very well, and learning them will help not only improve the child’s pronunciation, but also be a good exercise for developing memory.
In addition, it is necessary to instill in the child a love of creativity and needlework. The development of the speech of children of 3 years of age is directly dependent on fine motor skills, therefore, if a child plays with small objects, his speech will be improved more actively. You can make clay sculptures or plates with a baby, weave beads, teach him to tie shoelaces or make appliques.
Knowledge of a child in 3-4 years
At this age, children already know a lot of words (about 2000). The child tries to speak correctly and clearly, like adults. Sometimes he is not very good at it. To raise the level of speech development, you need to work with children a lot, communicate, play, draw and write.
The development of speech in a child of 3-4 years is rather weak. However, the older the children become, the greater their vocabulary. And at this age the child knows and is able to do the following things.
- Speaks his name, surname and patronymic.
- Knows the names of relatives and friends.
- He perceives images and describes any seen situation.
- He speaks in simple sentences and gradually turns into more complex ones.
- Identifies objects in groups: a frying pan, a plate, a cup — these are dishes, a jacket, pants, a T-shirt — these are clothes, etc.
- Finds a sign of the object: the window is white, the table is wooden, the glass is glass, etc.
- He knows the actions of a person or an animal: the uncle is walking, the cat is sitting, the boy is running.
- Repeats heard.
- Retells a cartoon or a fairy tale.
- He speaks not only loudly, but also quietly.
The development of speech in a child of 3-4 years is special and individual. Some children know fewer words, others more. So this is not an indicator. If you regularly engage with the child, you can get good results.
Features of speech development in children 3-4 years
At this age, many children still do not know how to make up stories or retell what they see. It is difficult for them to relate sentences, many errors are allowed: not only grammatical, speech, but also in the use of case endings.
The pronunciation of many children of this age is still wrong. They say the words indistinctly, making them difficult to understand. For example, children replace the sound “p” with “l” and “sh” with “s”. Children find interchangeable sounds, because they want to be understood by others.
Speech therapists argue that these shortcomings in the development of speech are not terrible, so there is still no reason to worry. Many experts begin to deal with children no earlier than 5 years.
The above shortcomings - and there are features of the development of speech of children 3-4 years. Special correction is not needed yet, as the child is able to cope with his language barrier on his own.
Speech development diagnosis
Three-year-olds know and speak a lot of sounds. About 4 years old the child learns more difficult letters - “s”, “s” and “c”. He hears the sounds of the children around him, and corrects the children if he speaks incorrectly.
Diagnosis of speech development of children 3-4 years old is conducted by speech therapists. They check the correct pronunciation of sounds.
However, if desired, parents can also see all the positive and negative aspects of their child's speech, as well as draw appropriate conclusions.
After 3 years, children are well versed in colors and clearly understand the plural and singular. At this age, kids tend to talk as much as possible. They are silent only when they sleep.
At the age of about 4 years, the child speaks more consciously. Parents and educators need to talk with the baby on an equal footing. Then he quickly begins to master it, and his vocabulary is growing very quickly.
Three-year-olds try not to use complex sentences, as they are afraid that they will not be understood. By the age of four, the child's fear disappears, and he speaks more confidently. Now he knows that listeners understand him.
It is necessary to constantly monitor the development of speech in a child of 3-4 years. The older the children become, the harder it is to help them in the formulation of the correct pronunciation.
Methods of speech development of children 3-4 years
At this stage, the child expands the sphere of communication, which means that the vocabulary increases. However, many letters or sounds are still poorly remembered and spoken.
It is very important to create the conditions in which the development of speech occurs in a child of 4-5 years. To do this, you must pay attention to hissing sounds, whistling, hard and soft. As a rule, it is with them that many children have problems.
It is necessary not only to pay attention to the pronunciation of letters, but also to speech hearing. To do this, try to speak in different ways: loud, quiet, fast or slow. When you stage a fairy tale, pay attention to expressiveness, voice and appropriate intonation.
For work on the education of the sound culture of speech, it is necessary to pay attention to:
In general, a speech development program for children of 3-4 years old is a difficult one. The pronunciation of sounds is difficult for the child. Try not to scold him, but only to praise.
During the use of the above methods, the development of speech in a child of 3-4 years becomes more active. Children begin to amaze adults with their knowledge and skills.
Proper speech development
As mentioned earlier, there is no need to contact a speech therapist until the child is 5 years old. Parents can pay attention to their baby and help him develop speech. When you go out, try to tell about everything that comes your way. It can be an animal, a man, a plant, etc.
Children are interested in absolutely everything. Therefore, they easily remember what they have said and replenish their vocabulary.
Try to ask your baby about the day they passed or the cartoon they watched. A child must learn to retell. At first, he will turn out badly, but thanks to his daily classes, after a month you will see a positive result.
As often as possible, read poems, tongue twisters and riddles to children. Do not forget to play with small details. If the baby does not know how to tie shoelaces, teach him.
All these exercises on the development of fine motor skills will help your child begin to speak faster and correctly pronounce particularly complex sounds.
Rhymes for speech development
The child needs to pay attention, and the development of speech is no exception. For faster achievement of good results, read simple and catchy rhymes for children 3-4 years old.
1. Krakru-kra - leave the yard.
As-as-as - rain will fall now
It-it-it - we don't want to leave,
Zhu-Zhu-Zhu - I walk through the puddles.
2. One, two, three, four, five - I want a crow, I count.
One crow sits on a tree.
The second crow looks at the window.
The third crow shouts "kar" to the guys.
Fourth - all drank nectar.
And the fifth crow wanted to burst the ball.
3. I bought fly boots, turned out to be great,
I went to fly to the bazaar, changed them to a samovar.
Gave tea to all my friends,
Just did not want to treat people.
Rhymes for children 3-4 years should be clear. They should have a lot of sounds that your child does not pronounce. After reading a poem, ask your child questions about this topic. He must tell what he understood from what he read and what conclusions he made. Parents can themselves come up with some simple poems to practice with their little ones.
Speech therapists distinguish the characteristic features of the speech development of children of 3-4 years old, which are the norm for most of them. Parents should know about them in order to notice in time if they are observed by their offspring. These include:
- in 4 years - about 2,000 words in the active vocabulary, the rate of speech development of 3-year-old children is 1,500 words,
- попытки говорить чётко, правильно, даже красиво, подражая взрослым, но получается чаще всего коряво и смешно,
- речевое развитие ребёнка 3 лет отличается ещё невнятностью, но при этом заметно, как набирает стремительно обороты и совершенствуется,
- внимательно прислушивается ко всем окружающим звукам и новым для него словам, пытаясь их воспроизводить,
- создание собственных словоформ,
- попытки сочинять стихи и рифмовать слова,
- с удовольствием произносит вслед за взрослым слоги,
- and yet the development of children of 3-4 years of age remains weak: they cannot make up a logical, understandable story consisting of coherent sentences, make grammatical and verbal mistakes, do not accurately use case endings and prepositions,
- there are frequent problems with pronunciation and phonetics, since the physiologically speaking apparatus at this age is not yet sufficiently developed to cope with such complex sounds as sonorous (p, l), whistling, hissing (c, w),
- confused sounds
- rearrange syllables in words.
The drawbacks from this list are the peculiarities of the speech development of children of 3–4 years of age who do not require correction. What is ideally considered the norm for this indicator?
Curious fact. According to experts, in normal crumbs of this age should speak most of the day. He is silent only in a dream.
The rates of speech development of children 3-4 years
Despite the fact that all indicators are very individual, there are norms for the speech development of children of 3-4 years old, to which parents interested in the success of their children in the future should be guided. Here is what a baby should be able to do at this age:
- pronounce your own name, patronymic and surname,
- give the names of close relatives and friends,
- perceive the images and describe the situation,
- speak in simple sentences, gradually moving to more complex ones,
- to distribute the subjects in their speech into groups: dishes (frying pan, glass, plate, cup), clothes (dress, jacket, skirt, pants, T-shirt),
- find the signs of the object: the window is transparent, the table is wooden, the apple is tasty,
- call actions: uncle eats, cat washes, boy screams,
- repeat exactly what you hear
- retell a cartoon, a fairy tale,
- in the process of speaking talk loudly and quietly.
Experts call such standards of speech development of children of 3-4 years, for which it is very easy to check the skills and abilities of their crumbs. There is nothing to worry about if he builds a sentence somewhat clumsily or incorrectly names the sign and action of the object. These are very insignificant, minor errors that are easily corrected through regular training. There are much more serious deviations in speech, which are very important in time to identify and try to correct.
Keep in mind! Boys in their development of speech in most cases lag behind the opposite sex, according to statistics, by about four months.
Give your child any task listed above and compare the results with the norm. Errors in three or more points? In this case, it is worth considering whether your baby has a delay in speech development in this regard. Watch how and what he says. Moreover, before you there is a characteristic of the speech development of children of 3-4 years old, typical features. Compare with them the individual achievements of your baby. The following indicators are considered serious deviations:
- the child is constantly rumbling
- his speech is fast, and in some cases children, as if purposely stretching words,
- it's hard to understand
- there are no elementary sentences in the speech with subject, predicate, additions,
- it is difficult for him to accept even the simplest explanations,
- swallows the end of words,
- utters phrases exclusively from books or cartoons,
- not building your own sentences, just repeating phrases after adults,
- open mouth
- frequent, excessive salivation, not dictated by the growth of teeth.
If you notice such deviations from the noma of your child, you will need a special diagnosis of the speech development of children in 3-4 years, which has long been used by experts.
Useful information. There is a pathological delay in speech development associated with dysfunction of the brain or the central nervous system. And there is an elementary lack of attention on the part of parents or educators who are not sufficiently engaged with the child. In the first case, the deviations require treatment, in the second - correction.
There are different methods of speech development for children of 3-4 years old, which parents will not easily master on their own. If classes will not give results within 3-4 months, you should seek help from specialists.
- Constantly expand the scope of communication of your baby. Introduce him to new people of different age groups.
- Gradually increase his vocabulary. Learn with him a new word and fix it in the lexicon for several days.
- Pay attention to how he pronounces hissing and whistling sounds, hard and soft. Correct him if he says them wrong.
- Talk to him differently: quietly and loudly, quickly and slowly.
- Reading a fairy tale, pay attention to voice, intonation, timbre, expressiveness.
- With any success and achievements, do not forget to praise and encourage the baby.
- Tell a walk about everything you see.
- Constantly ask about the day passed, the heard story, the viewed cartoon.
- Daily read children tongue twisters, poems, riddles.
- Do not forget the exercises, games, techniques for the development of fine motor skills, which is directly related to speech. Offer him to work with small parts (puzzles, designer, sand, clay, clay and other toys for the development of fine motor skills). Teach him to tie shoelaces.
- Play with him in the word games "Who says?", "What is where?", "Is it edible or not?", "How do objects differ?", "Describe the object", etc.
Speech development of a child of 3-4 years can tell a lot about the abilities and socialization of a small person, which should meet certain standards. If there are deviations, parents should take a series of measures to fill in the gaps. This can be done both independently and by attracting specialists from the outside. The main thing - do not stop and do not despair. Those who are focused on the result, be sure to reach it.
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Many children in 3 years can speak. Sometimes they are difficult to understand, but it is noticeable that speech gradually develops. A four-year-old child can speak quite well, although some letters and words can be spoken out with difficulty. However, some children have a delay in the development of speech. Is it correct? How to help your child develop speech? Read about it in the article.
Learning to play
What provides the most effective speech development for children of 3-4 years? Games, of course. The easiest and most interesting learning is provided if you and your child make an alphabet coloring book. Of course, buy it and not a problem. However, do not forget that children love to do crafts on their own.
The game "Who Says?" Is interesting to many children. Mom calls the sound of the animal the necessary intonation, and the child guesses. Then you must switch roles. Thus, the baby will develop speech.
The game "Where lies" develops the baby not only speech, but also attention. Put something on the table, under the chair, near the refrigerator, next to the sofa. Now ask questions. For example: where is the cup, where is the bear, where is the ball? There may be many such questions. The child at the same time learn to navigate in space.
“Edible or not?” When cooking dinner and you can not pay attention to the child, ask him questions. For example, they took the pot in their hands, ask: "Is it edible?". Then: “And fried meat?”, “And raw chicken?”, Etc.
"Difference items." Show your baby shoes and slippers. Ask what they look like, and what is the difference between them. It can be such comparisons: a fur coat with a jacket, a glass with a cup, a chair with a stool, etc.
The game "Describe the subject" will help the child to develop attention and memory. Show on the bed. Let the baby describe it for your questions. What is it? What is intended for? What colour? Ask your child such questions about any item or product.
The above games help the child to develop correct speech and proper pronunciation of sounds. If you daily communicate with your baby in a playful way, soon he will begin to talk correctly and clearly.
Why the child does not speak for a long time
Some children are silent at two or three years. Parents worry, go to specialists to establish the cause. Doctors and speech therapists are advised not to worry ahead of time. They argue that if a child is silent up to 3 years old - this is normal. Perhaps influenced by the genes of the parents.
If a child of 3.5 years does not want to talk, then it is necessary to seek advice from a neuropathologist, speech therapist, Laura and pediatrician.
Very often, children who were still silent at the age of three may speak at the age of 3 years and 2 months. According to statistics, such a child begins to speak immediately with sentences.
There is an opinion that girls seize speech earlier than boys. It is a myth. It all depends on the individuality of the child. The norms of speech development of children of 3-4 years can not be the same. At this age, guys know from 1500 to 2000 words. Each baby has its own individual stock. It all depends on the personality of the child and his mood.
Do not force the child to engage if he does not want. If he has a bad mood, then he will not show you good results. Engage with the crumb when you see that he is ready to play with you.
Never scold a child if he cannot speak a word. He will start crying, you will be angry with him.
As a result, both the mother and the baby will lose the mood for the whole day. Children are easily taught. Try to praise your child, because then the kid himself will want to make you happy and please Mom with success.
At the age of 3-4 years, children are very inquisitive, actively studying everything that surrounds them. By this time, they have accumulated enough knowledge about various objects and phenomena, can make simple judgments about them and make their own conclusions. There is an active development of the ability to generalize - children begin to combine several objects, similar in some characteristic or purpose, into one group. Speech skills are being improved - speech becomes more complicated, it becomes more understandable.
Features of the speech development of children of 3-4 years
In the 4th year of life in children, the ability to regulate speech breathing is still not well developed - they often miss the pauses between words and phrases, sometimes they put the stress on them incorrectly and do not pronounce the end of words. At this age, it is not easy for children to master at once the ability to express their thoughts coherently, and the grammatically correct construction of sentences, and the precise pronunciation of sounds.
As for active speech, the majority of children aged 3-4 years have the following skills:
- use about 1,500 words (3 years) and about 2,000 words in 4 years,
- start talking in complex sentences
- use sentences consisting of 4-5 words
- ask a lot of questions
- use some prepositions and conjunctions,
- try to pronounce words clearly and correctly, like adults,
- try to invent poems and rhymes to words, actively create their own word forms,
- listen carefully to new words and sounds, try to reproduce them,
- use verbs correctly in past tense.
Understanding of speech:
- listen to long stories and tales
- understand complex sentences,
- able to fulfill a request, for example, to bring something, even if the subject is out of sight.
In children of 3 years, difficulties in pronouncing sizzling (, Щ, Ч) and sound sounds (L, R) are most often observed. Hissing sounds are often replaced by whistling, and sonorous sounds are completely skipped. Such problems for kids of this age are the norm.
By the 4th year of life, the child’s vocabulary is about 2000 words. In speech, in addition to verbs and nouns, there are numbers, pronouns and adverbs. If earlier only qualitative adjectives were present in the baby’s speech - light, soft, tasty, then now possessive ones appear - tetina hat, uncle's shoes, etc. Speech becomes grammatically correct and more understandable. Improved pronunciation of individual sounds. A child can answer a question from an adult with a full sentence of 3 or more words.
Standards of speech development
The pace of development of coherent speech in children in the age of 3-4 years is very individual, but there are generally accepted norms that parents can orient themselves with in order to understand how correctly their speech develops in their child. It is desirable that in 4 years old child could:
- pronounce your first name, surname and middle name,
- Name the close relatives and friends,
- retell a fairy tale or cartoon
- repeat exactly what you heard
- calling actions - a bird is flying, a dog is running, a car is driving,
- in the process of speaking lower and raise the tone.
In the speeches of children of 3–4 years, there may still be flaws in the pronunciation of certain words, especially long and unfamiliar ones, as well as the fuzzy pronunciation of a number of sounds.
The following cases require increased attention:
- child's speech is difficult to understand and is like babbling,
- scant active vocabulary - the baby cannot name the objects and phenomena that he faces daily,
- poor passive vocabulary - the child can hardly understand what is required of him, and cannot even answer simple questions,
- poorly developed sound pronunciation
- expressions are monosyllabic, and making sentences is difficult.
The development of the child's speech is influenced by both physiological and social factors. Lack of attention or overabundance can impede the full development of communication skills.
Speech Development Techniques
Specialists have developed various techniques that contribute to the development of speech in 3-4 years. As a rule, classes for kids of this age are conducted in a game form. In addition, you can develop the speech of your baby for a walk, at home, on trips, etc.
Recommendations for the development of a coherent child speech:
- Expand your child's social circle - communicate with people of different ages as much as possible.
- Enrich his vocabulary - fix each new word by repeating for several days.
- Watch how the child utters sizzling (S, T, S) and whistling sounds (B, C, C), hard and soft. If he does it wrong, correct it.
- Use different speech - quiet and loud, fast and slow.
- Fairy tales and stories try to read expressively, follow the timbre and intonation.
- While walking, talk more about everything that you see around.
- Ask the child about the viewed cartoon, the story he heard, etc.
- Learn to answer in detail and give answers to the questions asked.
- Read tales, poems and tongues as often as you can.
- Play a variety of word games, for example, "Edible - Inedible", "What Where Is Lying."
A child’s speech development program must be comprehensive and include various activities aimed, among other things, at developing fine motor skills, since speech is closely related to it.
Speech Development Games
Education and development of children aged 3-4 years, usually occurs in the form of a game.
"The Tale of the tongue"
The goal of the game is to acquaint the child with the organs involved in the creation of speech - the sky, lips, larynx, tongue. For classes you will need a mirror. Tell your baby a story about the tongue. He lives in his mouth and is very inquisitive, likes to stick out and look in different directions (at the same time you should move the tongue up, then down, in a circle, to the left - to the right). Another tongue loves to hide and tease - to stick out, and then run away for the teeth, lower and upper, to be narrow or wide. Play with the baby in front of the mirror - make different faces and make a face.
"Horse" Such classes can be held every day. Ask the child to click his tongue like a horse. This exercise will help the child in the future to avoid difficulties in the pronunciation of sounds F, W, L, R.
"Repeat" The game teaches the child to pronounce words correctly. For classes you will need different pictures. Show pictures and name words with a specific sound, for example "W" or "F":
scarf, fur coat, cherry, wardrobe, bear, hat
acorn, toad, scissors, beetle, puddle
It is important that the child clearly pronounced these sounds, the speed does not matter.
Next, select words with paired on the hardness-soft consonants:
chalk, honey, bear, sword, ball
milk, butter, soap, sea
"Unite" The game, contributing to the development of visual-figurative thinking. For classes you will need cards with the image of various utensils, clothes, fruits or vegetables. Lay out on the table a few cards, for example, with drawings of clothing items, ask the child to name them separately, and then in one word. You can play and vice versa - ask the baby to name what vegetables, fruits, etc. he knows.
Prepositions The game teaches the child to properly use prepositions and words. Any subject will be suitable for occupations - a toy, the book, etc. Move the object under the table, on the table, above the table and ask the child to say where the toy is. Prompt if the baby can not cope.
"Air wool" This game is aimed at the development of speech breathing and teaches the child to control his power. For classes you will need cosmetic cotton balls. Spread them on the table and blow it with the crumb. Whose ball will be further, he won.
The program of classes for the development of speech in children of 3-4 years must include creative activities - modeling, drawing and handicraft, as they contribute to the development of fine motor skills, perseverance and concentration. Outdoor games are also very useful - children remember the names of objects easier and learn to count.
Игры для развития речи у младших дошкольников
Игра «Я быстрее».
Цель: развивать речь, память, внимание.
Описание: встать рядом с ребенком. Выбрать предмет, находящийся в некотором отдалении. Explain to the child that the one who comes first to this object wins, but a step can be made only if a word from the selected category is named, for example: “All round (warm, soft)”, “Domestic or wild animals”, “ Dishes "," Furniture ", etc.
Game "What, where, when."
Objectives: to develop speech, to help the assimilation of grammatical forms of words.
Description: throwing the ball to the child, ask questions:
- Where do branches grow? (On the tree.)
- Where do trees grow? (In the woods.)
- Where do the leaves grow? (On a branch.)
- Where do the fish live? (In a river.)
The game "Magic Box".
Objectives: to develop attention, memory, skill classification of objects, to help the development of the correct use of generic pronouns.
Description: put in a cardboard box a few different items. The teacher says: “I found a magical little chest! Let's see what lies there. ” Pulling the objects one by one, give them a brief description: “Look - this is a ball, what a round it is, red! But - the car, it is with the body and wheels. Yes, there is also a lotto. What a colorful it is, with different pictures! And yet - a spoon, big father's spoon. ” Fold all the items in the box and offer the child to guess the description of the subject. “It’s with a body and wheels, it’s multicolored and with pictures, etc.”, highlighting the pronoun “he, she, it” with intonation. After all the items are laid out again, invite the child to pick up the toys. If, along with the toys, he takes the spoon, pay attention to it.
The game "Thank you, Masha!".
Objectives: to promote sensory development, to help the development of generic adjective endings.
Description: read the child to the bag, accompanying it with actions and prompting the same child.
Masha cooked porridge, Perform circular movements with the hand, imitating the stirring of porridge.
Fedota fed. Perform hand motions that mimic spoon feeding.
Fedot compote cooked. Simulate the "stirring" in the other direction.
Masha watered. Imitate drinking from an imaginary glass.
“Thank you, Masha! Tilt your head.
Thank you, Fedot! Bow to the head.
Ask the child what else might be delicious, listing the words of a different kind: “What apple? Tasty! What soup? Delicious! What plum? Etc.".
The game "Useful" hide and seek.
Objectives: to develop attention, to acquaint with the meaning of prepositions under, on, in.
Description: invite the child to play "hide and seek with a fairy tale." Come up with a short story in which the child will perform what is said in the story. For example: “Once upon a time there was a boy (child’s name). Once, she and her mother played hide and seek. I thought and thought (name) and decided to hide under the table. Mom looks - there is no her boy. Where is he? Maybe under the sofa? I looked - it is not there. Or maybe under the chair? And there is no. Ah, here he is - under the table! ”Then the teacher talks about how the boy hid in a closet or hid behind a curtain. Etc.
Game "Confused Tale".
Objective: to develop speech, imagination, memory.
Description: start telling your child the fairy tale of Little Red Riding Hood. In the place of the story where the girl should meet the wolf, change the plot: “She walks through the forest, and suddenly towards her - Kolobok!” Depending on the mood of the child, simulate further developments. It is possible that the child will want to listen to the fairy tale in the traditional version, in this case, invite him to recall its continuation. And you can offer your child to dream up on the theme “Little Red Riding Hood and Gingerbread Man (seven kids, Nif-Nif, etc.)”. Listen to all the suggestions of the child, ask him why he wants this or that hero to do just that. Together, bring a happy ending of history.
Game "Special Purpose Train".
Objective: to develop phonemic hearing.
Game material and visual aids: cardboard boxes.
Description: make a train with wagons of cardboard boxes. Explain that the train carries only special goods, today, for example, it will carry only those items that begin with the letter A. Help the child to collect the necessary things, highlight the first sound of each word.
The game "One - a lot."
Objectives: to develop speech, attention, introduce the forms of words in the plural.
Game material and visual aids: paired cards with the image of single and multiple items.
Description: Place cards with images of several objects in front of the child. The teacher - cards with single objects. When showing a child a card, you need to ask: “Do I have an apple, and do you have an apple?” Help the child find a card with a picture of several apples. Give a sample of the answer: “I have an apple, and you have apples!” Use images of objects, the plurality of which is formed using different endings: house-home, foot-legs, face-faces, etc.
The game "Go!".
Objective: to develop the skill of correct use of verb forms.
Description: the teacher plays the game situation: a toy hare pulls up to the child in a car, reports that he is going to the construction site, and asks to load the dice into the back of the car. After loading the car, wave the hare with your hand and say: "Well, go, hare." Then come the bear, the doll and other toys. Encourage the child to speak not “Ehay!”, But “Go!”. If the child is wrong, correct it.
The game "Who came to us?".
Objective: to develop speech, logical thinking.
Description: hide a toy kitten. The hidden kitten has forgotten what kind of animal he is, but he knows that his mother is a cat, and his father is a cat. To beat the situation with chicken, calf, etc.
Game "Where was the ball?".
Objective: to develop speech, space orientation skills.
Description: put a small ball on the table. Around him decompose several objects familiar to the child. Ask: "Where is the ball?" - "On the table." To ask a different question: “About what is a ball lying?”, “Before what is a ball lying?”, “What object is a ball lying behind?”, “Not far from what is a ball lying?”, “Opposite of what is a ball?”, Etc. P.
Objective: to develop auditory perception, attention.
Description: invite a child to play in the store. To put “goods” on improvised windows: toys, books, dishes, etc. “Buyers” can be a teacher with a child, dolls, soft toys. You can buy the thing you like on one condition: “the buyer” utters the sound from which the name of the “product” begins: the car is “m”, the plate is “t”, etc.
Game "Decorate the word."
Objectives: to help learn the letters, develop fine motor skills.
Game material and visual aids: a sheet of paper, groats (multi-colored buttons).
Description: write a short word familiar to a child in large letters (“mom”, “dad”, “cat”, etc.). Read the word and offer the child to decorate the inscription, encircling the letters on the contour with a rump or buttons. Stop the child, if he wants to start with the last or middle letter, explain that all words are read from left to right. Laid out the letters, read the word again.
The game "Confusion."
Objective: to develop speech, attention, logical thinking.
Description: read short poems to the child, pausing before the last word is pronounced. Poems rhyme in such a way that the last rhyme does not always correspond to the meaning of the text.
Does this child know any -
Orange has a color ... (blue - orange).
And the dog ... (meows - barks).
As in our street
Two quacked ... (hen-hens).
It is known to every child
That horse is mother ... (foal).
Chickens know that in the morning
They all hear their dad! After all, he ... (kangaroo - rooster).
The game "Non-for-all".
Objective: to develop speech, logical thinking, attention.
Description: Read KI Chukovsky's poem “Confusion” to a child. Offer to put everything in its place, explaining your choice.
1) Late autumn bear
He likes to sit in the river,
And in the winter among the branches
"Ha-ha-ha" - the nightingale sang.
Quickly give me an answer:
Is it true or not?
2) Glad, pleased, pleased
And on them for joy
And on them for joy
3) Rode the village
Suddenly from under the dog
Game "Describe the subject."
Objective: to develop speech, logical thinking, skill classification.
Description: invite the child to describe any object familiar to him. In the first classes it is best to use objects that are in front of your eyes (toys, furniture, clothing). To teach a child to give a detailed characteristic of the object. It is worth paying attention to the following scheme-algorithm created by V. N. Grigoriev.
1. The subject, the class to which it belongs, the constituent parts of the subject.
2. Shape, color, size, material.
3. Functions of the subject.
4. Comparative analysis - in form, color, material, functions.
In this case, an adult must necessarily take into account the individual characteristics of the child, the level of his development. Use words that are understandable to the child. Vividly demonstrate everything that is told. Ask the child the leading questions, tell if he is at a loss with the answer. The game can be organized in the form of a fairy tale.
There was a chair. It was a very old chair. He stood beside the table with other chairs. One day, a hare passed by on a child's typewriter. He rode so carelessly that he knocked on the leg of the chair. Rubbing a lump on his head, the baby was indignant: “Who are you? What are you fighting? "
“I am the furniture,” answered the chair, “and I don’t fight at all! That you knocked on my leg. " “Wow leg! A whole post! Yes, and not one! ”- Exclaimed the hare. “Of course,” the chair replied, “I have four of them.”
“Why do you need so many legs? - the bunny inquired, - you don’t walk! ”“ Yes, unfortunately, I don’t walk, ”the chair sadly agreed,“ but I have to stand firmly on my feet so that the people who sit on me don't fall. ” “Look! - The hare was amazed, - do they also sit on you? ”“ Of course, for this I need you, ”the chair explained,“ I have a wide seat on which it is comfortable to sit, and a high back so as not to fall. ” “You are so useful,” said the hare. - I thought you were like a table, only smaller. After all, Vanya always puts toys or books on you. And Vanina's mother climbs on you with her legs, when she needs to get something from the top shelf. And it turns out that you are the same as a chair and a stool, because they are also sitting on them! ”
The game "Tell me ... (description but the picture)."
Objectives: to develop speech, attention, analog thinking, imagination, to expand vocabulary.
Game material and visual aids: story picture.
Description: invite the child to talk about what he sees in the picture: in general, in detail. Ask him leading questions. For example: the picture shows a girl leading the hand of a little boy. Ask the child: why does the girl lead the boy by the hand? (Because he is small. Because he does not know where to go. Because he does not want to go, etc.) Who is this girl? (Boy’s sister. Neighbor. Mother’s daughter’s mom’s friend.) Where are the girl with the boy going? (Home. To kindergarten. To the doctor's appointment, etc.)
Give the child the task to describe the girl, the boy. Compare them. (The girl is taller than the boy, she has long blond hair, and the boy has dark, short hair.) Consider children's clothes, shoes. Do they hold anything in their hands? Where they go, what surrounds them. Ask the child where, in his opinion, is the boy's mother at this time? (At work, at home, at the grandmother, in the store, etc.) And dad? To teach a child to notice details, draw conclusions, compare, draw analogies. When asking questions, use phrases such as: “What do you think?”, “Are you sure that ...”, “Maybe you think differently?” To help your child build phrases correctly by using the right words.
The game "What a person needs."
Objective: to develop speech, imagination, memory.
Description: draw a little man. Suggest a child to think of his name. With the child’s hints, draw everything that a person needs: a house, clothes, dishes, toys, friends, etc. Compose a story about the adventures of your character. Let your child come up with routes and events for the drawn hero. Will make him the mode of the day menu, describe his actions. Offer the child to tell about the little man to someone from the family members.
Game "Describe the doll."
Objective: to develop attention, observation, memory.
Description: show the child a doll, let him carefully examine it. Then hide the toy and ask the child what color the dress was on the doll, long or short, with or without buttons, etc. Bind the doll bow, but so that the child does not see it. Re-show the doll and ask what has changed in its appearance. As the child learns the rules of the game for one lesson, it is possible to change several details, changing the hairstyle of the doll, removing and putting on socks, shoes, scarves, etc.
The game "you a letter!".
Objective: to develop speech, imagination.
Description: write a child a colorful letter in the name of his favorite character (cartoon character, fairy tale, poem). Packed in an envelope and solemnly handed. Read the letter and invite the child to write together the response letter. Come up with a message, for example: “Describe what toys you have,” “Tell me what you like to do,” etc. Write down everything that the child would like to tell his new friend. At the same time speak loudly and show the child what you write. Perhaps the addressee will want to write to the child again.
The game "What can I do?".
Objective: to develop speech (the use of nouns in the instrumental case without pretexts), imagination.
Description: Tell the child a short story: “Once upon a time, there was a boy by name (you can insert the child’s name). He was three years old. Once grandmother gave a boy a spade. The baby thought: “What should I do with it?” Suggest to think about what you can do with a shovel. Help the child by pushing the version alternately. Ask questions about how to use different items: “What can be done with a spoon (paints, glue, threads, etc.)?”
The game "Who would call?".
Objectives: to develop speech, to lay the foundations of etiquette.
Game material and visual aids: toy-phone.
Description: invite a child to "call" someone on the phone (grandmother, grandfather, friend, toy, etc.). The teacher plays the role of interlocutor. To draw the child’s attention to the need to greet, say “thank you” and “please”, keep the conversation going. Inquire what the child would like to ask the grandmother (bunny, chanterelles, etc.) what he can tell about himself, mom, dad, etc. Remind the child of the need to say goodbye at the end of the conversation.
The game "Causes of disaster."
Objectives: to develop speech, to help master the category of "cause - effect."
Description: read the story of I. Thais.
Masha puts a cube on a cube, a cube on a cube, a cube on a cube. Built a high tower. Misha came running:
- Take one dice!
Misha stretched out his hand - and grabbed the lowest cube. And in a moment - fuck-tara-rah! - the whole machine tower once-wa-li-las!
Suggest a child to try to do the same. Build a tower and pull out the bottom cube, the cube from the middle, remove the top cube. Explain to the child the reason for the destruction of the tower.
The game "Zoo".
Objective: to develop speech, memory.
Game material and visual aids: animal toys (cards with images of animals, vegetables and fruits).
Description: invite the child to show the zoo doll. Place animals or cards with their image in the form of a small alley. Ask the child to tell the doll everything he knows about each animal, to help him build a story. Announce lunch at the zoo. Give the child pictures of food and instruct to “feed” each animal with what it loves. Ask provocative questions: “Bananas, we give the hare? But this beautiful carrot will probably be eaten by a dog, right? ”
The game "Prove it!".
Objective: to develop speech, memory, the ability to analyze, lead and defend the arguments.
Description: Start the game like this: “It seems to me that the calf's mother is a horse. After all, they have hooves, they are covered with wool, they eat hay, etc. ” Encourage the child to explain to you that the calf is a cow calf and not a horse: the horse has no horns, the calf has no mane, the horse laughs, the calf mooses, etc. "A sparrow has a beak and feathers, so his mother is a chicken." Counterfacts: a different size, a sparrow flies - there is no chicken, a sparrow chirps - a chicken clucks, cackles, etc. Continue the game with the child, helping him to make this or that conclusion. You can oppose different objects and categories, for example, “a bear lives in a hole”, “bread grows on a tree”, etc. Each game should be brought to its logical conclusion in order for the child to form correct images of the objects in question.
The game "Past the forest, past the field."
Objective: to develop speech, memory, imagination.
Description: invite your child to travel by train or by car. Sit down next to, depict the roar of the motor or the sound of wheels, the horn of a locomotive Say: "Look - we are passing by the river! I see a fish splashing there! A small fish, a gudgeon, is swimming, and a big pike, etc., is chasing it. ” “Drive” past the forest, past the village, past the zoo, etc. If the child cannot describe anything, ask him some leading questions: “We are driving past the forest, do you see anyone? I see a hare. I just can't see - is he alone or with a hare? ”
The game "Harm."
Objectives: to develop speech, to acquaint with antonyms.
Description: invite the child to play in "harm."
“The paper is white,” says the teacher.
- No, she is black! - objects child.
- Our house is tall.
- No, he is low. Etc.
The game "Again harm!".
Objectives: to develop speech, to introduce verbs with the opposite meaning.
Description: calling the action, ask the child to do the opposite.
“I'll open the door now.”
- I'll sew a button.
- I will speak.
— А я буду молчать. И т. п.
Речь детей 2 3 4 лет обладает рядом особенностей, которые признаются нормой для большинства детей. Родители должны знать, что можно охарактеризовать, как отставание, а что признается нормальным течением развития речи.
Многие малыши стараются говорить красиво, правильно, как-то подражать взрослым. But for many it does not work, more often the words sound clumsy, even ridiculous. The crumb of three years speaks inaudibly.
- Incorrectly pronounces long and unfamiliar words.
- Shortens long words (instead of “steamboat” - “parokhod”, instead of “car” - “tire”).
- Rearranges syllables in words (instead of “musical” - “moronic”).
- Skips sounds (instead of “red” - “casin”).
- Says consonants in a mild form (instead of "cat" - "koska").
- Whistling sounds C, Z, C pronounces not clearly enough, skipping or replacing with other sounds (instead of “castle” - “mamok”, instead of “dog” - “tobacco”).
- Hissing sounds Ш, Щ, произнос, Щ, произнос says not clearly, skips (instead of “cap” - “syapka”, instead of “beetle” - “yuk”).
- Sounds R, L skips or replaces with “d”, “eh” (instead of “rocket” - “yaket” or “snake”).
- Incorrectly builds sentences, rearranging words (I want no porridge. A lot of toys.).
A crumb of three years speaks indistinctly, but his speech is quickly improved, improved.
It is necessary that the crumbs develop properly, such defects do not require correction. Problems such as transposing syllables, changing sounds are not a deviation. The problem is that the physiological development of the speech apparatus is not perfect, it is still being formed. Therefore, the crumbs can not cope with such complex sounds as "p", "l", "s", "sh".
The development of a sound culture of speech in children 3 4 years old implies that the crumb listens to all the sounds, words that surround it. If you can not reproduce the words as required, then the crumb easily forms more convenient word forms. A child at this age is marked by attempts to repeat the rhymes and rhymes, as well as to compose them.
What contributes to the development of speech
To find out, parents should study a variety of manuals, techniques. You can do it yourself, but you can talk with experts. In the case when self-study does not give any results, it is worth referring to speech therapists. You can choose special exercises for the child, it can be done even in two years. In any case, you need to communicate with the crumbs, talk with him, as well as expand the scope of communication. Try to acquaint your child with new people, push him to contact with them, explain that he has nothing to fear.
In conversations with a child in the third year of life, you need to use new words to increase his vocabulary. Any success should be celebrated on your part, you need to praise the crumbs and encourage him. As for the vocabulary, it should gradually increase, you need to learn individual words with the baby. Also increasing vocabulary contributes to reading fairy tales. Remember that when reading you need to pay attention to intonation and expressiveness. So baby will remember how to speak correctly.
By the age of four, one can learn tokens, this will allow one to learn how to pronounce hissing, whistling sounds. Do not hesitate and do not be lazy to correct the baby if he says the words incorrectly. If you are attentive to children's speech, then the crumb will think about what you need to strive to speak correctly. You can choose a variety of educational games for the development of speech for children 3 4 years. If you decide to play, while improving speech, you need to try to talk to your baby differently - loudly, quietly, quickly, slowly.
Teach the child to speak
Many parents are worried about the question of how old they need to teach babies to talk. Do I need to learn two three-year? You do not need to specifically teach the crumbs speech, make jagged words.
- Teach your child during the game, by the age of one can use various methods of speech motivation. You can, for example, just tell a crumb about everything you see on a walk. You should always ask about how the day went, what was interesting in kindergarten, what new he saw.
- Speak correctly and clearly pronouncing the words. Actively articulate while communicating with your baby.
- Praise the crumb for any attempt to utter new sounds or words.
- Gently correct the baby if he says the words and sounds incorrectly, but do not scold.
- Teach your child to formulate descriptions of objects and phenomena: what is it? or who is it? what colour? What is this doll? how can you call a doll?
- Stimulate communication with other children. Visit the playgrounds often, events, birthdays.
- Read children's jabs, poems, riddles, they are perfectly perceived by children, while their pronunciation contributes to speech development.
- Allow the crumbs to play with small details, it can be grits, sand, and plasticine.
- Get acquainted with the presentations and manuals that will tell about the development of fine motor skills. After all, it directly affects the formation of speech.
It is important planning, you need to understand who, when will deal with the crumbs. Turn on the routine for the kid regular articulation exercises. Doing better in the morning. It is enough to give classes 10-15 minutes a day.
If you are not confident in your own strength, there are not enough presentations and jokes, you can attract experts from the outside. The appearance of a lag in the development of the speech of children does not arise unexpectedly, it is a long-lasting result, even phgos can confirm this. Kids can help developing games, setting sounds. When you can't do it yourself, you can find a good speech therapist.
According to the materials of the article, we have prepared the presentation “I'm learning to speak. Features of speech development of children 3-4 years. "