The causative agents of fungal diseases are fungi of the genus Candida. Most newborn babies are exposed to candidiasis (thrush), as they still have a very weak immunity. An infant, no matter whether it’s a boy or a girl, can be infected by a sick mother as it passes through the birth canal. Also, candidiasis in children often occurs due to the intake of a large number of antibiotics, resulting in the development of symptoms of intestinal fungus. In order to avoid complications, it is important to recognize the fungal infection in time and conduct adequate therapy.
What is candidiasis in children?
Candida albican mushrooms are harmless microorganisms that are not capable of causing illness in a healthy body. However, once some factors disrupt the immune system, these yeast-like fungi begin to actively multiply, causing the most unpleasant symptoms. Candidiasis in a child develops faster than in an adult. Premature babies, children suffering from congenital immunodeficiency, boys and girls of transitional age are especially prone to thrush.
Causes of disease
Candidiasis in an infant usually occurs due to lack of hygiene. Non-sterile diapers and dirty nipples quickly lead to thrush. Older children suffer from several factors:
- frequent colds
- prolonged or uncontrolled treatment with hormones or antibiotics,
- immunity disorders due to chronic pathologies,
- poor nutrition,
- the presence of hypovitaminosis,
- diabetes and other endocrine diseases,
- intestinal dysbiosis.
Symptoms of thrush in children
The signs of candidiasis are different and depend on the location of the fungal infection. The infection process can affect all tissues of the body, which eventually leads to the defeat of the internal organs (chronic generalized candidiasis). More often thrush occurs on the mucous membranes in the form of cheesy patches of white or whitish-yellow hue. Pathology can also affect smooth tissue, which is manifested in the appearance of erosion. Let us consider in more detail the symptoms of fungal infection at different locations.
In the mouth
At the initial stage of candidiasis in children in the oral cavity appear red spots that occur on the mucous membrane. Soon they are covered with white plaques that do not have a tendency to merge. When the fungal stomatitis is moderate in a child, the cheesy plaques first become edematous, and then, merging, capture the entire surface of the mucous membrane. The language is going to a whole layer of cheesy plaque. With a severe course of oral candidiasis, the baby has the following symptoms:
- body temperature rises, he becomes sluggish, refuses to eat,
- a patina of white appears on the tongue, goes to the tonsils, throat and lips,
- if you do not take measures, then develops intestinal candidiasis in a child.
Fungal infection of the skin
During the first month of life, doctors diagnose candidiasis of the skin in children in 23%. Pathology is accompanied by itching, flaking of the epithelium along the edges of the affected area. In large folds of skin, yeast diaper rash occurs, small ulcers appear. In infants in the inguinal-scrotal area, bubbles filled with fluid are formed. When they open, they leave erosion on the skin. Infections in boys can spread to the genitals and the inner surface of the thigh. At the same time there is a reddening of the head and foreskin, creamy discharge.
This type of pathology is a fungal infection of the nail roller and plate. As a rule, children suffer from the middle fingers of both hands and toenails. The main symptoms of the fungus of this type:
- Inflammation of the nail cushion. The area around the nail red, swollen, throbbing pain appears.
- Termination of the growth of the skin of the nail. The inflammation subsides with time, the roller becomes thickened, the nail peel ceases to grow.
- Changing the structure of the nail plate. At the third stage of development of the fungus, the nail plate is affected. It becomes cloudy, tarnish, and becomes brown or gray-yellow in color. Peeling begins at the edges.
- The nail disappears. Blood circulation is impaired, leading to loss of the nail plate.
Fungus in the intestines of a child
Such a fungal pathology in children often develops against the background of other diseases, so proper diagnosis is extremely important. The main symptoms of intestinal candidiasis:
- pain in the stomach after eating,
- increased gas formation,
- loose stools with white cheesy flakes in feces,
- rumbling and bloating,
- sleep disturbance,
- weakness, fatigue,
- fever (sometimes),
Types and forms of the disease
Depending on the clinical manifestations, thrush can occur in acute, atrophic or pseudomembranous form. By the vastness of the lesion, candidiasis is divided into focal and generalized. According to the degree of tissue damage - on the surface and deep. According to the international classification, a fungal infection is divided into types:
- fungal vulvovaginitis (colpitis),
- vaginal candidiasis (thrush),
- pulmonary candidiasis,
- candidal meningitis,
- Candida endocarditis,
- urogenital candidiasis,
- fungal infection of the nails and skin,
- candidal stomatitis,
- visceral candidiasis,
- esophageal candidiasis.
If the child has a suspicion of thrush, you should contact your pediatrician. The doctor will visually determine the fungal infection, because the clinical picture of the disease is obvious. In case of difficulty in making a diagnosis or for its reliability, the baby is sent for clinical examinations. A scraping is performed from the affected area, from which the fungus is microscopically determined. Sometimes more expensive methods are shown: REEF, ELISA, PCR.
Treatment of candidiasis in children
Therapeutic measures are aimed at eliminating the fungus, depending on its location and severity. Traditional therapy includes a complex of different measures: the adjustment of nutrition and lifestyle, the use of local antibacterial agents, the administration of systemic drugs, in case of acute infections - antibiotic treatment. The volume of therapeutic measures is chosen by the doctor individually. The duration of treatment depends on the stability of Candida fungi, the characteristics of the pathology. Self-treatment of thrush in a child can cause irreparable harm to his health.
In most cases, small patients have enough local treatment to eliminate the disease. The treatment of thrush always begins with it when the mucous membrane or skin is affected. Antifungal solutions, creams, ointments, powders, gels, lotions are applied. The most common:
- Candide powder. Available for the treatment of fungal infections. Apply to the affected area twice a day. The duration of therapy is 3-4 weeks. The powder can be sprayed onto baby’s clothes and shoes. During use, burning may occur in places of application. Do not apply if the baby has a penchant for allergies.
- Diflucan solution. Effective against yeast-like and moldy fungi. Highly effective in treating thrush in newborns. Gauze moistened in the solution, you need 2-3 times / day to wipe the mouth of the infant or other affected areas. You can not use an antiseptic with intolerance to the components of the drug.
The pharmaceutical industry offers a wide range of ointments for the fungus. The most effective among them are:
- Nystatin ointment. Antibiotic with antifungal effects. Destroys the membrane of fungi, which leads them to death. Apply Nystatin need, applying a thin layer on the affected areas 2 times / day. Use ointment recommended 10 days. Can not be used for peptic ulcer, chronic liver disease, pancreatitis.
- Amphocetrine B. Antifungal antibiotic local effects. When children candidiasis is applied to the lesions with a thin layer of 2-4 times / day for 1-2 weeks. In case of overdose, side effects are possible in the form of itching, edema, rash in the places of application.
With long-term candidiasis, when the local therapy does not help the child, systemic treatment is prescribed. In the form of tablets used antifungal drugs, antibiotics, vitamins B and C, probiotics. Most popular drugs:
- Levorin. It belongs to the group of polyene antibiotics. It has activity against yeast-like fungi. A child under 6 years old is prescribed 25,000 U / day, after 6-200000 U / day 2-4 times / day. The duration of treatment is 7-14 days. Contraindications: acute gastrointestinal diseases, kidney or liver failure.
- Probifor. Probiotic that regulates the balance of intestinal microflora. It is indicated for candidiasis, dermatitis, during the use of antibiotics. Take 1 capsule (sachet) 3-4 times / day. The course of treatment from 2 to 5 days. There is only one contraindication - individual intolerance to the components.
It does not matter if thrush develops in boys or girls, but during the treatment it is necessary to follow a certain diet. The fact is that the Candida species feeds on certain foods that a person consumes, which allows them to grow and multiply. For this reason, during treatment, you must stop using:
- sweets (cookies, sweets, cakes, ice cream, chocolate, pastry),
- sugar and sweeteners,
- white bread
- sweet fruit
- jam, honey, condensed milk, jam,
- marinades, sauces, vinegar,
- fresh milk.
In contrast to antifungal medications, during the treatment of candidiasis by folk recipes there are no side effects, a milder effect on the children's body occurs. Therapy is carried out both systemically and locally:
- Soda solution. Effective with oral candidiasis in infants and older children. To use, dilute 1 tsp. baking soda in a glass of water, soak a piece of sterile bandage and remove the white film in the child's mouth several times a day until the problem is resolved.
- Chamomile and calendula tea. Excellent tool for maintaining immunity in candidiasis. It is necessary to brew chamomile and calendula flowers in equal parts, insist in a thermos for 6-8 hours, then add 100 ml of boiling water to 50 ml of concentrated infusion and drink 30 minutes before each meal for 10 consecutive days.
Symptoms of candidiasis in a child
Symptoms of candidiasis not difficult to diagnose:
The disease affects in most cases the oral cavity of newborns. The child often refuses to breastfeed, while eating disorders occur.
C intestinal fungus is sent and actively reproduces near the anus. The specific smell of yeast is characteristic of the child’s stool.
Also, due to the fact that children often keep fingers in their mouths, they spread fungi throughout the body (including eyes), and this contributes to the development of conjunctivitis.
Symptoms of candidiasis in a child of a different type
Candidiasis in the child's corners of the mouth (candida candidiasis) occurs as a result of the spread of the disease from the oral mucosa, but it can be isolated, vitamin deficiency, especially riboflavin, plays a significant role in the development of the disease. Both corners of the mouth are usually affected.
The mucous membrane in the area of the transition fold is slightly infiltrated, has a grayish-white color, a crack appears in the depth of the fold. The boundaries are clear. Honey-yellow crusts that form around streptococcal erosion, with yeast damage are absent. Candidiasis in a child can spread to the skin areas adjacent to the corners of the mouth, which leads to their infiltration, pink and red staining and peeling. With the long-term existence of Candida candida, a slight infiltration develops, which can simulate one of the forms of papulo-erosive syphilide.
Cheilitis Candida (Candida candidiasis) it is characterized by edema and blueness of the red border of the lips and its scanty peeling, thin lamellar scales of grayish color with freely elevated edges. The skin of the lips with candidiasis of this type becomes thinner and is collected in gentle radial folds. Subjectively, there is a slight burning sensation, sometimes soreness. Candidiasis in a child as a cheilitis has a chronic relapsing course, occurs, as a rule, in older children and adults, and is often combined with adic.
Child candidiasis skin folds characterized by the appearance in the depth of the folds of small vesicles with a thin flabby tire, they will soon be opened with or without pre-emptying. The resulting erosion is rapidly increasing in size and, merging, form extensive erosive areas that can completely occupy the contacting surfaces of the folds.
The clinical picture of candidiasis of the folds in this stage is quite typical: the erosive areas have a crimson color with a bluish or livid shade, their wet surface is characterized by a characteristic varnish gloss. Erosion is clearly delimited from the surrounding healthy skin, passing along their periphery - a narrow fringe of white flaking epidermis.
In large skin folds (interdigital, inguinal-femoral, etc.), erosive areas often alternate with areas of macerated epidermis, characterized by white color and marked thickening. Erosion and maceration of the epidermis in candidiasis are limited, as a rule, to the contacting surfaces of the folds. In healthy skin adjacent to the main lesions, it is almost always possible to detect in one or another number of screenings in the form of small blisters, pustules or erythematous-squamous eruptions. Often affects interdigital folds of brushes.
Paronychia and Candida Onychia (candidiasis in a child nail rollers and nails) arise as a result of local trauma, humidity and maceration. First, the nail ridge is affected. Symptoms of this type of disease begin at the root of the nail, go to the lateral margins, and then spread to the entire nail. The rollers become swollen, bright red, sharply painful. Suprachaeta skin disappears. Often, out of the nail shaft can squeeze a drop of pus. The adjacent part of the nail becomes cloudy and can crumble with the formation of the hole.
Candidiasis in a child's oral cavity. The process begins with the appearance on the background of hyperemia of a white, crumbly plaque resembling semolina. Gradually, a continuous white film is formed, which is first easily removed, and then compacted, acquires a dirty gray color and firmly holds on the surface of the mucous membrane (after its removal, bleeding erosion remains). When a child has candidiasis, the tongue may increase in size and, in the words of patients, “fill the entire mouth.” Subjectively marked dry mouth, burning, aggravated by taking spicy and hot foods.
Infection in severe cases is manifested by sepsis, affecting the intestines, the stomach and esophagus, the tissues of the lungs and bronchi, the tracheal tract, larynx and nasopharynx, and the oral mucosa.
Candidiasis in a child can affect the lungs and some internal organs. Candida enteritis and candidal pneumonia are also very real consequences.
In addition, against the background of candidiasis, the spread of infection into the bloodstream (sepsis) can occur.
In sick children, the duration of the disease is calculated in years, they are very behind in physical development.
In premature babies, severe complications of candidiasis are possible due to weakness of the immune system (in practice there have been cases of death).
Treatment of candidiasis in a child
The treatment of the disease has been somewhat difficult over the years. Minor was the choice of medicines (both general and local action). To date, the situation has changed dramatically. The main rule remains the same: timely treatment and not trying to self-medicate is at least dangerous, and speaking of newborns and young children the risks are doubled.
That is why doctors recommend the treatment of candidiasis in a child. carry out not independently, treat the disease not with folk remedies, but with the help of modern medicine. To get rid of candidiasis, you first need to be examined by a doctor to confirm the diagnosis. He will make an objective assessment of the degree of spread of the fungus and prescribe the necessary treatment of candidiasis.
You need to identify the type of candidiasis, only then choose a specific treatment. Types of lesions:
in case of candidiasis of the mucous membranes, antifungal ointments or solutions should be used (they have a more gentle effect on the mucous membranes, without causing strong irritations and complications). Treatment of candidiasis in a child with oral lesions is carried out using drugs and their solutions (5-10% solutions of Borax in Glycerin, 1% Yodlipol, 1% Potassium permanganate), or decoction of herbs (chamomile, sage, etc.),
if candidiasis is a type of skin, antifungal ointments are usually prescribed (they have not only antifungal and antibacterial effects, but also protect the skin from subsequent erosiveness at the site of the disease). To get rid of candidiasis, alcohol solutions of dyes are also suitable (they are used mainly for extensive lesions of skin areas).
Homemade treatment of candidiasis in a child involves rubbing soda, taking vitamin B12, treating problem areas with borax solution and sometimes nistanin powder. At the same time, a spoon of soda is added to boiled water (capacity - glass), a finger is wrapped with a sterile bandage, dipped in a solution and the infant wipes the mouth. To get rid of candidiasis, this procedure must be repeated every 2-3 hours.
Also, in children with candidiasis, it is better to take vitamins of group “B” or at least ascorbic acid. These drugs will help in restoring lesions after candidiasis of the skin and in eliminating dry mucous membranes.
Causes of Pediatric Candidiasis and Prevention
What do we know about this disease? At the moment, there are several known types of Candida pathogens: albicans, krusei, parapsiolosis, quilliermondii, tropicalis. All of these species belong to the genus of so-called yeast-like fungi, with only one difference: the ability to form mycelium and the absence of the sexual way of reproduction.
There are only two ways of spreading and infection: airborne (rarely) and contact (much more often). The direct source of candidiasis infection is the sick (people or animals) an acute form of the disease and fungi of the Candida species.
The greatest risk of infection is direct contact with the patient, or through household items. Newborn babies and children up to 6-7 years old are more susceptible to the disease. The first symptoms of candidiasis in children with immunodeficiency, polymorphism (clinical).
Candidiasis in a child may develop due to:
changes in hormonal status (for example, in adolescence),
What causes candidiasis?
Most often, the child has candidiasis during breastfeeding, since during this period immunity is still immature. Most of the children become infected from inaccurate mothers who did not cure the disease and during the birth infect their child to them.
A baby can also get thrush through a nipple or bottle, through the dirt on the hands of the mother or those people who care for him, if hygiene measures are not observed.
After a year of life in a child, candidiasis can also manifest itself in cases where he is often sick, one has to take a large amount of antibiotics and other drugs, there are constant stresses, and as a result, immunity decreases.
The first foci of the disease appear in the oral cavity, they quickly spread, affecting other mucous membranes, the skin in the diaper area, most of all in those places where intertrigo appears. Candidiasis in children should be treated, it is important not to let it go into the chronic form. In the future, the disease may contribute to the development of inflammation and the occurrence of allergies. All internal organs are under threat, up to blood contamination.
The manifestation of candidiasis in children
The first thing that every mother should know is that the child has candidiasis in the mouth in the form of cheesy raids on the sky and tongue. If you try to remove the plaque, then under it you can see a red inflammation. This type of thrush is called stomatitis. There are three forms of the disease: mild, moderate and severe.
- Easy form. Symptoms are limited only to plaque in the mouth. The general condition of the child does not change. If you start a quick and, most importantly, correct treatment, the disease disappears within 7 days.
- Medium shape. With this form, the child may have a fever, but within 37.5 degrees. His appetite is gone, he is naughty, and during the removal of white bloom, blood may appear. This form of thrush should be treated only comprehensively, process the mouth and take inside antifungal drugs. Full cure can occur after two weeks.
- Heavy form. Its first sign is a high temperature over 38 degrees. The child refuses to eat, in the oral cavity a film in the form of a film that completely covers the entire mouth and goes to the throat. The treatment takes more than two weeks and depends on the proper selection of antifungal drugs.
Very often congenital candidiasis occurs in children. Symptoms to detect it will not be so easy, but the main symptom is a white plaque on the tongue. If you have found one in your child, consult a doctor and try to undergo a comprehensive examination to cure candidiasis at the initial stage, without delaying to chronic.
Very often candidiasis of the skin in children up to one year in places of folds, where diaper rash is formed. This type of thrush is called candidal dermatitis. Localized this type of disease in the inguinal folds or cervical and extends to the back, buttocks and limbs. The baby’s tender skin is very sensitive to fungal damage.
Most often, candidiasis in children (photos of the affected areas indicate this), which are older, manifested in the oral cavity or around the nail plate, especially for those who often bite their nails.
In most cases, intestinal dysbiosis is caused by Candida fungi. But there is another opinion: the intestinal candidiasis in children develops against the background of microflora disorders, and that is why the yeast fungus begins to thrive. Newborns also very often have dysbacteriosis, so they should not rule out this disease.
Detect thrush can be done by testing for dysbacteriosis.
Candidiasis of the genital organs occurs in both girls and boys. In girls in the genital area there is a strong itching and burning, cheesy discharge, which indicate that an urgent need to consult a doctor and ensure timely comprehensive treatment.
As for the boys, they have candidiasis of the genital organs manifested in the form of white discharge from the urethra. There may also be swelling and redness of the head and foreskin.
Treatment of candidiasis (thrush)
If you find a white bloom in your child, immediately consult a doctor, do not delay the visit. This is necessary for the doctor to quickly determine the diagnosis and decide how to treat candidiasis in children.
The first thing that needs to be done is to treat the lesion sites with a mucous soda solution that each woman can prepare on her own: in 1 tbsp. warm boiled water dilute 1 tsp. soda In this solution it is necessary to moisten the swab and remove all white bloom in the mouth. After well treat the oral cavity. The procedure is repeated after 3 hours.
Treatment of candidiasis in children is also carried out with the drug "Iodinol", nystatin drops or "Candide" solution, which needs to process the oral cavity several times a day.
Proper care for affected skin
Favorable conditions in which the yeast fungus multiplies rapidly, are high humidity and heat. This is facilitated by the wearing of diapers, diapers and underwear made of cloth, to which a synthetic thread is added. That is why make sure that the child's clothes are breathable, give preference to cotton underwear. Try to leave those areas of the skin that are affected by thrush open.
Diet for candidiasis
Candidiasis of the oral cavity in children (or any other form of it) will require not only properly chosen treatment, but also compliance with the diet. This will increase the chances of a speedy recovery.
The first thing to do is to limit sugar intake, at least muffin, honey. It is also better not to drink milk and do not eat bread with yeast. All of the above products contribute to the reproduction of the fungus Candida.
Protein diet is recommended, you need to eat more meat, fish and eggs, as well as foods that are rich in vitamins and minerals - vegetables and fruits, especially lemons, carrots and sea kale. If the child wants to eat anything from dairy products, you can give him, but in small quantities.
It should be remembered that the treatment of thrush remedies in combination with a diet significantly increases the chances of a quick recovery.
Prevention of thrush
Candidiasis in children (the photos provided in the article prove this) is a very serious disease that brings a lot of inconvenience not only to the child, but also to the parents. No wonder many doctors say that it is better to prevent the disease than to treat it. That is why it is best to prevent the disease, thereby securing the child and himself.
So, what can be done for prevention:
- The future mother should be examined for the presence of thrush in her body even before she is about to become pregnant. If, up to this point, the examination could not be done, and the signs of candidiasis showed up already during pregnancy, then it is necessary to strictly follow the recommendations of the gynecologist and undergo treatment. A woman’s partner should also be examined, if a thrush is found in him - to undergo treatment.
- It is necessary to observe the hygiene of the dishes from which the baby eats. It is important to monitor the cleanliness of clothing.
- If the baby is breastfed, it is imperative to monitor the cleanliness of the nipple, you should thoroughly wash the breast before feeding.
- It is also worthwhile to approach the selection of complementary foods carefully, since if a large amount of sweets is present in the baby’s diet, then this is a good environment for the development of fungi. Starting lure is better with vegetables and fruits.
- You should change diapers more often and try to leave the child without them for most of the day. There is no need to be lazy to arrange long air baths for your child, they will allow the skin of the baby in the folds to dry out, and the fungus will not develop.
In a child, candidiasis (thrush) occurs in a very serious form, the remains of the fungus in the body can affect the internal organs and later crawl out of a serious chronic disease. That is why the treatment of candidiasis in children should be under the supervision of a doctor.
It is important to take care of all precautions and protect your child from infection. Only parents can protect themselves and the baby from such a disease. If it so happens that the child still has it, a quick response and comprehensive treatment will help to completely get rid of the disease in the shortest possible time.
Fungal mucosal lesions
The mucous membrane of the oral cavity is a favorite breeding ground for candida, and a disease such as candidal stomatitis develops.
The leading symptoms are:
- cheesy overlays on the gums, tongue, inner surface of the lips and cheeks,
- dryness and redness of the mucous membranes,
- loss of appetite, even refusal to eat, which increases discomfort.
There are three severity of candidal stomatitis:
- Light form - scurf in the mouth in the form of single points, the general condition is satisfactory.
- The average form is whitish specks on mucous membranes, which can merge. The temperature rises to 38 °, the appetite is reduced.
- Severe form - the scurf has the appearance of a gray film that covers the entire cavity of the mouth and passes to the larynx. The child refuses to eat, he is reeling.
Often, the disease from any form extends to the lips and goes into candidal cheilitis. Externally, it looks like symmetrical zadyy in the corners of the mouth. First, there is swelling and hyperemia of this area, and then white scales, peeling and soreness are formed.
Fungal sore throat or tonsil candidiasis is a complication of the wrong course of antibiotic therapy of ordinary bacterial sore throat. The child may not complain, and the impression is created of a successful cure of the underlying disease. Fungal inflammation of the glands at this time is progressing and is manifested by bloom, which can later lead to pain and burning in the throat.
Lesions are localized in the axillary, inguinal and cervical folds of the skin - places with excessive sweating. Candidiasis forms gradually: redness of the skin first appears, then papules and blisters appear on its background. They merge to form erosion — a superficial defect of the skin of a crimson color with a shiny surface. On the place of long-term non-healing erosion, cracks can appear, and in them - a cheesy raid.
This disease often affects children under 1 year old, especially girls. At risk are also babies on artificial feeding. At the root of the problem is improper care for the baby, a rare change of diapers or diapers. Physical (high temperature, humidity, poor ventilation), chemical (low acid urine, alkaline feces) and biological (fungal reproduction in a favorable acidic environment) factors are involved in the formation of candidiasis.
A significant role is played by the quality of the used diapers, the nature of the food and the presence of allergic reactions in the child. Depending on the cause, the localization of the inflammatory formations may be different: in the inguinal folds, in the perineum, around the anus, or along the edges of the diaper. The external genitals of the child may also be affected.
Morphologically candidiasis passes the same stages as intertrigo. It all starts with the appearance of diaper rash and redness. Then papules and pustules are formed, erosion, cracks and ulcerative defects appear, as well as whitish layers.
Stages of diaper dermatitis
Folliculitis is an inflammation of the hair follicles. Yeast-like fungi of the genus Candida often cause this pathology. In babies, the disease is localized on the scalp. Mom can notice numerous flakings, red specks or bubbles on the head of her child. Itching in this area causes general irritability, crying.
Fungal infection of internal organs
Candida from the site of the primary focus - the oral cavity in the absence of therapy can spread through the gastrointestinal tract and blood vessels, colonizing the internal organs. The fungus causes endocarditis, meningitis, vulvovaginitis, but most often affects the intestines. There is a logical explanation for this - transient dysbacteriosis in infants, due to colonization of the intestine with microflora. Against this background, candida multiply vigorously and can cause such dangerous states as ulcers and bleeding.
Each mother at the sight of suspicious rashes in the child should pay special attention to the care of his skin, namely:
- refuse to use diapers and diapers,
- ensure that the baby’s delicate skin does not come into contact with synthetic fabrics,
- use only cotton underwear,
- bathe the baby 2 times a day with the use of hypoallergenic children's soap,
- in the baths add a weak solution of potassium permanganate, soda or chamomile decoction,
- observe the temperature in the room,
- provide “air baths” - the child stays in the open air without clothes.
Antifungal agents can be used:
- Travogen - from 1 month,
- Lamisil - from 12 years old
- Fluconazole - from 4 years old,
- Mycozon - vaginal suppositories and capsules from the age of 12.
Ointment Mikozon, Pimafutsin and the above medications that are not included in the list of restrictions can be applied from birth.
However, all necessary drugs and their dosage should be prescribed by the attending physician. It is also necessary to consult with the pediatrician and make sure that there are no allergies to the components before using any means of traditional medicine.
Complications and consequences
All forms of candidiasis are dangerous to the health of the baby. They are accompanied by anxiety and irritability of the child and can adversely affect the formation of the nervous system and psyche.
In addition, children suffering from thrush, as a rule, refuse to eat. Thus, they do not receive the necessary nutrients, which negatively affects their physical development.
The child’s immune system also suffers. Frequent "attacks" of candidates deplete it, which contributes to the accession of other infections.
It must be remembered that if you do not go to a doctor in time or if you incorrectly treat thrush, it can turn into a chronic form of the disease with a relapsing course. This means that pathogenic fungi will remain in the body of the child for the rest of his life. In this case, the periodic occurrence of candidiasis is inevitable in adulthood.
The effects of the fungal disease
For infants, candidiasis in the mouth can be the reasons for refusing food, losing weight and dehydration. Especially dangerous is diaper dermatitis, which extends to the genitals of the child. People who have had skin candidiasis at an early age may have impaired reproductive functions. Fungal lesions of the stomach sometimes cause intestinal obstruction, and even a breakthrough of its wall. With the running form of thrush the risk of blood poisoning is high.
What can you do
At home, as an adjunct to the main treatment prescribed by a pediatrician, the following methods can be applied:
- ежедневно по несколько раз обрабатывать рот малыша с помощью марли или бинта, смоченного раствором питьевой соды (1 чайная ложка на стакан тёплой кипячёной воды),
- после туалета подмывать кроху кипячёной водой с добавлением травяных отваров (ромашка, календула),
- если ребёнок носит памперсы следить за их наполняемостью,
- to accustom the child to the rules of personal hygiene,
- frequent hand washing
- ensure that the child’s underwear is made only from natural fabrics,
- if possible, give affected skin more breathing,
- disinfect toys and household items
- regularly carry out wet cleaning in the house,
- often ventilate the room
- follow a special diet.
The candida diet includes the following important points:
- limit the use of sugar, honey,
- not to give the child rich pastries, yeast bread and milk,
- to make a protein ration on the basis of such products: lean meat, fish, eggs,
- Enrich the menu with vitamins and healthy trace elements (vegetables and fruits, especially lemons, carrots and seaweed),
- sour - milk products should be consumed in a limited quantity, follow the diet.
What can a doctor do
A mild disease is usually treated with topical therapy and consists of antiseptic treatment of the affected areas. Running form implies inpatient treatment under the strict supervision of a physician with the following therapeutic course:
- taking antifungal drugs,
- the use of special ointments or creams containing clotrimazole,
- taking drugs containing live bacteria that prevent the growth of fungi,
- drinking beer yeast,
- passing the course to improve immunity,
- taking vitamins B and C, as well as folic acid,
- adherence to a special diet.
It is worth noting that the chances of a quick recovery are greatly enhanced with an integrated approach to treatment.
Which doctor to contact with candidiasis?
It all depends on the localization process and age. If a child is ill, initially you should contact your pediatrician. He will select the treatment and determine the place - in severe forms of treatment in the hospital.
If you are interested in the help of a specialist, you can turn to the dentist for stomatitis, to the gynecologist for the defeat of the genitals in girls. In all other cases, help is guaranteed from a dermatologist.
- weakened immunity
- frequent diseases, in particular SARS,
- long-term antibiotic treatment, taking cytostatics, hormonal drugs, as well as drugs that suppress the immune system,
- diseases of the thyroid or parathyroid glands,
- blood diseases (a decrease in the composition of blood leukocytes),
- lack of vitamins in the body, in particular group B, folic acid, as well as vitamin C,
- unbalanced nutrition of children (food supersaturated with carbohydrates and sugar, and devoid of vitamins),
- chronic diseases in a child,
- immunodeficiency: HIV infection, radiation damage,
- in newborns due to immature immunity,
- against the background of intestinal dysbiosis.
Candidiasis in children is divided into several types.
Candidiasis of the mucous membranes in children affects:
- oral cavity - the disease has the name "stomatitis"
- lips - cheilitis
- gums - gingivitis,
- language - glossitis.
And also the mucous membrane of the genital organs in children:
- vulva and vagina in the female genital organs, vulvovaginitis,
- head and foreskin in boys - balanoposthitis.
Candidiasis of upper respiratory tract and oropharynx affects the tonsils, sinuses and ears.
- Candida skin.
- Candidiasis nail.
- Candidiasis of internal organs and systems, and this type of fungus can affect any children's organs. Especially the infection of the esophagus and intestines is affected - the digestive organs, the high risk of infection and urinary organs - cystitis and urethritis, and of the respiratory organs - laryngitis, pneumonia, bronchitis.
Manifestations in children?
The most common symptom of candidiasis in children and adults is a cheesy discharge, almost always accompanied by itching, burning sensation and discomfort, pain.
The most common site of defeat candidiasis in children is the mucous membranes of the mouth. Symptoms of fungal stomatitis appear:
- dryness and redness in the mouth,
- loss of appetite, deterioration of the general condition of the baby,
- white or cream-colored cheesy deposits on the tongue, gums, palate, on the inside of the lips and cheeks. Whitish plaque in the child’s mouth is so similar to milk and kefir that the baby drinks, which often parents don’t pay proper attention to the “whitish tongue”, as a result they miss the disease.
Fungal sore throat occurs after treating a common sore throat with antibiotics, when the dose of drugs or the course of treatment they have been calculated or assigned incorrectly (large doses, long-term treatment). Symptoms of fungal tonsillitis are manifested:
- white tonsils covered with abundant cheesy bloom
- pain and burning in the throat, but without fever.
Intestinal candidiasis in children is caused by the same conditionally pathogenic fungi of Candida, but there is another opinion of scientists: when intestinal dysbiosis against the background of disturbed healthy microflora Candida actively reproduces. Intestinal dysbiosis is a fairly common disease in infants. You can detect the fungus of the Candida genus and make an accurate diagnosis by examining the child and passing the analysis for dysbacteriosis.
The disease accompanies the fungal diseases of the mucous membranes and appears near them on the skin: at the mouth, with stomatitis or in the groin, near the anus with dysbacteriosis.
- redness and rounded foci with clear boundaries
- bubbles that rise dense dots-papules above the surface of the skin.
Candidiasis of the genitals
Vulvae-vaginitis in girls is expressed:
- itching and burning in the area of the external genital organs,
- characteristic of the disease are cheesy, whitish-colored discharge from the vagina. During active activities - walking, running, itching in girls becomes more intense, and in the area of the vulva, itching - the maximum. The girl can constantly comb this place. Pain, itching and burning in some cases can cause fear in the girl before going to the toilet - before urinating. Painful discomfort with the disease can cause poor sleep in a child and lead to whims and irritability.
Broad-spectrum antibacterial drug. Often assigned to children for the treatment of thrush. The tool is available in ointments and in solution. Miramistin solution is applied to the affected areas of the skin with a gauze pad.
The ointment is applied with a thin layer of hands on the affected mucosa. The dosage and frequency of application is determined by a specialist. Miramistin's advantages in treating children: lack of taste and pronounced smell, and, importantly, the medicine does not “pinch” the mucous.
If used in combination with an antibiotic, the drug enhances its activity in the fight against fungi.
One of the means prescribed by specialists for children is nystatin. The drug is available in tablets, vaginal suppositories and ointments. The main advantage of the drug is that it does not cause addiction to it in Candida fungi.
An antibiotic is prescribed to children at risk of developing severe candidiasis. This applies in most cases to children premature or those who have undergone a long period of treatment.
If the baby was prescribed Nystatin in an ointment, it should be applied to the affected skin twice a day.
The drug in tablets and suppositories is used in accordance with the instructions attached to the drug. Standard treatment with Nystatin is 2 weeks. During the period of treatment with an antibiotic, it is important to monitor the child and his condition, since the remedy may produce allergic reactions.
Candide is a remedy for thrush for babies, with clotrimazole. Prescribed means in the form of a solution. Babies wipe the oral cavity with a swab moistened with Candida solution. The procedure is carried out 2-3 times a day for 10 days.
Rinse and treat the oral cavity during stomatitis and wipe the external genitalia in girls with their infection can be 2% soda solution. With a gauze bandage wrapped around a finger and soaked in soda solution, the mother rubs the baby's mouth.
It is possible to treat the skin and mucous membranes of a child with candidiasis by Travogen, Nitrofungin, Pimafucin, Daktharin, Nizoral, produced in the form of drops, solutions, creams, vaginal suppositories. Angina and stomatitis are treated with Hexoral spray.
When vulvovaginitis girls use candles, but only on the recommendation of a doctor. In most cases, the disease in girls with vaginal candidiasis is treated with local antifungal agents and antiseptics.
Local drugs have several advantages:
- quickly act on pathogens - quickly eliminate the symptoms of the disease,
- point application of the drug allows to increase its concentration for the effectiveness of treatment,
- pretty safe.