Gynecology

Features of the first menstruation in girls

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For a girl, the first menstrual bleeding is accompanied by panic and fear. But if you carefully observe the growth of the child, you can predict the onset of critical days. Maternal vigilance will allow not only to overcome this stage of maturity without serious consequences: further reproductive health depends on how the cycle is established.

To start the first menstruation, it is necessary for the body to start the process of puberty. It is long, the prerequisites appear even in utero. The girl is born already with a full set of sex cells. Their number decreases throughout life.

Stages of growth of the female body

The laying of the female genital organs begins in the sixth or seventh week of intrauterine development. Gradually, the girl's ovaries form, in which by the 40th week several million eggs are formed. They did not go through all the stages of division. And after the birth of the baby, some of them die, and by the time of puberty they remain 250-300 thousand. These eggs will form the ovarian reserve of the female body and will come out during each ovulation.

Normally, sexual development starts at the age of nine. By this time, mechanisms are launched that lead to changes in the genitals and mammary glands. There is an order of growing up.

  • Pubarche. Beginning pubic hair growth. In more than 50% of girls, this symptom appears first.
  • Thelarch It usually appears after the pubarche, but sometimes it can be the other way around. On average, between the beginning of the growth of pubic hair and the mammary gland are one to two years.
  • Menarche. This is the time when the first periods come. Most often they begin two years after the start of breast growth.

Effect of hormones

In childhood, the concentration of sex hormones is minimal. But by the time of puberty, the first changes appear at the hormonal level. Two years before the increase in the secretion of female hormones in the blood gradually increases the level of androgens. They provide a sharp jump in the growth of the girl. Only after this increase in the concentration of luteinizing (LH) and follicle-stimulating (FSH) hormones, which lead to the activation of estrogen synthesis. Further changes, step by step, begin to correspond to the adult female body, occur in a strict order.

  • The maturation of the follicle. The pituitary gland increases the secretion of FSH and some LH. Under the influence of FSH, several follicles are distinguished in the ovaries, among which only one will pass to the stage of final maturation. The cells in the follicle enhance the synthesis of estrogen, which leads to an increase in the thickness of the endometrium. On the 12th day, the amount of estrogen reaches a maximum; this stimulates a peak release of LH from the pituitary.
  • Ovulation. 12-24 hours after the peak of estrogen, ovulation occurs. The follicle bursts, and the egg leaves the abdominal cavity.
  • Education yellow body. Under the influence of LH, the formation of the corpus luteum occurs at the place of follicle residues. His cells begin to synthesize progesterone. It leads to an increase in the number of vessels and glands in the endometrium. The ovum descends through the fallopian tube into the uterine cavity, but does not attach there.
  • Regression of the corpus luteum. No organs are created that are capable of supporting the work of the corpus luteum. It gradually regresses.
  • Menstruation. The endometrium does not receive the necessary hormonal replenishment, it also atrophies. Flaking of uterine mucosa with blood leads to menstrual bleeding.

Then everything repeats again. But in the first year, some cycles can take place without ovulation, and the rhythm of hormone secretion will be irregular.

Norms of menarche

On the eve of the discharge, which usually increases in an adult woman in the days of ovulation (about 10-14 days before menstruation). Symptoms resembling premenstrual syndrome (PMS) may appear:

  • tearfulness
  • irritability,
  • aggression,
  • headache,
  • weakness,
  • fatigue

Then on the laundry will appear the first bleeding. It may be a daub or just a few drops of blood. The intensity of bleeding is individual. Sometimes they are immediately abundant. Color is variable:

This is not pure blood, but endometrial remnants mixed with blood and vaginal secretions. The duration of such bleeding may be different, but most often the period is not more than three to five days, occasionally a week.

The normal sign of menstruation is pain in the lower abdomen, which appears in the first days and gradually decreases. Some girls feel weak and dizzy. Signs of irritability, tearfulness with the appearance of bleeding should pass.

After the first bleeding, the cycle may be irregular. Sometimes for its formation it takes about a year.

Disturbing signs

Sometimes girls 15-16 years old appear harbingers of early menstruation. The stomach hurts, the mood changes, but bleeding does not occur. If this is repeated for several months, then you need to contact a pediatric gynecologist. There are cases of abnormal development of the genital organs:

  • full fusion of the hymen,
  • vaginal atresia,
  • fusion of the cervix.

In such cases, with a normally formed uterus and ovaries, cyclic changes occur in them, but the blood has no way out. It is collected first in the uterus, and then with a large volume can go into the abdominal cavity and mimic the symptoms of acute surgical pathology. This condition requires surgical treatment.

You should also look for the causes of deviations in the following situations.

  • Volume Abundant first discharge when you need to change the gasket every two hours. This is usually a sign of bleeding. Scanty menstruation, which recurs monthly in the form of daub, should also alert.
  • Duration If the bleeding continues for more than a week, then an urgent need to consult a doctor. This may be due to both the pathology of the reproductive organs and the blood coagulation system.
  • Sensations . Menstruation should not be accompanied by acute abdominal pain, pronounced fever. Fever - a sign of an infectious process.
  • Periodicity. If during the year menstruation constantly change the duration, between them are not set equal periods of time, then you need to consult a doctor. It is considered invalid if the cycle lasts less than 21 days or more than 35 days.
  • PMS. This is a consequence of the effect of progesterone. The syndrome should not be pronounced and disrupt the rhythm of the life of the girl. But sometimes it is able to take critical forms, accompanied by pressure surges, vegetative symptoms, depression. In such cases, the need correction hormonal drugs.

Behavior rules

In some, the first menstruation is associated with the disease. But it is not. Monthly should not affect the rhythm of life. It is only necessary to adhere to certain recommendations.

  • Hygiene Lingerie must be breathable, made of cotton. It must be selected in size. Menstrual blood is an excellent nutrient for microorganisms. If you neglect the shower, then there will be not only an unpleasant smell - the products of the metabolism of bacteria are toxic to the human body.
  • Gaskets. Need to use those that correspond to the amount of bleeding. They change as they are filled, but at least once every four hours.
  • Tampons Developed special tampons for teens. They are not capable of damaging the hymen. In the days of menstruation under the action of estrogen, it becomes elastic and folded, therefore it is not an obstacle. It is impossible to use tampons only with the anatomical features of the development of the genital organs. Swab replacement in the first days of bleeding should be done every four hours. In the following days - less often, up to eight to ten hours. If you change very often, the vaginal mucosa will be overdried, will not allow you to enter a new or irritation.
  • Physical Education . Sports and attending physical education classes are not prohibited. Only with pronounced poor health in the first days can you refuse to exercise. In other cases, exercise will benefit. They help reduce unpleasant symptoms, abdominal pain, and keep the body in good shape. But you should refuse to lift weights, work on the press, so as not to increase the bleeding.
  • Sex After the appearance of menstruation, some girls begin sexual intercourse. If you follow the rules of contraception and hygiene, they will not bring harm. But do not use menstruation days for unprotected intercourse to avoid pregnancy. At this time, the risk of contracting a genital infection increases, because the cervix opens slightly and there is no acidic environment in the vagina to protect against bacteria.

Sometimes during menstruation, the girl experiences severe pain in the lower abdomen. In this case, you can use painkillers from the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. For example, "Ibuprofen", "Paracetamol". They will help not only to get rid of pain, but also reduce the intensity of bleeding.

My eldest started at 14, she was crying hard, although most of the girls in her class already had them. I explained to my children that nothing changes from menstruation, except that they can become mothers. But still there were difficulties, Elinka did not want to grow up. The first six months, they did not go all the time, for 7 days. The discharge was strong. With clots. I was scared, led to the doctor. It turned out the reproductive organs are underdeveloped. Now she is 17, the cycle returned to normal about a year after it arrived.
I also have a younger daughter. Which is now-14. But there are no signs of puberty. Probably because she is premature.

My friend's daughter, her period began at 9 years old. Now she is 17 and she is 34 weeks pregnant. And do not say that she is already an adult.

Olga Gladkikh, https://www.baby.ru/community/view/126569/forum/post/85347609/

My doctors all doctors promised monthly almost in 9-10 years. Southern origin, the smell of sweat appeared in incomplete 9. As a result, she is already almost 12, so far nothing. Weight 39, height 147. Recently I was with her at the gynecologist, so she says that no earlier than six months or a year, because weight is too small. I don’t know how true this is) My daughter in the class has only one girl started her period.

What is the menstrual cycle

For a start, let's see what all the same is a menstrual cycle.
The menstrual cycle is a natural and inevitable process occurring in the female body, causing the possibility of conception. Thanks to monthly it is possible to get pregnant and give a new life. A newborn girl has, on average, more than 300,000 eggs, but in a lifetime, it ripens from 200 to 300. At different periods in the life of the egg, they mature with different intensity. During maturation, the egg reaches a considerable size and from the ovaries enters the fallopian tube. In fact, the mature egg is ready for conception. An unfertilized egg is destroyed and excreted with menstrual blood. The menstrual cycle consists of several phases.

Phases of the menstrual cycle

  1. Menstrual phase. During the menstrual phase, the inner lining of the uterus is rejected. There is secretion of mucus along with blood. Blood loss is normally from one to the menstruation from 40 to 80 ml.
  2. Follicular phase. The moment of maturation of the egg in the follicle. Increased production of the hormone estrogen. At the same time several eggs can mature.
  3. Ovulatory phase. During this phase, the mature egg enters the fallopian tube. The ovulation phase lasts from two to five days.
  4. Luteal phase. Increased uterine lining, preparation for a possible pregnancy, increased production of the hormone progesterone.

In medicine, it is believed that the classic monthly cycle lasts for 28 days. But a stable monthly cycle is found only in a third of women. For most, the monthly cycle lasts differently and can last from 21 to 35 days.

When do menstruation begin for the first time

Menarche is the first menstruation and is the main event in the sexual development of the girl, which suggests that she is ready for pregnancy. It usually occurs 2 years after the first changes in the chest.

When many years of menstruation begin for each woman is very individual and their beginning can be in the range from 10 to 15 years. There are cases when menstruation occurred before 10 years and later 15, however, the probability of such an event is rather low. It all depends on the physiology of each particular organism, heredity, hormone levels, and many other factors.

You should not be concerned if at the age of a certain age the periods have not yet arrived. In this case, you just need to be patient and wait. The complete absence of menstruation is extremely rare and indicates significant hormonal disorders. Recently, the onset of the first menstruation has been observed in girls of early age (earlier than 10 years) due to the rapid development and maturation of adolescents.

The first menstrual periods in girls 12 years of age - the age generally accepted rate of onset of menstruation.

Signs of the first menses

During puberty, the shape changes, sweat and sebaceous glands work more actively. Other precursors may also be present in the first menstrual period: white vaginal discharge indicates the onset of the first menstrual period. It is not possible to know exactly when the first menses will begin. The first periods will come at a time when hormone levels will be sufficient for the maturation of the egg.
About the beginning of the menstrual cycle can be judged by the selection of light brown spots or a few drops of blood in underwear.

Factors affecting the time when menstruation begins:

  • girl's physical development,
  • past illnesses,
  • nutrition,
  • social conditions,
  • heredity,
  • climatic conditions
  • another.

Early onset of menstruation may be related to the constitution of the organism. If a girl has a thin physique, then the menarche will come later, which the girls tend to be overweight. Gymnastics can also affect the later onset of menstruation. Studies have shown that between the skill of gymnasts and menarche there is a direct relationship. The higher the skill of a gymnast, the later the onset of menstruation.

Signs of the onset of the first menstrual period:

  • lower abdominal pain,
  • weakness,
  • apathy,
  • excessive irritability.

If these symptoms are present, you should carefully monitor your body.
During the year after the first menstrual period in adolescent girls, the menstrual cycle becomes more predictable and stable. The hormonal background is also stabilized, mood swings disappear, in general, life is getting better. Soon the menstrual cycle becomes trivial and critical days cause very little inconvenience.

What to do if the first menstruation came suddenly?

Monthly for the first time - a real psychological test for a teenager. If you feel unwell in this case, you can take time off from the lessons. Do not be shy and you can ask for help from a friend, a teacher. At the first opportunity to purchase and use personal care products. In the event that the pads are not at hand, several dry sanitary napkins can be used as pads. In general, one should not panic, but try to behave as if nothing had happened. It is necessary to tell about the beginning of the monthly parents, or at least the mother, from this event you should not make a secret, this is normal and natural.

During menstruation, you must follow the rules of hygiene and take into account the features of the female body:

  1. Be sure to keep a calendar of the menstrual cycle and carry with you hygiene pads or tampons. Personal hygiene items should be changed as they become contaminated.
  2. It is also necessary to observe daily hygiene, take a shower.
  3. You should not sit on cold stones or wooden benches in the cold season. In the hot summer season should not be long in the sun.
  4. Eating during menstruation is necessary to fully, getting all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Need to drink more warm fluids.
  5. Heavy physical activity in this case is not highly recommended.
  6. Despite the possibility of using tampons to swim in pools or open water is not recommended, especially on the first day of menstruation.
  7. Especially dangerous are strict diets to lose weight. During the diet, the body reduces the amount of hormones produced, thus affects the menstrual cycle and causes irreparable harm to women's health.
  8. If menstruation is accompanied by moderate pain, anesthetic can be taken.

Do not panic if the discharge during the menstrual cycle is scanty or, on the contrary, intense.

The change in the nature of the discharge depends on many reasons:

  • emotional state
  • climate change
  • stress.

Месячные у девочек подростков не регулярные, поэтому при задержке в течении нескольких недель не стоит волноваться.

If the menstruation does not occur within three months, lasts less than 20 days or longer than 40 days, there is bloody discharge between the menstrual phases, there is intense bleeding, or the girl experiences severe pain during the menstrual period, do not postpone the visit to the gynecologist.
Do not forget that trust is the basis of relationships. Communicating with a teenage girl should be conducted on an equal footing, advice and moral support are always needed for her daughter. After the first menstruation, particular attention is paid to sex education. Despite the physiological maturity of a teenage girl is not ready psychologically for pregnancy and child rearing. Therefore, monitor the health of your children and teach them to think correctly.

The first signs of the first menstruation in adolescent girls

On average, the majority of adolescent girls start their first periods at the age of 12-14 years, but these periods can vary greatly depending on the individual characteristics of the organism, environmental conditions, genetic predisposition, health status and other factors. Even food and climate affect the duration of the first menstruation. If menarche occurred in the period from 10 to 17 years, then this is considered the norm.

By the time of the first menstrual period, other signs of puberty had already appeared: body growth accelerated, the figure began to acquire more rounded shapes, pubic hair appeared, the external and internal genitals increased, the mammary glands became larger, and the nipples darker. After all these changes, menstruation occurs, but it still does not indicate the end of puberty: the cycle should be established, the figure should take final form, and the body should end the period of endocrine maturation.

The first menstruation is often not abundant, they have a special smell, since during this period the vaginal glands are actively working. The microflora of the genital organs is changing, so it is very important to follow the rules of intimate hygiene.

Menstruation may be accompanied by headaches or pain in the lower abdomen, weakness, nausea, dizziness.

If a girl watches her condition and is attentive to changes in her body, then the first menstrual periods will not be a shock, since there are many symptoms by which you can determine their approximation.

For two years, a year or a few months before menarche, girls show characteristic vaginal discharge - whites, which initially have a liquid consistency and stand out in small quantities. For three or four months they become more abundant and thicker: on this basis it is possible to determine the approximate time of the onset of the first menstruation. If leucorrhoea has a pronounced sharp smell and color and is accompanied by itching, it is necessary to visit a gynecologist.

Some girls have pains in the lower abdomen a few months before the menarche, they may be weak or rather severe. Often they are accompanied by other signs of premenstrual symptom: headache, fluctuations in mood, aggression, tearfulness.

But PMS often begins not several days, but several weeks or months before the first menstrual period, although the terms may vary for different girls.

By the time of the first menstruation, there are also changes in appearance associated with the activation of the sebaceous sweat glands: pimples appear, sometimes there is a strong acne rash, hair becomes dirty more quickly, and dandruff can occur.

The body of a teenage girl changes very quickly. More recently, her figure was quite childish, but now there are feminine roundness. In addition to external changes, internal ones also occur, which cause the girl to care for herself differently.

With the onset of puberty, hormones are released, which stimulates the development and restructuring of the internal organs.

The girl's body is preparing for future motherhood, stimulating the work of the uterus, ovaries, vegetative-vascular system.

The teenager comes first menstruation (menarche), vaginal discharge increases, the girl begins to sweat much more than before. Sweat gets a smell, so personal hygiene in adolescence is very important.

In adolescence, many girls begin to gain weight quickly. Limit the consumption of sweet, fatty, flour and pay more attention to the sport. Do not be afraid of changes in the body. They are all natural and normal.

Just remember that you have innovations in the daily routine that will help you to always be clean and tidy.

First, make it a rule for a daily shower. It is better to take it twice - in the morning and in the evening. In this case, you need to be able to properly use deodorant. To take action, he needs time.

Therefore, apply it after the evening shower. During the night, the active substances will begin to work, the sweat will not stand out. Best of all, gel and solid deodorants cope with their task. Sprays only drown out the smell of sweat and very quickly disappear. To get deodorant on your skin, remove the hair from your armpits with a razor.

And shave them always. Sweat settles on the hairs, it is impossible to rinse them qualitatively, and it looks not aesthetically pleasing.

The second thing a girl should remember is that now there will be menstruation every month. Take care of the pads beforehand, until the cycle is established, the discharge may begin earlier than expected. Remember that during menstruation you need to wash especially thoroughly. Use soap or intimate gel to completely remove secretions and odor.

Feel free to tell your mother about the changes that are happening to your body. She can give wise advice. The increased work of the sweat glands leads to the fact that the hair on the head very quickly saly. Wash them as they get dirty, greasy hair looks very untidy.

Use shampoos, drying the scalp.

During puberty, the girl may have acne. If there are a lot of them and they cause inconvenience, consult a doctor. Complex therapy of acne rash consists not only of lotions and masks, but also special preparations that regulate the amount of hormones.

Only a doctor can prescribe them.

Symptoms of the first menses

The first menstruation is an exciting event in the life of any girl. During this period, important changes occur in the body. All of them are natural and show your growing up.

The symptoms of the first menstrual period in girls appear shortly before the onset of menstruation. Having noticed them, you will be able to prepare for this important event in advance.

In this case, the appearance of bleeding does not come as a surprise to you.

When to wait for the symptoms of the first menstruation?

Puberty occurs gradually. Usually, the first signs of your growing up become noticeable 2–2.5 years before the onset of menstruation. Carefully watching your body, you can assume when to wait for the arrival of menstruation.

For most girls, menstruation begins at 11–12 years old, but there are exceptions. Most often they are the norm and simply reflect the individual characteristics of the development of the organism. Remember: the first periods can come in 10 years, and sometimes they begin only after 15 years.

If you are worried, talk to your mother or go with her to the pediatric gynecologist.

What changes happen to your body before menstruation?

Before menstruation begins in girls, the symptoms of hormonal changes in the body become more and more noticeable. The most characteristic features include the following.

The appearance of white discharge. On the approach of the first menstruation may indicate light vaginal discharge. They are white or transparent and have no unpleasant smell. Most likely, you just notice small spots on the underwear. Since the appearance of discharge to the onset of menstruation, it can take just a few months, or a whole year.

Changes in shape as a result of hormonal adjustment of the body. What is the symptom before the first menstruation in girls can not be missed? Of course, this is the formation of a female figure.

This process begins about 2 years before the onset of menstruation. You will notice how your body is changing: your chest is increasing, new hip outlines are getting, etc. All this happens under the influence of hormones.

By the way, precisely because of them you can become more vulnerable and irritable during this period.

The appearance of premenstrual syndrome. It is associated with a change in the balance of hormones in the second half of the menstrual cycle. Symptoms of the first menstrual periods in girls can be:

  • swelling of the mammary glands,
  • headaches,
  • discomfort in the lower abdomen,
  • increased appetite
  • fast fatiguability,
  • frequent mood swings.

You can notice all the symptoms mentioned a few days before the start of bleeding. These symptoms before menstruation in girls appear differently. Some people hardly notice them, while others premenstrual syndrome causes significant discomfort.

How does the first menstruation begin?

At the first menstrual period, the girls have symptoms the day before. You may notice unusual sensations: heaviness and even nagging pain in the lower abdomen, weakness and increased fatigue. The onset of menstruation is hard to miss. You will see reddish or red-brown spots on underwear.

The appearance of blood - the main symptom of menstruation. Discharges may be minor or abundant. Depending on their intensity, it is necessary to select hygiene products. The symptoms of menstruation in girls can vary, this is absolutely normal, because each organism is individual.

Menstruation usually ends in 3-5 days.

O.b.® tampons at the first monthly

Girls can use o.b.® tampons from the first menstruation. Such hygiene products will help you feel comfortable and confident. With them you will be able not to abandon your favorite activities (for example, dancing or swimming) during critical days. Do not be afraid that the tampon can damage the hymen.

During menstruation, it becomes elastic and stretchable, in addition, it has a hole for the outflow of secretions. Small tampons - o.b.® ProComfort ™ Mini or Normal - are optimally suited for girls. When filled, they increase by only 10–15% of the initial value.

And thanks to the silky SilkTouch ™ coating, hygiene products are particularly convenient to inject and remove. You may be worried that a tampon might get lost inside the body. But this is not true: you can always remove it by simply pulling on a durable lanyard. With proper use, tampons do not harm your health.

Just read the instructions carefully before applying them or consult a gynecologist.

The first signs of menstruation in girls 71

The young organism develops in different ways, it may have features that are faster or slower. But in any case, by the time they are in their teens, girls start menstruating.

It is worth it to tell what the first signs of menstruation are. Some manifestations may seem frightening to girls, which can negatively affect sexual development in general.

When and how does it start?

Signs of the first menses

The first signs of the appearance of menstruation are detected long before their arrival, as a rule, in a year or two. At about 10–13 years of age, the girl’s figure begins to form according to the female type: the hips expand, the chest appears.

First, the nipples on the mammary glands become more prominent. Then the volume of the breast as a whole increases. Hair appears in the armpits and in the pubic area.

Sometimes a small amount of vegetation is found on the legs and near the nipples.

The appearance of a teenage girl often gives her disappointment. Due to the revitalization of the sebaceous glands, its skin becomes fatter and may become covered with pimples. Particularly affected by acne are face, chest area and back.

This is also considered as signs before the first menstrual periods in girls. The fact is that the period is characterized by rapid growth of bones, and the skin behind it does not have time.

Greasiness is nothing more than a defensive reaction aimed at avoiding damage.

Sweat glands begin to function more intensively. All changes in appearance are caused by enhanced production of sex hormones. Shortly before this, the thyroid gland, the adrenal glands, and, after them, the ovaries, which produce estrogens and progestins, begin to function more actively.

Behavior changes

The first signs of menstruation in girls 11 years old - 13 years old are not limited to external changes. Big problems can bring new manifestations of character to her and her close ones.

Hormonal balance in adolescence is unstable. His jumps provoke increased irritability, possibly aggressiveness. They can be replaced by stormy fun or despondency, which is causeless at first glance.

We recommend reading the article about how many years the first periods of a girl can begin. You will learn everything about the onset of the first menstruation, the preparation of a teenager, recommendations regarding hygiene and the first visit to the gynecologist.

Development of the reproductive system

Signs of the first menstrual periods in girls are more associated with the development of reproductive organs. The most notable of them appear several months before this important event:

  • The appearance of whiter. Mucous discharge from the vagina is usually colorless or whitish. They can be yellowish, cream. Beli whitening arises arbitrarily, but under the influence of estrogens, which thicken the epithelium of the internal genital organs. Basically, the contents of the discharge are cells of the surface of the vagina. The appearance of whiter may occur 2 years before the menarche. But the closer to menstruation, the more obvious this very first sign of menstruation becomes. The whites are made more abundant, they can change the consistency,
  • Soreness in the abdomen. Feelings are blurred, but sensitive, can change their strength. Sometimes pain gives to the lower back. These first signs of the early arrival of menstruation declare themselves periodically, but it is important not to take for them the manifestations of any ailment. Premenstrual sensations should not last long and be unbearable,
  • Breast swelling. Breast growth is a separate feature. But at some moments, its lobules become more pronounced to the touch, painful. The sensation is present when touching it, and the severity can be felt at rest,
  • Headache. The first signs of the onset of menstruation are similar to what adult women feel immediately before menstruation. Sensations are caused by hormonal "explosion", which provokes fluid retention in the body, squeezing of blood vessels and, as a result, pain in the head. To this group of symptoms can be attributed all the negative manifestations of nature, which have already been mentioned, from aggressiveness to indifference to everything.

Changes in the reproductive system before menstruation

Difficulties in anticipation of the first menstruation

It is worth knowing to a close teenage girl: what signs of the first menstrual periods were her mother's, they will manifest them in a daughter too. As a rule, features of sexual development are inherited through the female line. But still they must fit within certain limits.

If the listed manifestations are noted in a hypertrophied form, it is possible that the development of the endocrine system or the sexual system is wrong. The timing of the onset of symptoms of impending menarche is also significant. Their appearance before 10 years and later 16 are the reason for the visit to the adolescent gynecologist.

Therefore, to accustom the girl to a more careful toilet of the genitals is necessary from childhood. As well as to ensure that she was protected from colds, dressed in accordance with the weather, did not sit on cold surfaces.

What signs before the first menstruation, also depends on the situation in which the girl grows. If she has to be nervous often, she is poorly nourished, endures physical exertion unreasonable for her age, and manifestations of puberty can cause her great problems.

All these factors can interfere with it, so the development of the reproductive system will slow down and the first menstruation will have to wait a long time. Frequent illness can have this effect.

We advise you to read the article about tampons for girls. You will learn about the possibilities of using this hygiene product, their anatomical features, the effect on the microflora and the methods of administration and extraction.

Manifestations before menarche

Signs of the beginning of the first menstrual periods clearly manifest 2-7 days before the event. To a greater degree they concern the reproductive organs and the breast:

  • The mammary glands are compressed, become larger due to the expansion of their components due to hormones. The chest may increase soreness, or at least manifest discomfort,
  • In the lower abdomen there is aching pain. It is caused by an expansion of the cervical canal through which the secretions will flow. The ovaries are also enlarged, as a result of which there may be a heaviness in the abdomen.

The first signs that soon menstruation, will affect and general well-being. The girl may experience outbursts of irritability or, conversely, unreasonable tears, as well as drowsiness, apathy. Frequent dizziness, increased appetite, craving for sweets or, on the contrary, nausea and lack of interest in food.

Девочка не должна думать, что это связано с чем-то плохим. Наоборот, нужно рассказать ей об обыденности происходящего, помочь перенести неприятные симптомы взросления в наименьшими потерями для психики. Ведь от состояния нервной системы очень зависим и гормональный баланс, а значит, женское здоровье.

What is the menstruation?

Menstruation or menstruation is called a certain phase of the monthly cycle, within which the functional layer of the uterine mucosa is separated, and discharge of blood from the vagina appears. In medicine, the first menstruation in girls is called "menarche."

The first symptom of delayed menstruation is the phenomenon when the menstrual periods have not come on time. If menstruation did occur, it means that the pregnancy did not occur this month. The first periods in girls do not indicate a complete readiness of the body for pregnancy, but pregnancy is actually possible.

The period of the first menstruation

The average age at which menstruation may begin in girls is 13 years old. But basically, the first signs of menstruation in girls begin at the age of 12 to 14 years. Gynecologists often use the term "gynecological age." This age is calculated from the onset of the first menstruation. The establishment of the menstrual cycle, indicating sexual maturity.

The time of the onset of menstruation often varies in this range, but there are exceptional cases. Thus, the signs of the first menstruation may appear either earlier or slightly after the specified period. You should go to the pediatric gynecologist. Often this happens in connection with the simple physiology of the girl. Before talking about abnormalities, genetic predisposition should also be considered.

If, from an early age, a girl began to outperform her peers in physical development, then the probability of the onset of the first menstruation before the rest is high. If the girl began to lag behind in physical development, while others look more adult, then the first menstruation may occur later.

After the onset of the first menstruation, in most cases in girls, the menstruation cycle lasts about 28-30 days. Monthly lasts mainly for three to five days.

Often, menstruation can last a whole week, which is not considered a deviation. Gradually periods in girls become regular.

For the rest of the girls, the interval before the next menstruation is about 1.5 - 3 months.

If the break lasts more than 3 months and there are no signs during menstruation, you should contact your gynecologist.

Also the amount of blood lost during menstruation can vary. The intensity of bleeding can be hereditary or simply be a feature of the girl's body.

The symptoms of menstruation in girls appear even a few years before the start of the first menstruation, expressed in changes in appearance, emotional state and behavior. The figure becomes more feminine. Due to changes in hormonal levels, there is an active work of the sebaceous, sweat glands. This leads to acne.

Before the start of the first menstruation, the intensity of the vaginal discharge changes in a few months. The leucorrhoea becomes profuse. Unlike infectious secretions of the urogenital system, they are white or transparent and odorless.

Also, the first periods in girls can take place without any signs.

Indicators of their approximation are such signs during menstruation, such as:

  1. pain in the abdomen,
  2. mood swings,
  3. bouts of nausea
  4. feeling weak
  5. headaches.

Thus, the signs of menstruation in girls appear differently.

What means of intimate hygiene to use?

Currently, advertising tampons and pads is a frequent occurrence. Most likely, the girl will be aware of the purpose of these hygiene products before the appearance of the first menses. But the first periods of adolescents are different, so girls can not do without help during the first month.

First, self-purchase of intimate hygiene products can be a problem for a girl. It is best to at least first women purchase gaskets for their daughters. Of course, before buying gaskets, you need to correctly approach this case. It is undesirable to use hygienic tampons in the first months. But the gaskets should be carefully chosen.

  • Do not dwell on the choice of gaskets with increased absorbency, because if the intensity of the menstruation is weak, then the girl will change them less often than they should. This can lead to the multiplication of bacteria, and blood will be a breeding ground for them. As a result, an unpleasant smell and inflammatory diseases can occur.
  • But do not take gaskets with a very small absorption, because when signs of menstruation appear, A girl can get into an awkward situation by using them. After all, the girl's clothes may appear bloody. And this situation can affect the fragile psyche of a teenager.

The first periods of the girl does not serve as a reason for frequent bathing. A great shower replacement will be a daily shower. It should also be washed 2-3 times a day. It is advisable not to use soap.

Gynecologists advise to use special gels for intimate hygiene, which contain lactic acid. Unlike soap, this component does not adversely affect the microflora.

The first menstruation does not accept great physical exertion, therefore, for the time being, it is necessary to abandon sports. Of course, light exercise will not harm the body.

An important point in the period of menstruation will be dieting. But this does not mean that you need to reduce the amount of food consumed, but just need to revise the diet and remove spicy dishes from it.

Thus, it should be noted that the first periods in a child can cause panic fear. Mothers just need to provide support and care in relation to their maturing child.

Bleeding

The symptoms of the first menstrual period in girls at any age are approximately identical. First, the ovaries begin to work - this is the paired sex glands, which will now release an egg cell every month for fertilization. Approximately 2 weeks before the first bleeding, the girl may note that the discharge from the genital tract has become more abundant.

They acquire a mucous consistency, liquefy and become viscous. Such allocations will be for 2-5 days, after which they will change again. These signs speak not only about the early beginning of menstruation, but also become evidence of ovulation. If you observe the behavior of your body, then in the future you can learn how to easily determine this process.

After 10-14 days after the appearance of mucous discharge, the girl begins her period. It may be accompanied by premenstrual syndrome or may occur without it. The first discharges are scarce and are not as intense red as the subsequent ones.

Depending on the individual characteristics of the color of the monthly can vary from pinkish pale to intense brown. Do not worry if your period does not have a rich scarlet shade like blood. It should be borne in mind that the discharge also contains particles of the endometrium and cervical mucus, therefore, they can change their color.

Despite the fact that the symptoms of the onset of the first menstrual period are identical in all girls, for each they can manifest themselves differently. This is completely normal, since there are no identical organisms. Each girl has their own sensitivity and observation. Not the least role in the time of onset of menstrual bleeding is played by minor factors.

Physical development. With an accelerated pace of physical development at an early age, there is a high probability that menstrual bleeding will start earlier. The converse is also true: if a girl has a delay in physical development, then her period can begin later.

Determine this feature is not difficult. It is enough to compare the girl with her peers. It is possible to learn on this basis, when menstruation begins, only at the stage of puberty. A girl may be shorter and have insufficient body weight at a younger age, but by the age of 10-13, she can quickly catch up and even overtake her peers in the physical development.

Genetics. It is believed that the genetic relationship between mother and daughter determines the time when the first menstruations begin. Usually this feature is paid attention to when the menarche periods are shifted. So, if a girl's menstruation went at 9 years old, like her mother’s, there’s nothing wrong with that. In order to eliminate the pathology, it is necessary to show the child to the pediatric gynecologist.

Psychological state. Stress can provoke a delay in menarche, disrupt the established cycle or, on the contrary, cause early menstruation. The emotional state of the child has a direct effect on the hormones.

During puberty, many things are perceived by girls as especially painful, which manifests itself in the form of emotional outbursts.

An unstable emotional state can be a sign that menstruation does not start on time.

Diet and mode. These factors play an important role in the menarche offensive.

If the girl eats inferior, does not adhere to the daily regimen and does not have an additional source of microcavity clients, then the menarche will start later.

Often, the first menstruation occurs in winter, because during this period the body is usually calm, the appetite is increased, and sleep is established. However, the cold season can not be considered a sign of the first menstruation.

If the girl's period began before the age of 10 or is missing even at the age of 15, then this may be a sign of endocrine diseases, inflammation of the pelvic organs or uterus infantilism. In this case, it is necessary to show the child to the doctor in order to determine the possible pathology and take measures to eliminate it.

“It seems that just yesterday my daughter was a little girl, passionate about playing with dolls, and now I see an embarrassed, a little awkward girl in front of me ... but how quickly time flies!” Practically every mother who watches the transformation of her daughter from “ ugly duckling "in the" beautiful swan ", there are such thoughts.

It is believed that active puberty begins with the arrival of the first menstrual period in girls. Thanks to free access to the Internet and communication with "advanced" peers, modern children are rapidly growing up, drawing all the necessary information on exciting topics from external sources.

However, this does not exempt parents from the obligation to tell their daughter what “menarche” is, or the first periods for girls. In order for your daughter to go through the period of sexual formation as easily as possible, you need to tell her what changes will occur in her young immature organism.

What is the "monthly" signs of the approximation of the first menstruation in girls, age of onset - here you can find answers to these and other exciting questions.

What is menstruation?

Especially without going into the physiology of the female reproductive system, we can say that menstruation (menstruation) is a phase of the menstrual cycle, during which there is a separation of the surface endometrium of the uterus and the appearance of bloody discharge from the vagina.

During each menstrual cycle, the female body prepares for the onset of pregnancy: the blood supply to the uterus improves, the thickness of the endometrium increases to make it easier for the fetal egg to attach.

The appearance of menstruation indicates that pregnancy has not occurred this month.

The onset of the first menstruation in girls is not a sign of the body's readiness for pregnancy, but rather, makes it clear that from now on, pregnancy is possible.

The timing of the first menstruation in girls

According to statistics, the age of the onset of the first menstrual period in girls has significantly "rejuvenated" over the past hundred years.

So, if earlier the timing of menarche approximately coincided with the age of majority (18 years), now the majority of girls already at the age of 13 learn from their own experience about menstruation.

Among other things, the place of residence affects the appearance of the first menstrual period in girls. For example, among the eastern peoples, menarche occurs in 10-11 years.

If the first menstruation in girls occurs between the ages of 11 and 16, this is the norm. Girls talk about early sexual development if at the age of 8-9 years the first signs of sexual development appear. The absence of menstruation by the age of 17 is a sign of a lag in sexual development.

The appearance of the first menstrual periods in girls will depend on:

  • physical development
  • hereditary factor
  • diet,
  • places of residence and nationality
  • childhood diseases, etc.

The cause of menarche ahead of time (up to 11 years) can be:

  • hormonal metabolic disturbances
  • heavy physical exertion
  • inadequate diet.

If the first menstrual periods in girls come in 16-20 years, the reason is as follows:

  • ovarian failure
  • violation of the pituitary gland,
  • hormonal metabolic problems
  • neuropsychiatric disorder, etc.

The first periods in girls. What should they be?

As a rule, during the first menstrual periods, the body loses from 50 to 150 ml of blood. From the 2nd to the 4th day the bleeding is usually especially abundant (approximately 75% of the total menstrual blood volume).

The discharge during the first menstruation in girls has a special odor, acquired through the enhanced work of the vulva glands.

Since the composition of the microflora in the vagina (in the alkaline direction) changes during menstruation, failure to observe intimate hygiene rules can lead to the multiplication of pathogenic microorganisms, which will lead to the occurrence of the inflammatory process.

The first periods in girls, as a rule, are accompanied by pulling or cramping abdominal pain, general weakness, headache, increased fatigue, dizziness, nausea and vomiting.

The first periods in girls. Important points.

1. The duration of the menstrual cycle during the year after the first menstrual period in girls is normally 28-30 days, and the period of menstruation is from 3 to 7 days.

2. Within two years after menarche, the menstrual cycle begins to form, therefore, the intervals between periods can range from 1.5 to 3 months.

3. The amount of blood that a girl loses during menstruation, as well as the severity of pain, depend on the individual characteristics of the body and heredity. For example, if a mother has painful and abundant periods for a mother, most likely, her daughter will have the same character.

The first periods in girls. Intimate hygiene rules

It is known that a tampon that is correctly inserted into the vagina does not in any way affect the integrity of the hymen, which has a high elasticity. However, for the first menstrual period in girls, it is best to use pads that allow you to visually control the nature and volume of bleeding. In addition, the use of tampons can lead to a violation of the microflora in the vagina.

Compliance with the general rules of intimate hygiene - that's what you first need to talk with your daughter. During menstruation, the girl should wash at least twice a day, take a warm shower daily, regularly change tampons or pads, regardless of their soaking with secretions.

During the first menstruation of the girl, the main task of each mother is to give her proper attention. Only psychological support and awareness of the importance of the period will help her daughter to experience one of the most exciting moments in her life.

Signs of Menstruation in Girls

In a healthy girl, menstruation begins at the age of 12-15 years. Sometimes the cycle begins at 11 years. For the girl - this is an important event in life. Mom should prepare her for this in advance, so that the natural physiological manifestations are correctly perceived and do not cause fright or stress.

Signs of Menstruation in Girls completely different. This is purely individual. In some, they appear quickly and brightly, in others they develop slowly over several years.

Puberty in girls

This process begins in the girl's body approximately 2-2.5 years before the onset of menstruation. The production of hormones begins, the formation of the reproductive system takes place. Hormonal surge is the cause of mood swings, excitability of the nervous system, moodiness, manifestation of aggression about the simple and well-grounded demands of parents.

The girl's breasts are forming, and new secondary sexual characteristics appear: pubic and axillary hairs grow, the growth and formation of the female-type body accelerates, teenage clumsiness appears due to the uneven growth of the bone and fat systems.

The secretion of sebaceous and sweat glands increases, the smell of sweat and body changes. There may appear juvenile acne on the face, décolleté and back.

The girl's reproductive system is gradually being formed to start menstruation. There is a clear or whitish vaginal discharge, which is odorless and does not irritate the labia.

Parents during this period should be especially attentive to their child, since puberty does not always go smoothly and painlessly. Mom should explain to her daughter that these are temporary phenomena, they are part of a natural physiological process.

Необходимо, чтобы девочка правильно и полноценно питалась, чтобы ее режим дня соответствовал возрасту. Следует разъяснить, что строгие диеты, которыми зачастую изводят себя подростки, плохо сказываются на здоровье и могут в дальнейшем помешать иметь здоровое потомство.

The purpose of conversations with her daughter is the ability to correctly convey to her information about the development of a woman, about her full life, about the consequences of ill-considered actions after the onset of menstruation. She also needs to be told about the rules of hygiene and to teach her to use specialized tools.

So, signs of menstruation in girls are

  • breast enlargement
  • increased fatigue
  • headaches and lower abdominal pain
  • increased appetite
  • mood swings

The onset of menstruation in girls

When a girl enters adulthood, parents should be aware of all the deviations that may be observed in her. At the very beginning, the cycle will always be unstable, but then this phenomenon will pass, the cycle will stabilize, and any deviations from the norm should alert the parents, give reason to monitor their daughter's health and, if necessary, consult a doctor.

The menstrual cycle is influenced by food, climate, family conditions, physical exertion. Stressful situations have a very negative effect on the girl's puberty and on the establishment of the menstrual cycle.

If the cycle is not normalized during the year, then we can talk about health problems. The intervals between cycles in girls can last from one and a half months to three. Too rare, or vice versa, too frequent periods should be a reason for a visit to the doctor.

You should also visit the doctor for severe pain in the lower abdomen (suspected of infestation of the hymen, infection and inflammation, hormonal disorders), with too heavy bleeding, in the absence of menstruation for more than 3 months, with constant cycle violations.

Hygiene of the girl during puberty and menstruation

The girl must observe personal hygiene during puberty, as well as during the menstruation.

Hygienic procedures consist in frequent water procedures, constant change of specialized means (gaskets). Mom should explain to her daughter that using tampons at this age is not recommended, they may have an undesirable impact on the health of the still not fully formed reproductive system.

Parents should help their daughter keep a calendar so that she can control the normalization of the cycle, mark the necessary dates, and identify all the uncharacteristic manifestations on the part of the organism.

What should pay special attention

Parents in the period of formation of the menstrual cycle should be especially patient with their daughter, be tactful and understanding. It is necessary to involve the daughter in sports, to organize her mode, to monitor the rest and nutrition.

The atmosphere in the house should be smooth and supportive, adults should not aggravate conflicts, and resolve all differences in a calm atmosphere.

We need to understand for ourselves that the unstable behavior of her daughter is a consequence of the hormonal changes in the body, and not the girl’s desire to give her parents trouble. Only in understanding and caring will a full-fledged and healthy woman grow up from a girl.

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