Pregnancy

Nutrition for pregnant women in 1 trimester - menu and rules of nutrition

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Happiness, tedious waiting, anticipation and even fear - all these feelings inevitably accompany pregnant women. And it is very important during this period not to surrender to emotions, but to remember about that responsibility, which is also an integral part of it. It is at this time that compliance with the basics of a healthy lifestyle is most relevant. Almost all of them are applicable to pregnancy, although some require small changes.

Proper nutrition during pregnancy is most relevant, since it depends on what a woman eats, in many respects depends on how her child will develop. For example, it depends on whether a pregnant woman receives enough protein, whether the baby will have enough building material. Protein nutrition for pregnant women is very, very important.

In addition, many products have the most detrimental effect on the state and development of the child, and on the mother's well-being. From such products, of course, must be abandoned. It makes sense to take into account one important feature: proper nutrition in early pregnancy will be somewhat different from the diet of a pregnant woman in recent weeks.

Not everyone understands where such differences come from, but it will be quite easy to understand the topic. Judge for yourselves, in the early stages important systems of the body are laid, but the size of the fetus does not increase significantly. therefore in the early stages A healthy diet for pregnant women is based on getting enough minerals, vitamins, and the like.

Second trimester pregnancy nutrition should focus on increased protein intake, since right now the active growth of the child, his internal organs begins. All this requires a building material, that is, protein.

Nutrition in the third trimester Pregnancies are, first of all, vitamins and minerals that are necessary for the development of the internal systems of the child’s body, especially calcium for bone growth and the development of the nervous system.

When planning a pregnancy, proper nutrition is also very important. The more healthy, resilient, stronger a woman's body will be at the moment of conception, the greater the chances of successful fixation of the ovum in the uterus. Yes, and a certain set of vitamins in the body contributes to the proper development of the embryo.

As you can see, the difference in recommendations for proper nutrition of pregnant women by months, and sometimes even by weeks, is fully justified. However, there are, of course, the general rules of proper nutrition during pregnancy, so they will be discussed further.

General principles of good nutrition during pregnancy

First of all, it is worth remembering one simple thing: from the table it is better to get up slightly hungry than with the heaviness in the stomach from overeating. In this regard, it is better to follow the principles of fractional feeding at all: eat less, but more often. The ideal option would be to eat 5-6 times a day. To eat the last time you need for 3 hours before bedtime. Later, it is highly not recommended, if the feeling of hunger is intolerable, you can drink a glass of milk or kefir, eat an apple or a pear. It is this diet for pregnant women will be the most optimal.

Proper nutrition during pregnancy, as, in fact, any proper diet, involves the rejection of fried foods, pickled foods and smoked meats. Much more useful would be steamed, boiled, stewed or baked foods. Food for pregnant women should be as fresh as possible, should not contain preservatives, excess salt and the like.

It is obvious that canned foods, various sausages and other products of long storage, if they do not refuse to ban, then require strict control of their use.

Of course, it is recommended to abandon fast food. However, it is worth noting that if there is a choice - to stay hungry or eat something not very healthy, it is better to choose the second one. To starve a pregnant woman is not worth it. Another thing, if before such a choice you get up suspiciously often, then you should think about carrying fruit or sandwiches with you.

Of paramount importance is the balance between such essential components of nutrition as proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and also vitamins and minerals. Of course, a balanced diet for pregnant women at different times implies a different balance of these components, the fact remains the same.

Weekly meals

1-3 weeks of pregnancy

Gynecologists do not count pregnancy from the day of conception, since it is almost impossible to calculate it, but from the first day of the last menstrual period. Therefore, the first 2 weeks of obstetric gestational age fall at the time before conception.

Pregnancy planning - this is an extremely crucial period, on which, no matter how cool, the health of the unborn child depends, and the absence of any complications during pregnancy. So it turns out that proper nutrition before pregnancy is of paramount importance. At this stage it is very important to increase the amount of folic acid. Often, doctors recommend drinking it in the form of capsules, but it is much better to get all the vitamins from normal food. Folic acid is found in greens, leaf lettuce and in cereals.

No less useful to eat yellow fruits and vegetables. But from the fatty and sweet food is better to give up. This will avoid problems with obesity, as well as reduce the risk of early toxicosis.

At about 10-14 days of the cycle, fertilization takes place and the egg begins to move towards the uterus. From now on you can talk about the coming pregnancy.

3 week

Nutrition at the beginning of pregnancy is a very difficult topic, because literally every week new organs and systems appear at the embryo, and therefore the need for vitamins and nutrients is constantly changing.

In the third week of pregnancy, egg implantation occurs and the placenta begins to develop, as well as the fetal membrane. Calcium, which is contained in milk and dairy products, broccoli, green vegetables and fruit juices, and manganese, can be obtained from turkey and pork, almonds, oatmeal, eggs, raisins, bananas, carrots and spinach is necessary for their full development.

4 week

For 4 weeks the food remains the same as for 3, however at this time it is especially important to refuse coffee. However, drinking this is certainly a delicious, but not very useful drink during pregnancy is very careful. Especially coffee is contraindicated in the evening. As you can see, proper nutrition in the first month of pregnancy is not too difficult. It will be a little more difficult further.

5 week

As a rule, approximately at this period begins toxicosis pregnant. To alleviate this state, you can slightly change your day menu. So, meat and eggs, as well as other animal proteins, can be replaced with nuts, soybeans and other legumes. Instead of milk, you can eat yogurt and cheese. It will not be superfluous to introduce carrots, mango, apricot into the diet.

6 week

Toxicosis is in full swing, so morning should start with crackers or savory crackers. It is better to eat them immediately after waking up, without getting up from the bed. At this stage it is better to drink plenty of fluids, at least 8 glasses per day. At night you can eat a handful of raisins.

7 week

At this time, intestinal problems may occur. Therefore, you should avoid products that contribute to the formation of gas, including cabbage. It would not be superfluous to abandon those products that are attached. It is better to introduce prunes, fresh kefir and the like into the diet.

8 week

Ginger tea will help to cope with toxemia, and do not forget about nuts.

9-10 weeks

Prefer whole grain cereals and whole grain bread. Brown rice is better than white. In general, a pregnant woman needs quite a lot of fiber at this stage.

11-12 weeks

The first trimester of pregnancy ends, and nutrition at this time should be special. This is the most difficult time, and it is very important to listen to yourself, to your body. If you want to eat a particular dish, it means exactly those substances that are contained in it, and not enough for your baby. Of course, there is no need to go to extremes.

13-16 weeks

Nutrition during the 2nd trimester during pregnancy is characterized, as already mentioned, by abundant protein intake. In addition, it is necessary to increase the total daily caloric intake of food. If in the first trimester it is enough to eat 2400-2700 kcal, then from this time it is necessary to eat 2700-2900 kcal.

16-24 weeks

Nutrition at 6 months of pregnancy should contribute to the development of the child's vision and hearing. That is, you need vitamin A and betacarotene. There is at this time better cabbage, yellow pepper, carrots. Keep in mind that vitamin A is absorbed only with fats.

24-28 weeks

It is on this period that fractional feeding becomes especially relevant. The uterus is actively growing, takes more and more space in the abdominal cavity, and begins to put pressure on the stomach. Accordingly, the stomach becomes smaller, and it is difficult for him to accommodate a large amount of food. Even with small meals, pregnant women may suffer from heartburn. It is better to refuse carbonated drinks and coffee, they also provoke heartburn. In general, the nutrition of a pregnant woman in the third trimester should be as diverse as possible, since the needs of the baby are growing.

29-34 weeks

At the 8th month, bones are actively growing and teeth are being laid, therefore, it is very important to eat as many calcium-containing products as possible. Fatty acids are simply necessary for the development of the brain, and it is precisely they that contribute to the absorption of calcium. A lack of iron in this period can lead to the development of anemia in both the mother and the child. Fatty fish, nuts, red meat, dark green vegetables and seeds - these are the products that should be consumed during this period of pregnancy.

35-40 week

Nutrition at 9, the last month of pregnancy, should contribute to the overall strengthening of the mother's body. After all, ahead of her very difficult and time-consuming work - childbirth. The main source of energy in the body are carbohydrates, it is their consumption that should be the basis for feeding a pregnant woman before giving birth. Porridge and vegetables - these are the foods that you should eat during this period.

That's all you can say about trimester nutrition. An example of dinner, breakfast or lunch for pregnant women may not be superfluous either.

A sample menu for the day might look like this:

  1. The first meal: black bread toast, a small piece of butter, an egg, a glass of kefir,
  2. Second meal: Green salad, a glass of tea,
  3. The third meal: Chicken fillet, boiled potatoes, one pear, a glass of kefir or drinking yogurt,
  4. Fourth meal: Toast with jam or butter, a glass of juice,
  5. Fifth meal: Brown rice, boiled fish, vegetable salad, tea,
  6. The sixth meal: a glass of kefir or a small fruit.

Special nutrition for pregnant women

But this is not all the features of nutrition of pregnant women. In some cases, women develop pathologies during pregnancy that require special nutrition. So, with anemia pregnant special food is a must. With this disease, it is very important to increase the intake of foods containing iron.

In addition, it is important not only to know which products to use, but also in what combinations, as this affects the absorption of iron in the human body. A woman who has experienced anemia in pregnant women should consult with a physician not only about medical treatment, but also about the appropriate diet.

For obesity, developed on the background of pregnancy, it may be necessary to diet for pregnant women. It is important to remember that without consulting a doctor, a pregnant woman should not choose her own diet to lose weight. The risk of developing pathologies and abnormalities is too great, both in the mother's body and in the child's body.

Especially harmful are mono diets and diets that require prolonged fasting. Both contribute to depletion and avitaminosis. Restore the state of the body, the supply of nutrients and vitamins will take a very long time, and to compensate for the harm that such diets inflict on a child is completely impossible.

Nutrition of a pregnant woman in the second trimester - general rules and a weekly menu

Hello, lovely women! Practically all of us sooner or later become mothers. But this is preceded by long months of waiting for the crumbs, the queue at the antenatal clinic, endless analyzes, and surveys. dreams of a healthy baby.

But did you know that most, if not all, are destined to come true? And you need very little for this - a healthy lifestyle, good mood and proper nutrition for pregnant women. 1 trimester, which menu is considered in this article, is considered one of the most important. Just because it is during this period that all organs and systems of the fetus are laid, and he himself is gradually developing.

And at best, if I may say so, the lack of useful substances in the future may turn out to be a pathology for him, and at worst - become fatal.

1. Nutrition features of a pregnant woman in the first trimester

In the root to change the diet in the first months of pregnancy is not worth it! It is much more reasonable to just correct it.

Will help in this simple general rules of nutrition:

  • Menu pregnant should be as diverse as possible and contain proteins, fats and carbohydrates in the right quantities. Of course, only a nutritionist can determine these quantities in each individual case. If you have the opportunity to refer to him - great, if not - do not be upset. Especially, if before pregnancy there were no problems with excess weight. After all, this means that the diet is correct and does not need to be changed. If they were - it should be revised, reducing the amount of consumed fats and carbohydrates (sweets). Eating more than usual and eating for two in the first trimester is not worth it.
  • At first, it is desirable increase portions of fruits and vegetables eaten. The latter can be filled with oil. In this form, they are not only faster absorbed, but also improve digestion.
  • Important take care of diet. Three meals during this period should preferably be replaced by 5-6. The main thing is that the portions were small.
  • We must not forget about drinking. Expectant mother needs 2 liters of fluid per day. And it can be not only water, but also fruit juices, compotes, milk or cocoa.
  • The last factor is the way of cooking. During pregnancy it is better to refuse fried foods in favor of boiled, baked or steamed.

2. What should be in the diet

Proper nutrition future mothers can reduce the risk of developing congenital abnormalities of the fetus. That is why it needs to be thought out with great care.

What does a pregnant woman need?

In vitamins, because they play a crucial role. Judge for yourself:

  1. Vitamin B9or folic acid. Doctors prescribe it from the first days. Do you know why? It is responsible for the proper development of the nervous system and protects the fetus from anencephaly, hydrocephalus, spinal cracks and other dangerous ailments. It is contained in nuts, legumes, apples, citrus fruits, mushrooms and greens.
  2. Vitamin E. He is also widely heard as a miscarriage warns. You can find it in vegetable oils, eggs, nuts, liver and greens or. in the pharmacy.
  3. Vitamin C. It not only enhances the future mother's immunity during pregnancy, but also strengthens the walls of blood vessels and the placenta, and also contributes to the absorption of iron, from which, by the way, hemoglobin level depends. But note that too much vitamin C can be harmful, because Vitamin C stimulates the immune system, which is undesirable in the first trimester.
  4. Vitamin D. Do you want to preserve the health and beauty of your teeth? Do not forget about the fish, seafood, egg yolks and butter, in which it is contained. This vitamin allows the future crumbs not only to form a strong bone system, but also to prevent the development of allergic reactions.
  5. Vitamin B12. Women suffering from anemia need it. It is contained in fish, eggs, meat and milk.
  6. Vitamin A. It affects the state of the placenta and is found in eggs, dairy products, green and yellow vegetables.

Besides them, a pregnant woman needs zinc, iron, selenium, honey, cobalt and other trace elements, on which the development of the fetus depends. How not to get lost in all this diversity and enrich your body with all useful substances?

Just make sure that in the diet there is a place for all groups of products, namely:

  • vegetables and fruits
  • cereals and cereals,
  • meat and fish
  • dairy products.

3. What can a pregnant woman in the first trimester

  • Products from fast food and semi-finished products.
  • Chips, crackers and any overly salty and spicy dishes - they disrupt the body's metabolic processes, provoke edema.
  • Coffee and caffeinated beverages. They increase the pressure, which can result in miscarriage. Meanwhile, doctors still allow coffee makers 1 cup of coffee per day.
  • Canned food, carbonated drinks.
  • Alcohol

Foods in the diet

A nutritional program for pregnant women should consist of carbohydrates, protein and fat, but in moderation. Protein intake should not exceed more than 120 grams per day. Of these, 80 are animal products: kefir, cottage cheese, meat, eggs. The daily intake of fat is 100 grams. Carbohydrates are a source of energy, but they should be consumed with caution.

In the first trimester should not take more than 400 grams. In the last trimester, it is recommended to reduce to 250 grams per day. It is advisable not to exclude vegetables, and flour and sugar dishes.

Proper nutrition for pregnant women includes boiled, steamed, stewed and baked dishes. It is necessary to limit the use of sugar and salt. Glucose increases blood sugar levels, which can cause pregnancy diabetes. Salt contributes to fluid retention in the body and leads to edema.

What you need to eat pregnant every day:

Freshly squeezed juices and water are recommended to be included in the daily menu. The rest of the food is recommended to eat every other day. For dinner, it is advisable to eat easily digestible food. The approximate daily rate of caloric intake is 2500 kcal.

The menu for pregnant women for every day should include 50% of natural fiber: fruits, vegetables, berries, durum wheat, bran.

How much should pregnant women eat per day? The amount of food should not exceed the norm. Add 300 kcal to your normal diet. If there is a weight deficit, it’s worth eating twice as much food.

Prohibited Products

There are certain foods that can harm the mother and baby. But it is possible, rarely, to make an exception and have a cup of coffee with chocolate.

It is strictly necessary to abandon alcohol, drugs and cigarettes. These substances affect the mother and child lipally: fetal abnormalities develop, the vascular system is affected, premature labor and miscarriage are possible.

List of banned products:

  • melted cheeses, non-pasteurized milk and raw eggs. They can contain bacteria that can lead to infection and involuntary miscarriage. Quail eggs do not fall into this category.
  • some types of fish: marlin, shark, tuna, king mackerel contain mercury, it is very bad for the baby,
  • eating sushi with fresh fish is not recommended. There is a high risk of helminthic diseases
  • if before pregnancy, a woman suffered from diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, smoked, spicy and fatty foods can cause severe heartburn,
  • chips, crackers, carbonated drinks, chewing gum contains dyes, flavor enhancers and flavors. They negatively affect the organism of the future mother.

You should be careful with painkillers, anti-cramp drugs, cough and cold pills. In the content of them, there may be alcohol and drug enzymes. For the entire period of pregnancy is allowed to use 2-3 times dry wine. It increases hemoglobin and appetite.

Daily menu

Nutrition of a pregnant woman should consist of an optimal menu of daily recipes. It helps to get used to the new diet and not to think about snacks. Food is recommended to eat varied and healthy. Vegetables preferably consumed raw. During heat treatment, they lose most of their valuable qualities.

Also during gestation, you can gain excess weight. Diet for pregnant women by day helps to lose weight, and also normalizes body weight.

Menu for 1 day of a pregnant woman,

  • breakfast: oatmeal with milk, banana, bread and butter,
  • lunch: soup with vegetable broth, cabbage and carrot salad, dried fruit compote,
  • snack: kefir with cheesecake, apple,
  • dinner: steamed vegetable stew, vinaigrette, herbal tea.

  • breakfast: scrambled eggs with greens, apple, green tea,
  • lunch: pasta with steamed cutlets, juice, vegetable stew,
  • snack: cheese cakes and yogurt,
  • Dinner: baked meat, vegetable salad.

  • breakfast: cottage cheese with dried fruits, bread and jam, juice,
  • lunch: Steamed fish cakes, boiled potatoes, cocoa,
  • snack: jelly, biscuits, banana,
  • dinner: vegetable casserole, ryazhenka.

  • breakfast: buckwheat porridge, butter sandwich, juice,
  • dinner: meatball soup, salad with olive oil, herbal tea,
  • snack: milk, bun, fruit,
  • Dinner: steamed beef patties, bread, tea.

  • breakfast: zucchini fritters with sour cream, boiled egg, bread and butter,
  • lunch: goulash with porridge, salad with green peas, dried fruit jelly,
  • snack: kefir, cookies,
  • Dinner: cabbage cutlets, beetroot salad, rosehip broth.

  • breakfast: muesli with milk, fresh juice, chamomile tea,
  • lunch: vegetarian soup, boiled chicken drumstick, stewed fruit,
  • snack: ryazhenka, cheesecake,
  • dinner: fish stew, boiled potatoes, bread.

  • breakfast: cottage cheese with dried fruits, green tea, apple,
  • dinner: soup with sour cream, meatballs with rice, juice,
  • snack: jelly, banana,
  • dinner: vegetable stew, tea with milk, bread.

How many times a day do you need to eat pregnant? In the first trimester 3-4 times a day. At 3 trimester, eating 4-6 times a day is considered normal. The diet for pregnant women every day can be maintained until the end of the term of gestation.

Dish recipes

Diet recipes for pregnant women for every day can be prepared quickly and tasty. They do not require special products and efforts.

Vitamin bowl. Ingredients: 1 peach, 1 kiwi, 100 grams of nuts, yogurt, 1 banana, 50 grams of currants. Mix all the ingredients in a blender and ready to eat. This is considered more dessert. It is recommended to eat this delicacy in 2 days 1 time.

Vegetable mix. Ingredients: zucchini, carrots, cauliflower, artichoke. Peel vegetables, cut into round slices. Put out. Top with dried dill and olive oil.

Trout in foil. Ingredients: fish carcass, pepper, garlic, lemon, dill. Clean the fish, rinse thoroughly. Put in finely chopped garlic and parsley. Lay foil on a baking sheet, lay the fish and wrap. Bake at 220 degrees for 35 minutes. Before serving, decorate with lemon.

1 trimester - features and eccentricities of pregnant women

Relatives can help abide by the diet of the pregnant. 1 trimester is one of the most important periods in the formation of the fetus. It is during the first months of pregnancy that you will have to completely abandon all bad habits. In fact, it had to be done several months before conception, even during pregnancy planning.

As for food, a sharp change in habits and the transition to a completely healthy food can be stressful for the body, and this is absolutely not necessary. For example, do you like to eat fried potatoes and can't imagine your life without it? Great, eat on health. Such eccentricities are fully supported. In any case, if a pregnant woman wants something unusual, then she must give it. Small whims in food are allowed, because the body is rebuilt due to pregnancy - this concerns the fact that a child needs a huge amount of useful minerals and vitamins. They may not be enough, so a woman's body with such “Wishlist” signals that there are not enough substances. As you can see, the diet for pregnant women is quite simple in the first months. Many do not even change their habits.

What do we eat?

Menu pregnant rather unpredictable thing. Of course, everything is selected individually, but there are some general patterns for all expectant mothers.

It is very important to listen to even the slightest eccentricities in food, because the wishes of pregnant women sometimes say a lot. For example, if you want sea kale, then the body has an acute shortage of iodine. Increased interest in dairy products (milk, cheese, cottage cheese and others) is a sign of insufficient calcium levels. It is necessary for the full development of the fetus, so its deficiency must be eliminated without delay. The lack of vitamin C, for example, is evidenced by a craving for fresh vegetables and fruits, for potatoes and pickled cucumbers. Very many people want to eat nuts, fish and pea in such a period - such food preferences are a clear sign of a lack of vitamin B1 in the body. Fruits, as well as orange and red vegetables, are an excellent source of vitamin A (i.e., carotene). For banana lovers, the good news is that they are rich in vitamin B6 and such essential potassium.

Proper diet for pregnant women in no case should not exclude the use of meat. Often there are situations when such a useful product is abandoned due to toxicosis. A similar phenomenon worries women during the first few months of pregnancy. In any case, it will quickly pass, and the use of such products will not bring absolutely no trouble.

The first half is the right mix of beneficial micro and macro elements.

In the first few months of pregnancy, the internal organs of the future baby begin to form, which is why it is so important to adhere to expert advice on nutrition. Firstly, it is preferable to eat 4 times a day, and you need to do this so that about 30% of the total energy value of the daily ration is eaten for breakfast.

Then it is followed by a second breakfast - this is another 15%, lunch takes 40%, dinner is only 10%. But at 9 o'clock in the evening you can drink a glass of kefir - this will be the remaining 5%.

Such proportions should be calculated on a diet with an energy value of 2400 or up to 2700 kcal. In order to avoid possible problems in the future, you need to properly plan food during pregnancy.

Doctors recommend that you follow a diet in which all the necessary proteins, carbohydrates, fats, micro and macro elements, minerals, and vitamins will be included. The diet of a pregnant woman per day should include an average of 75 g of fat, up to 110 g of protein, and also about 350 g of carbohydrates. It is these proportions that can provide the pregnant woman's body with everything necessary for the normal physiological development of the fetus.

Contraindications during pregnancy

Diet for pregnant women should completely exclude alcohol and cigarettes - it would seem that everyone knows this, but some young ladies simply cannot afford to give up such harmful habits.

Sometimes it is not enough to know that further bad habits can lead to abnormal physiological development of the baby, problems with the cardiovascular system and mental development.

In the first months of pregnancy, drug abuse should be avoided, unless the attending physician sees this as necessary. Do not allow any contact with patients, because during pregnancy a woman is too weakened immunity, which can lead to tragic consequences. Do not eat substandard products. The best option would be food just cooked dishes, fresh vegetables and fruits. Food poisoning is not the best prospect.

The most interesting thing is that the lovers of the sharp little bit had no luck. Such spices as mustard, horseradish, pepper and vinegar, they certainly will not see soon. It is important that there is absolutely no canned food on the pregnant menu. You can use only those marked “Baby food” and “No preservatives are guaranteed.”

Required doses of minerals

The most basic problem that pregnant women face is the lack of iron in the blood. This component is responsible for normal blood circulation and tissue respiration. In order to replenish the required daily dose (up to approximately 20 mg), it is enough to include egg yolk, liver, oatmeal and buckwheat into the diet.

If there is a desire to eat lime, salt, chalk, and more, then this is a clear sign of a lack of calcium salts in the body. Therefore, first you need to revise your diet. In this case, pregnant women are prescribed special vitamins, phosphorus, calcium and iron preparations. An approximate diet of a pregnant woman should include from 1500 to 2000 mg of calcium per day. This dose is almost twice the daily rate of an adult. In order to satisfy this need, it is necessary to eat heavily dairy products, especially milk. For example, 100 ml of pasteurized milk contains approximately 130 mg of calcium. The most valuable in this regard are cheeses - only 100 g of cheese can contain up to 1000 mg of calcium.

It is necessary to follow strict rules regarding the use of table salt in food. For example, in the first few months it is possible to allow up to 12 g per day, a little later it is already possible only up to 8 g, and now in the last two or three months only up to 5

Nutrition during pregnancy - the basic rules

It is important to ensure that all cooked food is of the highest quality. Many doctors recommend eliminating sucrose from the diet. For the most part, it is contained in confectionery. A good substitute would be glucose, honey, fructose, as well as any pastries made from them.

It is very important for a pregnant woman to ensure that the amount of energy that comes with food corresponds to the cost. That is, it is normal that the expectant mother is gaining kilograms, but this recommendation will protect her from excess weight, which may remain after childbirth.

The diet of a pregnant woman should be completely balanced: an excess of nutrients can also disrupt the full physical development of the fetus, metabolism and the functions of the endocrine glands. As a result, a baby may be born with overweight and disharmonious development of internal organs.

If you look at the problem from the other side, then malnutrition can harm the unborn child even more than overeating. A deficiency of at least one beneficial element (for example, calcium) in the diet of a pregnant woman can adversely affect the health of the baby. In the absence of the necessary macro and micronutrients, vitamins and minerals, miscarriage or premature labor can occur. Prematurity is very dangerous for the life of the baby: it can affect inadequate mental development, the emergence of various anomalies, deformities, developmental delays.

Standard in weight gain during pregnancy

An approximate diet for pregnant women should be calculated only from their individual needs. An interesting fact is that all women gain mass almost equally. For example, the rate of increase in body weight from 8 to 10 kg. This is approximately 300 or 350 g per week already during the second half of pregnancy. Most often, many girls begin to eat uncontrollably, explaining that they need to eat for two. It is not right! You can not gain too many extra pounds in the first half of the term. It is important to monitor the benefits of consumed products and not to overdo it. If you follow a few simple rules, a diet for pregnant women may not be necessary for weight loss in the future.

Second half of pregnancy

Nutrition during pregnancy at this period is somewhat different - it is recommended to eat 5-6 times a day. This is slightly more than in the first half, but one condition remains unchanged - hot spices, seasonings and coffee will have to be abandoned. There is a sample list of foods that must be taken in food. For example, cottage cheese should be eaten about 150 g, butter and vegetable oil - from 30 g to 40 g, 1 egg, 500 g of milk and 50 g of sour cream. As for bakery products, the norm of wheat and rye bread is 150-200 g, 100 g can be eaten for buns or cookies, no more than 60 g are recommended for pasta. Besides water and juice, you can drink tea and cocoa.
An hour before bedtime, it is recommended to drink a glass of kefir. With regard to the reception of meat and fish, then you should paint the diet for pregnant women so that these two types of products were necessarily for breakfast and lunch. But for dinner it is necessary to give preference to dairy and vegetable foods, and dinner should be a few hours before bedtime, so that the body does not feel heavy.

Health problems for future mothers

One should not dismiss the possibility that a pregnant woman can have a simple intolerance or allergic reactions to basic foods. In this case, you need to fully coordinate your diet with the female consultation doctor, who will continue to lead the pregnancy. Nutrition during pregnancy (menu) will be calculated in such a way as not to provoke allergies to certain products, but at the same time to satisfy the needs of the developing fetus. For example, if there is no possibility of giving up something, then such food will be consumed in small doses, which will gradually increase. Allergenic products are diluted in boiled water and taken in a teaspoon once a day. Gradually, the dosage and concentration will increase to two, and then three spoons. Such training suggests a gradual increase in dosage, so that in the future there is an opportunity to eat even those foods that are allergic.

Proper nutrition during pregnancy is monitored by a doctor and in cases where the pregnancy proceeds with any complications, for example, if the girl has obesity, chronic diseases or other deviations from the norm.

What to do with late toxicosis?

The most common problem is the emergence of late toxicosis - in this case, doctors recommended unloading diet. Рацион питания для беременных включает в себя яблочную диету – она подразумевает, что девушка пять раз в день съедает приблизительно по 300 г печеных, спелых или же сырых яблок. В итоге получится 1,5 кг в день. Существует арбузная диета, построенная по такому же принципу, но в итоге выходит 2 кг арбуза в день. В любом случае подобные диеты достаточно неполноценны в химическом и энергетическом плане, поэтому их назначают не чаще 1 раза в неделю.

The basic principles of nutrition of pregnant women

Waiting for a child is a great time to switch to a healthy diet and rethink your habits Perovye, which will have to be changed - the number of meals and switch from 3 meals a day to 4-5 meals a day.

With the increase in the number of meals, you should reduce the volume of servings. The future mother does not need to eat for two - except for extra kilos and additional problems due to overweight during childbirth, this will not bring.

Eat often and in small portions.

Products should be only fresh and natural: no preservatives or synthetic products. The diet should contain fresh vegetables, fruits, berries and greens, which perfectly cope with the problem of constipation and contribute to the normalization of the bowels, as well as meat, fish, dairy products - the main sources of protein and prevention of anemia and calcium deficiency in the body.

How to eat during pregnancy

  1. Do not abuse a large amount of food, do not overeat, so that there is no feeling of heaviness in the stomach. It is not recommended to skip meals. If you feel hunger - it is better to make a snack in the form of an apple or yogurt
  2. It is necessary to have breakfast immediately after waking up. Nutritious cereals: oatmeal, buckwheat, corn, rich in microelements and vitamins, ideal for morning meals,
  3. A varied menu is an important condition for the nutrition of future mothers. Each product is useful and will bring only benefit to the child. The use of the same dishes can lead to a lack of certain useful and nutrients in the body,
  4. You should limit the number of sweets, pastry and flour products in your menu. Sugar can be replaced with useful honey, sweets - fruit, raisins, nuts,
  5. The first half of the day is the best time for the intake of protein foods, the afternoon and evening time is perfect for the consumption of dairy, sour-milk and vegetable products,
  6. Proper nutrition during pregnancy implies drinking enough water to avoid puffiness in pregnant women. Berry fruit drinks, compotes, jellies, dogrose broth and weak tea are useful,
  7. Prefer steamed, stewed, boiled or baked food. For fried foods, use as little fat as possible.

Important! Abuse of flour products and baking can cause fermentation in the intestines and lead to discomfort and discomfort.

Proper nutrition of a pregnant woman: menu

Breakfast:

As the first meal after waking up, muesli with milk with various cereals, pieces of fruits and berries, nuts will be suitable. This breakfast will saturate the body, energize and provide calcium and phosphorus.

Fresh seasonal fruits, filled with homemade yoghurt or frozen, which do not lose their beneficial properties during defrosting, will also be useful. A variety of cereals, eggs in any form, toast: with cottage cheese, cheese, bacon, vegetables, cottage cheese casseroles will be an excellent breakfast and will ensure proper nutrition during pregnancy.

Lunch:

The second breakfast - snack before lunch with fruit, yogurt, milkshake with the addition of a piece of fruit or a handful of nuts and dried fruits.

Dinner:

Lunch - a full meal. Include in the diet soups, boiled, baked or stewed meat, fish is useful. Boiled potatoes, steamed vegetables, pasta or pasta are suitable for garnish. Do not forget about vitamin salads with olive oil, greens. After lunch, you can drink a glass of juice, compote or herbal tea.

Afternoon tea:

Tea time allows you to quench the feeling of hunger before dinner and charge the body with energy, to cope with an after-dinner sleepy state. Suitable fresh vegetable and fruit juices, cupcake or bun with honey or jam, curd mass or curd dishes.

Dinner:

For dinner, stews with meat and vegetables, fish dishes, egg dishes and fresh salads are perfect. You can also eat a bun with milk or yogurt.

Second dinner:

The second dinner usually falls at a later time. In order not to burden the stomach before going to bed and quench the feeling of hunger will help a glass of warm milk, you can with honey, a piece of cheese with a dry biscuit, or a handful of dried fruit or nuts. Suitable any dairy products: fermented baked milk, yogurt, kefir.

Proper nutrition during pregnancy weekly

First 4 weeks pregnancy is the time when the expectant mother realizes that now she should take her health more responsibly: eat differently. It is necessary to abandon quick snacks “on the go”, forget about fast food (hot dogs, french fries), smoked meats, and switch to vegetable salads, dairy products and fresh fruits.

Proper nutrition during pregnancy in the early stages should provide the pregnant woman's body with enough calcium, necessary for the formation of strong bones of the unborn child. Calcium is rich in all dairy, dairy products, especially cottage cheese, green vegetables, broccoli.

Also, the body of the future mother needs manganese and zinc, contained in eggs, porridge, bananas, turkey, spinach and carrots.

Toxicosis is a frequent occurrence in pregnant women, so proper nutrition in the first trimester of pregnancy between 5 to 10 week is to exclude food that can provoke vomiting. This applies to high-calorie and fatty foods. When nausea should eat small portions, useful lemon, sauerkraut, broth from the hips, rich in vitamin C, as well as dried apricots, especially before bedtime.

11-12 weeks of pregnancy - a period of unusual taste tastes in food in pregnant women. Do not deny yourself even the most daring combinations of products. enough.

13-16 week the time of completion of the formation of the fetal skeleton. Drinking milk, cottage cheese, kefir will benefit the future baby.

During 17-24 weeks the formation and development of the organs of vision and hearing in a child occurs. In these weeks, foods rich in vitamin A are beneficial. In large quantities, it is found in cabbage, carrots, and bell peppers.

WITH 24 to 28 week future mothers may experience an unpleasant feeling of heartburn, which is associated with the pressure of the stomach on the uterus, which has increased substantially in this period in size. Avoid the use of fatty and spicy foods, sauces and seasonings, give up carbonated drinks. For heartburn, cereals are useful, especially oatmeal and buckwheat, vegetable lean soups, boiled meat and steamed vegetables.

29 - 34th week of pregnancy - the period of formation and development of the brain of the child. In the diet should prevail red fish, dairy and dairy products, nuts and eggs. Proper nutrition for pregnant women in this period especially important!

Beginning with 35 weeks - while preparing the body for future genera, it needs energy. The source of energy and strengthen the body are fresh and boiled vegetables. In the diet, the amount of meat and fish dishes, eggs, and foods rich in calcium should be reduced - the body does not need calcium before birth. Its excess amount will lead to the hardening of the bones of the skull of the child and make it difficult for him to pass through the birth canal.

Important! More attention should be paid to the use of vegetable fats, to fill with vegetable oil salads, add to vegetables. Vegetable oil helps to increase muscle elasticity and excellent prevention of hemorrhoids.

Pregnancy - a time when a woman can afford everything in her diet, but to comply with the measure, adhering to the basic rules of nutrition. Having organized proper nutrition during pregnancy by week, a woman should not deny herself small pleasures - a source of positive emotions, so necessary for the baby.

Diet and nutrition in the 1st trimester

In the first trimester of pregnancy, the embryo develops into a fetus. Already in 3 weeks you can hear the beating of a tiny heart, and at 4 weeks eyes appear, a spine, nervous and circulatory system, as well as the intestines are formed. At the same time, the brain is born and the embryo gradually "turns" into a fetus. These are the most serious weeks in the development of the future baby, so it is especially important that the fetus receives everything necessary for its full development. In the first trimester, a pregnant woman should choose products especially carefully.

Good to know! To reduce the risk of congenital abnormalities in the fetus in the mother's diet should be protein, folic acid, zinc, selenium, copper. Iodine, cobalt and vitamins of groups C and B will reduce the manifestations of toxicosis in women, as well as help the proper formation of the thyroid gland in the fetus.

Proteins not only reduce the risk of fetal abnormalities, but are also the building blocks for embryo cells. Folic acid (vitamin B9) contributes to the timely cell division and is responsible for the nervous system of the baby. The lack of these elements in the body of a pregnant woman in the first trimester can lead to irreversible consequences for the baby after birth. To prevent this, a diet that is rich in these elements should be included in the first trimester diet every day:

  • lean meat and eggs,
  • legumes,
  • cabbage, lettuce, peas,
  • wholemeal bread (it contains a lot of fiber and vitamin B)
  • cheese, cottage cheese (these products should be low fat),
  • sea ​​kale,
  • fresh juices, especially apple and celery,
  • liver.

The health of the unborn child depends on what you eat in the first three months of pregnancy, so give up everything that can adversely affect the development of the fetus, and you will not bring tangible benefits:

  • fast food and fast foods,
  • crackers and chips,
  • carbonated drinks,
  • canned food
  • coffee (completely exclude, as there may be bad consequences from increasing the pressure to miscarriage),
  • vinegar, pepper, mustard.

Give preference to fruits and vegetables - they are much more useful for you and for the future baby.

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