No medical testing at the moment can not get absolutely reliable results. To confirm the final diagnosis, it is necessary to take into account the information of several laboratory tests. This applies even to complex patient biomaterial studies, such as serological methods, PCR and others. Especially difficult from a psychological point of view is a false positive test for HIV. What can affect such a result? What should a patient do if he receives a similar printout of his blood test? All answers in our article.
Consequences of a mistake
False HIV testing and making mistakes can lead to many irreversible effects. For example, the highly active antiretroviral treatment prescribed for this disease provokes the development of serious side effects and can cause disruption of the functioning of the internal organs.
The moral aspect is no less heavy. A person can lose his family, friends, loved ones, even the desire to live.
Consider what to do when receiving a false-positive HIV test result.
A repeated blood test is the only way to avoid a mistake and put an end to the diagnosis. If the virus is detected during the re-examination, the patient has nothing left to do but to accept the harsh reality and immediately begin treatment.
The probability of error, according to statistics, is approximately 0.01%, but in reality this figure is much higher.
False HIV testing is often seen in women during pregnancy. In a particular risk group are women who have had several genera. Such a phenomenon arises due to a serious hormonal imbalance during the child's bearing.
The reasons for a false-positive HIV test in men are:
- Allergic reactions of the cross type.
- Recently made vaccinations.
- The presence of influenza virus or hepatitis in the body at the time of the study.
- Inflammation of small vessels in the body.
- Transplantation of internal organs.
- Increased concentration of bilirubin in the blood.
- Oncological diseases.
- Various forms of sclerosis.
- Increased density or poor blood clotting.
- Autoimmune pathology of the liver.
- Any infectious diseases.
In women, a period of menstrual bleeding should be added to this list.
Before passing the study, it is recommended to inform the specialist about the presence of pregnancy, performed operations and other manipulations that have been present in the last few months.
One of the reasons for a false-positive test for HIV can be a trivial human factor, which no one has yet canceled. We are talking about an elementary error of a laboratory technician directly during the study or documentation. There are even cases when the health worker mixed up the test tubes or incorrectly placed the markings on them.
Any viral or infectious disease can lead to a false-positive HIV test. Sometimes a person does not suspect that other viruses are present in his body (other than HIV), for example, he has an incubation period for any disease. In this case, the test result may be incorrect. There are also situations when a person was ill, for example, with the flu, was treated. He has no symptoms anymore, but he has not recovered yet. If during this period you pass an HIV test, the result may be false positive. It is recommended to conduct such laboratory tests only one and a half months after recovery. This will help to be confident in making an adequate diagnosis.
The causes of a false positive test for HIV in women have their own nuances. The representatives of the weaker sex have an incredibly complex body. The operation of some of its systems may present unwanted surprises.
Factors for obtaining a false-positive test for HIV at the stage of pregnancy in women (with the exception of hormonal changes) fall into two main categories:
- Synthesis of female and male genetic biomaterials (combining sperm and egg) with the emergence of a new life in the body, which leads to the formation of foreign DNA. In response to such changes, the immune system begins to produce its own antibodies. When testing, this can lead to a false-positive HIV test in pregnant women.
- Stressful state, which is often observed in women in the period of carrying a child. The likelihood of a false-positive test for HIV during pregnancy increases with multiple psychological problems.
Women in this period undergo a study several times during the entire nine months of fetal development. The timely detection of this infection helps to take a number of measures that are necessary in order to protect the future baby and prevent it from becoming infected during childbirth or breastfeeding.
It is better to know in advance about the causes of a false-positive test for HIV in men and women in advance, so as not to panic.
Basic rules for laboratory research
Analysis of ELISA is considered the most accurate. Its error is up to 1%, but this study is carried out after 6-12 weeks from the date of the alleged infection. During the incubation period, the result will be negative (false negative) or doubtful.
PCR can be performed as early as 10-14 days after a possible infection, but the accuracy of this analysis is only 80-85%. Therefore, when a patient receives a positive response, additional studies are prescribed.
The list of basic rules for conducting an analysis procedure in HIV-infected patients includes:
- If a person is infected with HIV, then he needs to have a complete blood count every three months. Such a measure allows a specialist to track the dynamics of the progression of the pathological process, to adjust and draw up therapeutic schemes.
- To obtain the most correct results when collecting venous blood, it is necessary to create the same conditions. For greater accuracy of research, the procedure should be carried out in the same specialized medical laboratory.
- Blood donation to detect antibodies produced by the body in relation to HIV is carried out in the morning. This is due to the fact that at the beginning of the day the concentration of red blood cells in people increases.
Consultation on the implementation of the procedure for blood sampling, preparation and interpretation of research results can be obtained at a public or private clinic, as well as specialized centers to combat AIDS.
Portable tests for determining antibodies to HIV at home are a quick and easy way to find out if there is a given infection in the body. Today, special kits are widely used for testing blood, urine and saliva without consulting a medical professional.
The main disadvantage of rapid testing is the high probability of errors (compared to other diagnostic methods). People without medical education may misuse or decipher the results, which contributes to false positive diagnoses.
The frequency of such responses during rapid testing is approximately 1%. Obtained after the initial study of the result for the formulation of the correct diagnosis, as a rule, is not enough.
Such testing is carried out as follows: the biological material is placed in a special container that contains the reagent. After that, you need to wait 15-20 minutes to get an answer.
Modern portable devices give 3 options: a negative, positive or dubious result.
The last answer can be observed in the incubation period when the growth and reproduction of the virus is just beginning, so the concentration of antibodies is relatively low. To make a diagnosis, you need to contact a specialized laboratory.
How to prepare for the analysis
Laboratory tests for the detection of antibodies to HIV are carried out on an empty stomach. There should be an interval of at least 8 hours between the collection of venous blood and the last meal.
When preparing for HIV testing, you must follow:
- Special drinking mode. Allowed only the use of non-carbonated water. The use of tea, coffee, sugar, alcoholic and other beverages is excluded.
- A special diet that implies the abandonment of fatty, fried and spicy foods the day before the HIV test.
- Stressful situations, physical overwork, injuries and the use of antibacterial drugs should be avoided.
If you adhere to the above rules, you can ensure maximum reliability of laboratory results.
HIV diagnosis in the laboratory
HIV tests performed in special laboratory conditions are considered the only basis for confirming the diagnosis. The procedure is carried out openly or anonymously. Blood sampling takes only a few minutes.
To take this analysis is necessary for any suspicion of infection (for example, when unprotected intercourse with an unfamiliar partner or after using non-sterile medical instruments).
Types of analyzes
If HIV is suspected, the following studies are conducted:
- ELISA (ELISA), by means of which the presence of antibodies of the immune system is established. In fact, the analysis identifies suspicious and healthy cells.
- Immunoblotting - serum is studied for the presence of antibodies, which is obtained by isolating red blood cells and plasma from venous blood. This is a more effective and reliable method, however, it does not give a 100% accurate result.
- PCR is a study that allows you to identify the DNA of viruses or its fragments. Its advantage is the early detection of the virus - even before the formation of antibodies. This analysis gives a large error if it is determined whether a person is infected or not. If the infection is confirmed, the dynamics of changes during therapy are monitored by PCR.
The results of different diagnostic methods are somewhat different, but when identifying the three main groups of proteins, the doctor makes a positive diagnosis.
- For people infected with HIV, there is a characteristic of lymphocytosis - a high number of lymphocytes. When deciphering an HIV study, deviation of such a figure from the norm can be observed in twofold. The rate is 25-40% of the total number of leukocytes, or 1.2-3 × 109 / l in absolute number. When AIDS develops lymphopenia, which is caused by the death of T-lymphocytes.
- An important indicator for HIV is ESR. For patients with this pathology is characterized by a pronounced increase in this value. The norm for men is 1-10 mm / h, for women - 2-15 mm / h.
- With HIV, there is a decrease in hemoglobin, as a result of which the patient develops severe forms of anemia. The rate for women is 120-140 g / l, for men - 130-160 g / l.
- Another characteristic indicator for patients with immunodeficiency is a reduced number of platelets, which can lead to bleeding. The norm is - 150-400 × 109 / l in adults.
False positive HIV test for hepatitis
This disease is an inflammation of the liver in an acute or chronic form. With this pathology, there is some tension in the immune system, which may explain the appearance of a false-positive result of an HIV test. If hepatitis is acute, then an erroneous result is almost guaranteed, since during this period a huge amount of different antibodies are present in the patient's blood, which distort the result of laboratory analysis. With chronic hepatitis, the study is conducted during a persistent period of remission, when there are no signs of acute inflammation in the blood.
We considered whether an HIV test can be false positive.
How long does an HIV test negative indicate that there is no terrible disease?
The patient who received the answer, which indicates that HIV infection is negative, must understand what this indicator means. Anyone hopes that a minus in the form means nothing more than the absence of an illness. It is worth knowing in what cases this statement is correct.
Specialists, in order to ascertain the absence of the virus, for the most part, carry out the analysis once, because it can be enough to verify this fact with a 100% guarantee. This study includes enzyme immunoassay (ELISA testing). The error of this manipulation is about 2-3%.
Most often, the HIV indicator negatively indicates that the body does not undergo an anti-virus antibody production. ELISA allows you to check the presence of blood antibodies to the infection, identifies patients who are most likely to be infected.
In the process of checking it is important to comply with certain requirements, only then the result will be as reliable as possible:
- The period in which the test is carried out. When HIV a year later is also negative, then the infection in the blood is not accurate. This period is enough to ensure that the virus manifests itself in its presence.
- Antibody production. It occurs at times earlier. When a possible infection has occurred, for example, when using injecting drugs, at least 2-3 weeks must pass before this can be recognized by AT. When HIV syndrome is negative after 30 days, it is absent.
- Symptoms of the disease. A negative result can be questioned, it is important for the patient to retake the analysis.
Do I have to go to the doctor
Every clinic provides an opportunity to get an HIV test anonymously and for free, but far few use this option. According to sociological data, every third person is tested for HIV at home. Then the negative strip calms the subject, and visiting medical institutions fades into the background.
Even the existing symptoms are not a stimulus to visit a doctor. But it is important to understand that the test at home is endowed with its minuses and the first is the error of the result, which is about 15-20%. Moreover, if used improperly or stored, the accuracy of the result may also be affected. When an HIV test shows negatively what it means to be free of infection, even this does not guarantee that the patient will definitely not have the virus.
Factors that can affect the result may be certain beverages or products that were taken before testing. For example, alkaline water, drunk the day before, will have a negative effect on test performance.
Therefore, one cannot establish HIV status at home, but it is worth visiting specialized places where the correct diagnosis will be made. Also, a trip to the doctor in the presence of a positive indicator is required.
Reliability of HIV testing depending on the type of method
To identify a virus that has infected a patient’s blood, the following methods are used:
- PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Based on the identification of DNA and RNA sites with the virus present in them.
- ELISA and immunoblotting are based on an immunoassay that can detect HIV.
- Digital fluorimetry determines the number of certain lymphocytes.
The reliability of an HIV test is based on many factors. The main among them is precisely the choice of the correct method of research. The first type of analysis is used when you need to quickly identify the antigen and recognize the disease in the early period of development.
It is important, in particular, for newborns on the first day of their lives and for babies of the first year. The second method helps to determine how effective is the therapy prescribed by a specialist. Also, thanks to the study, you can put the exact period when the infection occurred.
What does this mean for immune blot and PCR?
In immune blotting, the accuracy of the HIV test performed to the patient is the highest. It has an error of only 2% and is considered the most truthful. It is significant to note that rarely the presence of the virus is not detected and with the help of this analysis, the reason for this may be a medical error.
Допускается она на любом этапе манипуляции, начиная с забора материала, и заканчивая передачей ответов из лаборатории. Повторное исследование может развеять сомнения. Так, если через 3 недели-2 месяца ВИЧ так и остается отрицательным, тогда переживать нет смысла.
Расшифровка результата посредством ПЦР основана на выявлении количества копий РНК на миллилитр крови. Для диагностирования вируса эта процедура почти не применяется. The only exception is neonatology. We are talking about the test in babies just born.
The reliability of a person's HIV test is quite high. His negative result suggests that in the process of gestation and childbirth infection did not occur.
DKP - the necessary measure or not
Decoding DCT is pre-contact prophylaxis. Judging by the name, it can be understood that it is carried out to exclude infection and reduce the risk of HIV-negative patients to become infected. It is recommended to manipulate those people who are endowed with vulnerability to this virus. The credibility of an HIV test will depend on how accurately and regularly the testing is conducted.
Before you begin to apply PrEP requires a mandatory examination for the presence or absence of HIV infection. If a positive result prophylaxis is meaningless, you will need to contact a medical institution for the appointment of therapy.
Among the population groups are those that are often recommended by DCT.
- men who have sex with their own sex (MSM),
- injecting drug users (IDUs),
- participants of discordant couples,
- people who have many partners and do not protect their sex.
Preventive recommendations to help avoid infection are:
- Regular HIV testing even without visible symptoms. Rapid tests will also be suitable, but they will not fully replace the study in medical institutions.
- Tracking personal commitment.
- The use of barrier contraception.
- Avoiding chaotic connections.
What does it mean if the HIV test result is negative?
The annual increase in the number of HIV infections causes an urgent need for a reliable diagnosis of the HIV virus. For this, any major city has Centers for the Prevention and Fight against AIDS, in which analysis for this infection is done absolutely free and anonymously. Interpretation of the survey can be obtained on hand in 5-10 days.
The results of blood tests for this ailment are commonly called:
- positive - HIV is detected,
- negative - there is no immunodeficiency virus,
- doubtful or undetectable.
What does HIV negative reaction with different types of blood tests:
- Primary diagnosis of virus infection is carried out by ELISA. The enzyme immunoassay detects the presence of antibodies in a patient. A negative test result indicates that human biomaterials do not contain specific response cells produced by the human immune system during infection.
- The most reliable and expensive when using the method - immunoblotting. It is not used in everyday practice to diagnose HIV, but it is prescribed when ELISA results are questioned. The percentage probability of obtaining a reliable response is 98%. The remaining 2% comes from errors due to disruptions in the work of medical personnel.
- PCR is rare in adults. It is usually used to diagnose HIV infection of a newborn child directly during childbirth or intrauterine finding. PCR can show the presence of HIV DNA and RNA immediately after infection. After conducting a polymerase chain reaction, a person receives a result that indicates the number of detected RNA strands of the virus. This factor is called viral load. If the amount of RNA is less than 20, then the result can be considered significantly negative.
- On the shelves of pharmacies in recent times appeared home methods for determining the presence of HIV infection. They are test strips with diagnostic serum applied on them. The accuracy of this study is only 80%. Therefore, in case of a negative response from the home test system and during a postponed contact with an infected person with this infection, it is necessary in any case to contact the Center for the Prevention and Control of AIDS for more accurate methods of examination - enzyme immunoassay or immune blotting.
If the negative answer is not in doubt, and the contact with the infected person was still or contacting continues, then it would be advisable to contact AIDS Center for advice on post-exposure prophylaxis. It consists of taking antiretroviral drugs to eliminate possible infections.
Are there any errors in the diagnosis?
There is such a thing as an incubation period for the development of an infection. This is a time period when the body is just beginning to fight the infection that has entered it, and the concentration of antibodies in the blood is still negligible. This period lasts on average from 14 to 60 days after infection. If a blood test for HIV is given during this period, it will be negative. In some people, the production of antibodies can begin only after a few months, in which case it is called the “window period” and can last up to one and a half years.
The reasons why testing for AIDS can be false negative:
- Atypical reaction of immunity, which can be in the presence of other inflammatory diseases in humans.
- Conditions after organ transplantation. After transplantation, a person is prescribed strong immunosuppressive (suppressive immunity) drugs that block the formation of antibodies to the virus.
- Seronegative variant of the course of this viral infection. At the same time, there is a long incubation period after the moment of infection, and antibodies to the virus begin to be produced much later than the average time. The infection may not be detected in the blood for several months.
- At the last (or terminal) stage of development of AIDS. At the same time, the state of the immune system is so depressed that it no longer has the strength to develop a response to the presence of infection.
- Violations of the collection of biomaterial, its transportation and storage. Also here can be attributed to violations in the use of diagnostic sera by medical personnel.
If the answer of the HIV test is negative and no antibodies to the infection are detected, then you should still consult with your doctor about this. If a specialist has doubts when studying the results of the examination, the diagnosis of blood for HIV can be repeated after 3 months.
The following factors speak for the reliability of the research results:
- met all the time for diagnosis,
- sampling, transportation and the biomaterial research process itself are performed correctly,
- on the eve of the survey, the person did not drink alcohol, carbonated drinks, fried, fatty, spicy or salty foods.
If all the rules are followed, and the doctor did not suspect even the slightest signs of infection with the immunodeficiency virus, the resulting negative response can be considered 100% reliable.
Two types of checks
There are two main types of tests for HIV / AIDS: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR diagnostics. Both are informative and accurate.
Immunoassay is the most common today. It is based on the detection of antibodies to HIV in the patient's serum. In most patients, they appear approximately 4-6 weeks after infection, 10% after 3-6 months, and 5% later. Therefore, ideally, this analysis should be taken three times every 3 months.
PCR diagnostics is a study using a polymerase chain reaction that can test serum, antiviral RNA or DNA, quantify CD-4 lymphocytes. At the same time, physicians often call the PCR analysis the only possible early diagnosis of HIV infection, which is carried out, including in babies of the first year of life. The advantage of this method of research is the fact that with it you can detect the virus in the incubation and early clinical period when there are no antibodies in the blood. This helps to start treatment earlier and reduce the negative impact of the disease.
How to prepare?
To be tested for HIV / AIDS. Donate blood should be on an empty stomach, with the last meal should take place no later than 8 hours. Naturally, it is recommended to withstand a kind of diet, having refused several days before donating blood from alcohol and “harmful” dishes - fatty, fried, smoked meats, marinades and other refined products.
It should be borne in mind that if you are unwell, even with any viral or infectious disease, it is better not to donate blood or come back for analysis 35-40 days after recovery. Otherwise, there is a risk of getting a false positive result.
The HIV / AIDS test goes through several stages of testing. Therefore, it is prepared 2-10 days.
The result can be positive, negative and doubtful. In the latter case, it is worth retake the analysis a little later.
Doctors say that with a positive result, immediately declare that a person has HIV or AIDS, it is impossible. Indeed, in some cases, the indicators may be overestimated for other reasons. In this situation, you should retake the analysis again - through such a procedure, anyone who has a result with a “+” sign passes through this procedure.
Where does the "false signal" come from? Due to certain diseases and conditions that can cause cross-reactions. For example, because of an allergy in the blood, antigens that are incomprehensible to the organism can be produced, which it recognizes as foreign.
Also, a similar reaction may occur due to a drastic change in the blood composition - for example, due to a jump in cholesterol (with excessive consumption of fatty foods, fried foods, seeds), hormonal imbalance (in particular, during menstruation in women), infections (respiratory diseases, the presence of hepatitis viruses and flu, recently made vaccinations, tuberculosis), excessive blood density, arthritis, oncology. Fungi, viruses and bacteria can also contribute to the appearance of incorrect data. In addition, a false positive result may appear due to medical errors: in case of violation of the rules for blood collection and transportation, the use of poor-quality serum and improper storage of the material.
Degree of anonymity
If you wish, you can take a test for an immunodeficiency virus at any time. However, there are a number of provisions when it is recommended to do this. So, it is necessary to donate blood when planning a pregnancy, before a planned operation, after conducting questionable injections, unprotected sexual contact with an unfamiliar person, with a sharp deterioration in well-being.
You can check in any clinic, private clinics and diagnostic centers, as well as specialized AIDS centers. Moreover, in state medical institutions this procedure will be completely free. Any citizen of the country can take tests at the AIDS center, no matter where he lives.
Testing is of 2 types: confidential and anonymous. In the first case, a person calls his name to laboratory technicians. In the second case, it is assigned an identification number. All results are given exclusively to the patient’s hands, and even with a positive result, the laboratory cannot report anywhere - this will be regarded as a violation of medical confidentiality. In paid clinics, the principle of testing is no different, only when this service is provided for money. Cost - from 400 to 3,400 rubles, depending on the complexity and options for testing.
HIV negative - what does it mean
HIV is the international name for an HIV disease, the mark on the tube with blood is negative - so what does this mean ...
If, according to the results of surface analysis, HIV is negative, this does not mean that it does not exist. Perhaps the disease is in a latent form. Therefore, it is important for a person not only to pass tests, but also to control possible contacts with the source of infection. After presumptive infection, only complete biochemical analysis can reveal the source of infection.
Many people mistakenly believe that infection is possible only through sexual contact, but in fact there are several other mechanisms of disease transmission.
HIV infection can occur:
- In the hospital, if the instruments were improperly disinfected,
- In the tattoo parlor, if there is blood on the needle with an infection,
- With blood transfusions, if you did not test, or he did not respond to the infection,
- From a sick mother with blood or milk to a child.
When can HIV be detected?
The immunodeficiency virus has periods of activation of activity and periods of rest. During the rest period, the result for HIV will be negative regardless of the age of infection. A few weeks after the alleged infection, only a disease can be detected. If it was possible to determine a positive result, it is necessary to conduct a repeated in-depth analysis. This disease requires special control and attention, so any result must be re-checked several times before the final verdict is reached. In any case: a positive test or negative, it must be checked several times on different devices.
HIV test positive - what it means and as reported
Often, the negligent behavior of health workers can cause infection: improper disinfection of equipment, reuse of needles, and others can lead to infection of both the employee and the hospital patients. In order to take timely measures to prevent the disease, a blood test is taken from any inpatient at the beginning and at the end of the treatment period. In this case, the analysis is carried out anonymously (the person does not know about its conduct). The patient will be informed about the results only if a positive test has been received.
Tip! Since the period of treatment in the hospital does not exceed the incubation period of HIV, and the amount of antibodies to the virus in the body is not enough to detect them, it is recommended to take an analysis after each period of inpatient treatment. Especially if the operation was performed.
At the end of the treatment period, the analysis is not carried out in order to determine the infection in the hospital, but to check whether the disease has intensified during this treatment period.
The results of a home test for the presence of immunodeficiency virus
Often, people fear public reaction in the event of a positive test result. Indeed, there is an erroneous opinion in society that the disease can be transmitted in a household way to children or employees and begin to shun HIV-positive people.
Many try to make an analysis at home, so as not to make it public. To do this, pharmacies sell devices for such a rapid test. It is important to understand what a home definition of infection is for preliminary analysis only. A person who knows that he has HIV does not have the right to hide the disease. This is spelled out in the laws of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation - Article 122 and the Administrative Code of the Russian Federation - Article 6.1.
It is not necessary to fully take into account the test that you do at home. Reinsure and do the analysis in a specialized laboratory
Home tests, regardless of the high cost, have a high error. They are designed to identify only antibodies, without identifying the source and cause. The result of home analysis can be either false positive or false negative.
Tip! If you do not want to ask a doctor for such an analysis, you can ask him to do it directly in the laboratory. AIDS testing in hospitals is carried out even without referral.
Causes of false positive HIV test results in the laboratory
When analyzing in a laboratory, the result is likely to be wrong. The reasons for misinterpretation can be:
- Incorrect labeling on samples
- Error making the sample during analysis,
- The human factor: mixed tubes
- Sample contamination,
- Expired Reagents
- Faulty laboratory equipment, etc.
Errors are possible in clinics, but nevertheless, the percentage of errors is insignificant. And you can always do a second analysis ...
For this reason, in the case of a positive result, a medical worker is tested for knowledge of the sequence of actions during the study. Blood samples that were not involved in the primary analysis are checked again. Only after confirming the result, it is reported to the patient. Often assigned to another diagnostic method. There are several methods to detect the disease:
- Screening study (ELISA),
- Immune blot.
Contrary to popular opinion, it is impossible to determine the presence of AIDS by symptoms without biochemical analysis, since the disease itself does not have its own symptoms. As a result of infection in humans, immunity is reduced and the symptoms will be related to the first disease that attacked the body.
If the result is different at different times, then most likely an error has occurred. In addition to the human factor, the problem may be in the equipment: the system is no longer functioning, and the analysis is being carried out. To avoid such incidents, all equipment is subject to verification, so this is one of the rarest reasons.
Doctors have taken the Hippocratic Oath, but they are people too and can make mistakes
Negligence of the medical staff, on the contrary, happens very often. По статистике, 20% заражений происходит из-за человеческого фактора в самих лабораториях. Также может быть ошибка со стороны врача. Тот, при постановке диагноза, может указать неправильные сроки развития заболевания и дальнейшее его определение будет затруднительным.
Все эти факторы следует помнить при прохождении анализа. Многие из них легко устраняются при смене учреждения, в котором проводится анализ. A person has every right to doubt the reality of the result and double-check it elsewhere. Repeated research will be performed free of charge.
Almost all over the world free diagnostics of HIV is defined. Prevention may contain paid items. This is due to the fact that it is important to determine the presence of a virus, since it will be possible to prevent its further spreading, preventing contact with the virus around. But since a complete cure is impossible, the provision of a huge number of those infected with free medicines would lead to an economic catastrophe.
You are healthy, while the mark is negative. Yes, sometimes the word with the prefix "not" can be positive
Doctors and scientists continue to look for the answer to the question: is a complete cure possible? Constantly opening up new substances and mechanisms that act on the disease and inhibit it. So it is likely that in the future a method of final treatment for HIV will be found. In the meantime, patients need a lifelong rehabilitation program in order to continue to live.
HIV test: AIDS (test HIV aids)
Before going to the doctor, you can conduct an analysis at home. The reliability of such tests is low, but some give quite close to reality data. The accuracy of the home test system is spelled out in the annotation to the device. A person can decide for himself what probability will be enough for him. The advantage of this method of monitoring is that after a certain time the test can be repeated without spending time on trips to the hospital. However, with repeated confirmation of the presence of HIV infection in the body, you must be tested in a specialized laboratory. Despite the fact that the presence of HIV is a kind of sentence, with the right course of treatment and rehabilitation a person can lead a full life.
How is a blood test for HIV?
For testing for HIV infection, blood is taken from a vein. This is due to the fact that the analysis is performed on several devices at once in several repetitions, so that a drop of blood is not enough.
During the analysis, a large number of different antigens are added to the blood. In the study, specialists can detect antibodies that respond to certain pathogens. This reaction determines the cause of the activity, some of which may indicate the presence of HIV.
Blood for HIV must be fresh and unprocessed, as the virus is little resistant to various influences. Violation of storage or analysis time can lead to false data.
Indications for a blood test for HIV
Often, a person is prescribed a mandatory analysis. In this case, the refusal or concealment of the result falls under the articles of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation mentioned above. Indications for such coercion can be:
- Planning a pregnancy soon,
- Scheduled surgery
- A sharp deterioration in health, not typical for a person
- The presence of dubious links
- For medical workers - in case of emergency situations in the laboratory.
To test the accuracy of an HIV test, additional research is often prescribed.
When analyzing the analysis, it is quite difficult to identify the violation, so it is worth patience and repeat procedures.
Antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus in the blood
When examining a patient’s blood, specialists can detect several types of antibodies. These proteins are combined into two groups and may indicate two types of HIV (no longer exists or not found). During the period of virus activity, when HIV can be detected, p24, p16, p55, gp36, gp41, gp120, gp160, gp41, gp120, gp160, p25, p55, gp36, gp105, gp140 proteins can be contained in the blood. Under certain conditions, they bind it in contact with the antigen, which is what causes the body’s reaction to the pathogen. The serum p24 antigen is the wall of the virus itself, therefore it is a universal marker of the presence of HIV in the body.
The latent period can last for years, therefore, for the urgent detection of HIV, PCR analysis for antigen 24 (multiple copying) is performed. The norms for the determination of this protein are much lower, therefore, for the early detection of the disease it is used.
Preparation for the analysis
Preparing for the delivery of this analysis is necessary for the recommendation, as for any blood test.
- Since blood is taken from a vein, it is impossible to eat before delivery, because glucose will stick together shaped elements, which will complicate the analysis,
- You should not use a large number of drugs, as the body responds, and blood biochemistry will be changed. Tablets should stop drinking for two weeks before analysis.
How is the procedure
A blood sample is collected from a vein in a standard way. There are no special days or special orders for this analysis, as this would reduce confidentiality, and any person has the right to keep secret the presence of his disease (before those people with whom he does not plan to come into contact).
There are specialized laboratories in which, if desired, a person who suspects a disease can contact.
Decryption of analyzes
Immediately after the blood is taken, the patient is informed of the readiness of the analysis As a rule, verification takes several days. A list of what the client should know when testing for HIV is in the public domain. Therefore, if a person believes that he was given insufficient information, he can verify the data obtained with the permitted list. Data on indicators after research by the method of polymerase chain reaction persist for several years. If necessary, a person can get copies of records of all cases of analysis. Often this possibility allows you to identify the mistakes of doctors or cases of infection in the hospital.
What is HIV?
HIV should be understood as an immunodeficiency virus. Such a virus can, after it has entered the body, completely destroy the immune system (protection of the body against various kinds of infections). Such an infection can last for a long time completely without a trace for a person, and therefore it is recommended that he be constantly tested for his safety.
When an infection significantly damages the immune system, then such a person will be vulnerable to all sorts of diseases. It can even be fatal after a common cold. This condition will already be called AIDS, which appears if you do not start treating HIV (the first stage of this disease) in time.
When taking an analysis on the territory of Russia, the patient initially takes blood from a vein. In the future, when it is examined, specialists can detect antibodies to HIV, which will indicate the appearance of the disease. Such bodies are struggling with the disease on their own. Also, doctors can not detect them. The amount of antibodies in the blood can be positive or negative.
If the HIV test is negative, then it indicates that in the laboratory during the blood test there were no antibodies that fight infection. It may also be just not enough to determine a positive result. Necessarily in this case, the specialist writes that the result is negative.
It takes some time from the moment the bacterium enters the body to the moment when HIV can be detected by experts when testing tests. This means that the virus cannot be accurately determined at the outset of its appearance in the body. And because the result in most cases will be negative, even if the infection is in the body. As already mentioned, it will be possible to determine it when the amount of antibodies in the blood is sufficient. This is the first time the analysis can be identified 100% impossible. This means that the client needs to do such studies several times, taking blood for tests.
About normal result
Norma - what does it mean? When an HIV test is negative, it is considered normal.
1. The latest generation of ELISA test systems allow the detection of antibodies to HIV and protein particles. If the analysis is normal, then antibodies and protein particles of the pathogen are not found in the blood. But to say for sure that a person is healthy on the basis of this is possible, if prior to putting it there was no risk of infection for 3 months. Otherwise, again after some time you need to repeat the test.
There were cases that HIV was detected only after 6 months. Therefore, if the result is negative, and there was contact with an HIV-infected patient, for reliability it is necessary to repeat the tests after three, four and six months. It happens that the ELISA has given a negative result, and the person clearly has a suspicion of the presence of signs of HIV, it is recommended to pass the test again. An erroneous result is possible due to the early timing of the analysis or due to the human factor.
2. If the result is negative when immunoblot is obtained, then at present this is the most reliable analysis.
If a person has an immunodeficiency virus, and the result is negative, then most likely this is a medical error that can occur at any stage of the test. If, when repeating the immunoblot after three and six months, the result is negative, then there is nothing to worry about, this indicates a normal rate. And only after the negative response of the immunoblot will a certificate be issued that HIV analysis is negative.
3. A PCR study in adults is rarely used in diagnosing immunodeficiency virus, and this method is used for newly born children.
The norm here is also considered a negative result.
4. According to sociological research, many people use a rapid HIV test. At the sight of a negative strip, people calm down and refuse to go to a medical facility, even with all the signs of HIV infection. But you need to know that the accuracy of the rapid test is eighty-five percent. In addition, at home you can incorrectly hold it, or its storage conditions will be violated. There is an even greater likelihood that the result is incorrect. Even taking 8 hours before testing mineral alkaline water will affect the test result. Therefore, the fact that the immunodeficiency virus is absent in a person on the basis of a rapid test, even if it is negative, is not always the right statement.
Once people have been tested, the question often arises how to decipher the result of the research, what to do if a positive result is obtained for HIV.
1. If the ELISA showed the presence of all or almost all antibodies to antigens according to this test system, this means a positive test for HIV. If the response after the second serological enzyme immunoassay is positive, it is necessary to conduct an immunoblot. Deciphering the results of it will be more accurate. If the enzyme immunoassay gave a positive result, the following immunoblot analysis also showed the presence of HIV, then the final result is put. When tests are decrypted, you need to know that a positive HIV test is determined by:
- from 60% to 65% 28 days after infection,
- 80% - in 42 days,
- in 90% - in 56 days,
- 95% in 84 days.
If the answer to HIV is positive, it will mean that antibodies to the virus have been detected. To avoid a false positive response, it is necessary to re-test, preferably twice. If antibodies to immunodeficiency were detected with the delivery of two tests from two or with the delivery of 3 tests in 2 of them, then the result is considered to be positive.
The antigen p 24 can be detected in the blood within 14 days from the day of infection. Using the method of enzyme immunoassay, this antigen is detected from 14 to 56 days. After 60 days, he is no longer in the blood. Only when AIDS is formed in the body does this p24 protein re-grow in the blood. Therefore, enzyme immunoassay test systems are used to detect HIV in the first days of infection, or to determine how the disease progresses and monitor the treatment process. High analytical sensitivity of the enzyme immunoassay detects p24 antigen in biological material with HIV of the first subtype in a concentration of from 5 to 10 pkg / ml, with HIV of the second subtype of 0.5 ng / ml and less.
2. The questionable result of an enzyme immunoassay implies that when diagnosing somewhere medical workers were mistaken, as a rule, people confused something, or the person has signs of infection, and the result is negative, which causes suspicion, the person is sent to repeat the test.
3. A false positive result is the result when blood tests were performed under the following conditions of the patient:
- if a person has a hormonal disturbance,
- with prolonged immunosuppression.
How to decipher the analysis in this case? A false positive result is made if at least one protein is detected.
Due to the fact that p24 antigen is very dependent on individual variations, then using this method, in the first period of infection from 20% to 30% of patients are detected.
Symptoms are, and the analysis is negative
Many people do not trust the results of laboratory tests. A negative HIV test may be accompanied by symptoms of the disease, leading to doubts. It is important to understand that HIV has no symptoms of its own, so if all the symptoms of HIV are present, and the result is negative, another disease or inflammation is possible. It is necessary to conduct a comprehensive survey to identify the source of poor health. These results are checked by doctors themselves when using intravenous drugs. The fact is that this habit often stimulates people to hurry and not to observe hygiene standards, therefore the risk of infection is much higher. When using psychotropic substances, the amount of atm can decrease up to trace amounts in the sample, which will directly affect the data of PCR studies.
Some pathological processes occur without a clear clinical picture. For example, blood diseases, bleeding contribute to an increase in the inflammatory process, and hence antibodies.
If the disease is confirmed, prevention and treatment can help the person. The life of infected people in recent decades has been increased several times. If earlier a person with HIV + could live up to two years, now, given the treatment, the properties of blood, this period reaches 50 years.
Thus, when conducting an analysis, it is worthwhile to take the results seriously and recheck them. In case the disease is confirmed it is finally important to remember that HIV is not a sentence for many people. So you need to continue to live and enjoy life.