Uterus: structure, change during pregnancy and childbirth


The organ is held in its place by three sets of flexible ligaments, and it is supplied with a dense network of blood vessels. This body has three holes. At the bottom, through the cervix, the uterus opens into the vagina, and at the top, two fallopian tubes enter the body.

Partially the uterus is mobile. This means that only her neck is fixed, and the rest can move back and forth a little. Usually, when a woman is in an upright position, this organ leans slightly forward, but about a quarter of all women lean back slightly. Treatment of the uterus is not required.

The muscles of this organ are always in tension, and during orgasm, the uterus tone increases significantly, as during menstruation. In the first case, the muscles help sperm to reach the egg, and in the second - they stimulate the release of dead endometrium.

Outside, this organ is covered by the peritoneum, which also lines the entire abdominal and pelvic cavities. Inside the body is lined with endometrium. Its thickness varies with the phase of the menstrual cycle. In preparation for pregnancy, it increases, and in the absence of fertilization, it is discharged along with some blood in the menstrual flow.

Uterus Functions

The main and, in fact, the only function of this body is the maintenance of the vital activity of the fetus developing in it. A fertilized egg is fixed in the uterus, and a child develops in the same place right up to its birth. During pregnancy, the uterus greatly increases in size and its muscle fibers adapt to this. When the time of birth comes, due to stimulation with oxytocin, they begin to shrink, the uterus tone rises and the child is pushed out through the neck. It is possible to increase the tone of the uterus during pregnancy even before the onset of labor, in most cases it does not carry a threat. After birth, the body gradually begins to contract and return to its former size. Sometimes after the birth of the baby, the ligaments and muscles are weakened, and the uterus shifts a little. Minor offsets are perfectly acceptable.

Possible diseases

The body of the uterus can be subjected to a variety of diseases. The most frequent are fibroids and ectopia or cervical erosion. Benign neoplasms, such as fibroids or polyps, often develop there as well. Less common are malignant neoplasms. In most cases, proper and timely treatment of the uterus gives a positive result.

Sometimes there are also abnormalities in the development of this organ, for example, a blocked uterus. In this case, the septum stretches from the bottom to the neck. The two-horned uterus usually consists of two bodies, resembling horns in shape and having an exit from each to one tube and a common exit to the neck. The double uterus has two bodies and two necks. All of these anomalies rarely interfere with getting pregnant, but can affect the course of pregnancy.

Uterus removal

In cases where drug treatment of the uterus is impossible or does not produce results, surgical intervention or even removal of the uterus is possible. The reason for the removal of the uterus can be fibroids, endometriosis, cancer of the uterus, ovaries, cervix, fallopian tubes, prolapse of the uterus and abnormal bleeding. Depending on the complexity of the situation, amputation can be performed with preservation of the cervix, removal of the uterus with the cervix, with appendages, part of the vagina and surrounding tissues.

The first signs of pregnancy - the cervix

Every pregnant woman during the nine-month period will have a lot of visits to the antenatal clinic. However, the first visit is most often remembered, during which, according to the results of a gynecological examination, the doctor determines the fact of pregnancy and calculates the time after conception. At the same time, the first signs of pregnancy are detected - the cervix and its general condition.

It is known that after conception the cervix undergoes certain changes, by the presence of which an experienced gynecologist determines pregnancy. Let's look at what transformations are typical for the cervix in this period.

The cervix as the first sign of pregnancy - what changes?

If the cervix in an "ordinary" state has a pink color, then after conception the organ becomes bluish. The reason for this "metamorphosis" - increased blood circulation and intensive "growth" of cervical vessels.

“Not pregnant” cervix feels harder to touch (for comparison, take the hardness of the nose). After conception, this organ can be compared with the softness of the lips.

In the process of ovulation, the cervix is ​​raised up and its channel is open. Immediately after conception, lowering of the cervix occurs under the influence of the hormone progesterone.

According to the form of this body, the doctor "reads" all the information about the past of the woman. In birthless cervix is ​​wide and flat and has a cylindrical shape. Conical shape is typical for women who have had the experience of childbirth.

Considering all the listed changes, it is possible to determine the presence of a pregnancy for a period of several weeks. The first examination examines the shape, size, consistency and location of the cervix. Then, on the basis of the results obtained, a conclusion is drawn about the duration of pregnancy.

We pass the tests

During the examination, the gynecologist will take the following tests:

  • Smear "on the flora." This analysis will identify these types of infections (gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, candidiasis, fungus)
  • Cytology analysis. It is necessary to study the structure of the cells of the cervix to identify cases of oncology in the initial stage.

As a rule, such examinations are not single, and during the entire period of pregnancy the doctor may prescribe such tests 4 times. The time of these procedures is “distributed” throughout the entire period of pregnancy. This allows you to minimize the risk of possible pathological cases, as well as to take appropriate measures in time.

Thus, it should be remembered that the first sign of pregnancy - the cervix changes its color, texture and location. Therefore, it is better to contact an experienced doctor who can "arrange" to monitor the state of the cervix throughout the entire period. After all, the cervix performs an important function not only during conception, but also during the term of pregnancy. She acts as a “guide” in the process of ovulation, protects the uterus from infection and “gives the way” to the baby during childbirth. Therefore, the health of this body is very important for the future mom.

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During pregnancy, the uterus is the most important organ, it is the uterus that provides the fetus for normal development,

Small pains in the lower abdomen at the beginning of pregnancy are normal, as they say that changes in the structure of the muscles have begun.

maintains a positive level of vital activity and protects it.

A change in the uterus during pregnancy occurs over 40 weeks. At first it is pear-shaped, later it becomes ovoid. The uterus increases in parallel with the growth of the embryo. At first you will not be able to notice an increase in the uterus, because in the 2nd month it has the size of a goose egg.

The walls of the uterus begin to saturate with fluid, becoming swollen, softened in the place where the fixation of the ovum occurred. At this point a bulge appears on the surface of the uterus.

At the end of the third month, the uterus is the size of the head of the newborn. You can feel the upper edge of the uterus through the anterior abdominal wall. In the ninth month, the uterus is high, near the costal arch, because of this, it puts pressure on the diaphragm of the woman and makes breathing difficult.

The structure of the uterus

The structure of the uterus is the main part, which is located on the top and has a bottom, the neck is the smaller part. The cervix and uterus are connected by an isthmus.

The uterus consists of 3 layers, because of which it has many possibilities. Endometrium is the uterine mucosa, which varies depending on the phases of the menstrual cycle. During menstruation, this layer is separated with blood. During pregnancy, the endometrium is thicker and nourishes the uterus with beneficial substances.

Myometrium - this is the second layer, also plays a big role. Due to this layer, the uterus can change itself in size. Myometrium - a large number of muscle fibers that can stretch. After the 20th week, the uterus is enlarged by thinning the walls.

At the end of pregnancy, the uterus in size increases 500 times, can withstand a fetus weighing 5 kg, the weight of the uterus itself is 1 kg.

Before pregnancy, in a uterus, the weight of the uterus is 50g, for a woman who has given birth is about 100g. 40 days after birth, the uterus is restored to its normal size, which was before birth.

Uterine changes during pregnancy

- due to the elasticity of the muscles, the size of the uterus increases,

- the shape of the uterus changes - at the beginning it is pear-shaped, at the end the shape of the ball,

- the uterus becomes bluish,

- in the normal course of pregnancy, the uterus is elastic and dense, before birth, it becomes soft,

- able after birth to take the original size and shape in a short period of time.

  1. Olga the Great: 09.04.2014

When I found out that I was pregnant, I could not imagine myself with a huge tummy, and the most interesting thing about my physique was that my belly could be seen closer to 6 months, so for many of my friends I was surprised to see me with a stroller)) about that - since I had a stomach until the last minute, my gynecologist on a routine examination sent me to an unscheduled ultrasound - they thought that a small baby was born - but everything worked out, I gave birth to almost 3.5 kg. And my girlfriend with a belly is much more than mine and for a month less - I gave birth to only 2.7 kg. So our womb is a very amazing creature))) Successful to all genera.

Kristina Krutova: 10.04.2014

After giving birth, I noticed that in some parturient women the uterus almost immediately decreased while lying in the hospital, i.e. there was no belly at all. And I do not have - the stomach was swollen. As a result, the gynecologist found out that I have “leftovers” in my uterus (I apologize for the details) that were not completely removed during childbirth - I had to do the cleaning, and everything returned to normal - the uterus “came to life”. This is me to the fact that she (the uterus) is so "smart", the body "thought" that there is still a fetus, and the uterus did not contract.

Diana Grinevich: 15.06.2014

My tummy also showed up by the sixth month. Was small, and the daughter was born 3,330. As I was told at the maternity hospital, my womb, like that of an athlete, is tense. But thank God, there were no tears on it, although the birth was difficult. Also, by the third day, the uterus was practically taken up to its original size. She quickly recovered, so you will not say that she gave birth.

Uterus (from lat. uterus, metra) - unpaired hollow muscular organ in which the fetus develops during pregnancy. The uterus, as well as the ovaries, fallopian tubes and vagina are referred to the internal female genitals.

The location and shape of the uterus

The uterus is located in the pelvic cavity between the bladder in front of the rectum and behind. The shape of the uterus is compared with a pear, flattened from front to back. Its length is about 8 cm, weight 50-70 g. In the uterus, the body is distinguished, the upper convex part - the bottom and the lower constricted part - the neck. The cervix extends into the upper part of the vagina. In a newborn girl, the cervix is ​​longer than the body of the uterus, but during puberty the body of the uterus grows faster and reaches 6-7 cm, the cervix is ​​2.5 cm. In old age, the uterus atrophies and decreases markedly.

The body of the uterus forms an angle open to the front (to the bladder) with the neck; this is the normal physiological position. The uterus is held by several ligaments, the main ones of which are the wide ligaments of the uterus, which are located on its sides and pass to the side walls of the pelvis. Depending on the filling of the neighboring organs, the position of the uterus may vary. Thus, with the bladder filled, the uterus is deflected posteriorly and straightens. Constipation, intestinal overflow also affect the position and condition of the uterus. That is why it is important for a woman to empty her bladder and rectum in time.

The uterus cavity is small compared with the size of the organ and on the incision has a triangular shape. In the corners of the base of the triangle (on the border between the bottom and the body of the uterus) openings of the fallopian tubes. Downward, the uterine cavity passes into the cervical canal, which opens into the vaginal cavity with the opening of the uterus. In women who have not given birth, this hole has a round or oval shape; in those who have given birth, it looks like a transverse slit with healed tears.

Uterine wall structure

The wall of the uterus consists of 3 membranes: the inner - mucous (endometrium), the middle - muscular (myometrium) and the outer - serous (perimetry), represented by the peritoneum.

Endometrial structure The uterus mucosa is covered with ciliated epithelium and has simple tubular glands. With the onset of puberty, it undergoes periodic changes associated with the maturation of the ovaries in the ovary — the female germ cells. Ripened egg from the surface of the ovary through the fallopian tube is sent into the uterus. If in the fallopian tube fertilization of the egg occurs (the fusion of the egg and sperm - the male germ cell), then the embryo that has begun to form takes root into the uterine mucosa, where its further development takes place, that is, the pregnancy begins. At 3 months of pregnancy in the uterus, the placenta, or baby seat, is formed - a special education through which the fetus receives nutrients and oxygen from the mother's body.

In the absence of fertilization, the endometrium undergoes complex cyclical changes, which are commonly called the menstrual cycle. At the beginning of the cycle, structural transformations take place, aimed at preparing the endometrium to receive a fertilized egg: the thickness of the endometrium increases 4-5 times, its blood supply increases. If fertilization of the egg does not occur, menstruation occurs - rejection of the surface part of the endometrium and removing it from the body along with the unfertilized egg. The menstrual cycle lasts about 28 days, of which the menstruation takes 4-6 days. In the postmenstrual phase (up to the 11-14th day of the onset of menstruation), a new ovum matures in the ovary, and the surface layer of the mucous membrane is restored in the uterus. The following premenstrual phase is characterized by a new thickening of the uterine mucosa and its preparation for receiving a fertilized egg (from day 14 to day 28).

Cyclic changes in the structure of the endometrium occur under the action of ovarian hormones. In the ovary on the site of the ripe and released to the surface of the egg develops the so-called yellow body. In the absence of egg fertilization, it exists for 12-14 days. In the case of fertilization of an egg and the onset of pregnancy, the corpus luteum lasts for 6 months. The cells of the corpus luteum produce the hormone progesterone, which affects the state of the uterine mucosa and the restructuring of the mother's body when the fetus is born.

The structure of the myometrium The uterine muscular membrane, myometrium, is its main mass and has a thickness of 1.5 to 2 cm. Myometrium is built from smooth muscle tissue, the fibers of which are arranged in 3 layers (outer and inner — longitudinal, medium, most powerful — circular). During pregnancy, myometrial fibers greatly increase in size (up to 10 times in length and several times in thickness), so by the end of pregnancy the weight of the uterus reaches 1 kg. The shape of the uterus becomes rounded, and the length increases to 30 cm. Anyone can imagine changes in the size of the abdomen of a pregnant woman. Such a powerful development of the muscular layer of the uterus is necessary for the implementation of childbirth, when the ripe fetus is removed from the mother's body by contraction of the uterus and abdominal muscles. After childbirth, a reverse development of the uterus occurs, which ends after 6-8 weeks.

Thus, the uterus is an organ that periodically changes during life, which is associated with the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and childbirth.

Rudiment of the male body: the prostatic womb

In men, too, there is a womb - a pinhole on the wall of the urethra in its prostatic part, not far from the place where the vascular ducts flow into the urethra. This prostatic womb is a rudimentary residue of the Mullerian ducts, which are laid at the embryo, but simply do not develop in the male body.

Author: Olga Gurova, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Senior Researcher, Associate Professor at the Department of Human Anatomy, RUDN

The material used photos belonging to

Uterus during pregnancy

With the onset of pregnancy, many changes occur in the woman’s body, some of which are obvious, others are not. One of the most noticeable changes undergoes in the female body the uterus during pregnancy. The uterus during pregnancy is responsible for maintaining the vital functions of the fetus, and also performs a protective function, allowing the body to develop with minimal exposure to external conditions. И вместе с плодом матка во время беременности постоянно увеличивается в размерах, к моменту родов она превышает свой первоначальный размер в 500 раз.

Матка представляет собой мышечный орган, который расположен в малом тазу. Its upper part is called the bottom of the uterus, the fallopian tubes depart from it towards the ovaries, through which the egg enters the uterine cavity. During pregnancy, the uterus starts performing its direct functions as soon as the fertilized egg descends through the fallopian tube and is inserted into the wall of the uterus. In addition, to perform their functions during pregnancy, the uterus is ready when the first menstruation occurs in girls. The uterus has a pear shape and a triangular cavity inside, its weight is about 100 grams. The shape of the uterus during pregnancy also changes with its size.

Uterus size during pregnancy

The uterus during pregnancy begins to increase in size from its earliest terms. At first, these changes are not so noticeable, but then the dimensions of the uterus during pregnancy begin to grow very quickly. The exact size of the uterus during pregnancy depends on several factors, including the size of the fetus and the volume of amniotic fluid. Changes in its size while it is convenient to note the height of the uterus during pregnancy, in other words, the level at which is the bottom of the uterus during pregnancy. In general, the size of the uterus by week of pregnancy is approximately the following: after two months of pregnancy, the uterus is the size of a large chicken egg. After 12 weeks of gestation, the uterus is already protruding above the level of the pubic symphysis, and the doctor can examine it when she is examined, thus already being able to monitor the changes in her size. At 20-22 weeks of pregnancy, the bottom of the uterus reaches the level of the navel. At about 38 weeks of gestation, the bottom of the uterus reaches the xiphoid process of the breast - this period accounts for the highest position of the uterus during pregnancy. Then, in the last weeks of pregnancy, the uterus descends 3-5 cm, without changing its size. In primiparous women, the uterus usually descends a couple of weeks before giving birth, in multiparous women - a few days or hours before delivery, or it may not fall at all. The weight of the uterus at the time of birth reaches one kilogram. The length of the uterus during pregnancy before childbirth reaches approximately 35 cm.

What is inside the female reproductive system?

The ovaries are two small organs. Before puberty, as if the ovaries were sleeping. During puberty they “wake up”. The ovaries begin to make more estrogen and other hormones that cause changes in the body. The main change in the body is that these hormones make you begin to receive your period, which is called menstruation.

Once a month, the ovaries release an egg. Fallopian tubes connect the ovaries to the uterus. The released egg moves through the fallopian tube. The womb - or womb - where the baby will grow. An egg takes several days to reach the uterus. As the eggs move, estrogen causes the lining of the uterus to thicken with blood and fluid. This makes the uterus a good place to grow a baby. You can get pregnant if you have sex with a man without birth control, and your sperm joins the egg on your way to your uterus.

The uterus is a receptacle for the developing fetus.

What is this body

The uterus is an unpaired hollow muscular organ that is located between the bladder in front and the rectum of the woman behind. The diagram shows its location relative to other organs.

If the egg is not fertilized, it will pour out along with the lining of the uterus during the next period. But don't look for an egg - it's too small to see! The blood and fluid that leaves your body during your period pass through your cervix and vagina.

The neck is a narrow passage between the vagina and the uterus. The cervix is ​​flexible, so it can expand to allow the baby to pass during labor. The vagina looks like a tube that can grow larger to offer to a child who has finished growing inside the uterus.

The uterus has physiological mobility.

The normal uterus has physiological mobility and is easily displaced relative to other organs. So, when filling the bladder, it goes backwards, and when the rectum is full, it moves anteriorly. In the process of pregnancy, it grows and shifts upward, but after birth takes the initial position.

The hymen closes the vaginal opening. This is a thin piece of fabric in which there are one or more holes. Sometimes the hymen can stretch or burst when using a tampon or during the first sexual experience. If it breaks, it may bleed slightly.

Vulva closes the vaginal opening. The vulva consists of five parts: the pubis of the monks, the lips, the clitoris, the opening for urination, and the vaginal opening. A mono spoon is a mound of cloth and leather over her legs, in the middle. This area is covered with hair when you go through puberty.

Anatomical structure

The shape of a normal uterus resembles a pear, which is slightly flattened from front to back. Structurally, it is customary to single out:

  1. Bottom. This upper part protrudes the line of entry of the fallopian tubes.
  2. Body. The outline resembles a triangle, which gradually narrows towards the neck.
  3. Neck. It is a continuation of the body, but it is narrower and more round. The external part of the neck goes into the vagina and is called the vaginal part. The site adjacent to the body, called supravaginal part. If the average size of the uterus is 6-7 cm, then the length of its cervix is ​​about 2.5-3 cm.

The diagram shows its component parts.

The lips are two sets of skin folds on each side of the vaginal opening. The main lips are the outer lips, and the labia are the inner lips. Lips look normal otherwise. The clitoris is a small and sensitive lump in the lower part of the pubis, covered with labia.

How does the female reproductive system

The urinary opening below the clitoris is the place where urine leaves the body. The vaginal opening is the entrance to the vagina and below the urinary opening. The female reproductive system is all parts of your body that help you reproduce or have children. Consider these two incredible facts.

The size and position of the body

On average, the size of a woman of childbearing age is: length 5-8 cm, width 3-4 cm, thickness within 2-3 cm. In an unborn woman, the weight of an organ is about 50 grams, whereas after birth she weighs 70-80 gr. Such changes are associated with hypertrophy of the muscle layer during pregnancy.

Right inside you is the perfect place for these eggs to meet with sperm and grow a whole human being!

  • Your body probably has hundreds of thousands of eggs that can become a baby.
  • And you have them since you were born.
The function of removing the lymph nodes as part of a standard operation for the treatment of endometrial cancer.

Cancer that occurs in the lining of the uterus, known as endometrial carcinoma, is currently the most common gynecological cancer in Western Europe and North America. Most women still have a tumor confined to the body of the uterus at the time of diagnosis, and three-quarters of women with endometrial cancer survive for five years after diagnosis. Lymph node metastasis can be found in about 10% of women who have clinically limited cancer of the uterus in the diagnosis, and it is strongly recommended that all pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes be removed, even in women with cancer at the expected early stage.

Its cavity is only 5-6 cm. It is relatively small in relation to its size. Such a small cavity is due to the powerful thick walls of the organ itself.

The normal uterus is located in such a way that its longitudinal axis runs parallel to the axis of the pelvic bones. Possessing physiological mobility, it can easily shift relative to the adjacent structures, forming temporary bends. So, with an empty bladder, its bottom is held forward, and when the bladder is stretched, on the contrary, it is bent back.

The removal of lymph nodes is part of the international system for endometrial cancer. This recommendation is based on non-randomized studies that showed improved survival after removal of the pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes. However, it is possible that the treatment of pelvic lymph nodes is not directly therapeutic and may only indicate that the woman has more aggressive cancer and, consequently, a lower prognosis. Thus, it is possible that more effective treatment of the lymph nodes may not necessarily be the best treatment, especially since the surgical removal of the pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes can have serious negative consequences in the short and long term, and most women He does not have positive lymph nodes.

Important!Sharp and constant - this is not the norm, but a pathological phenomenon.

What is the wall of the uterus and the structure of its cervix

The wall of the body is represented by three layers:

  • serous membrane,
  • the muscular layer is the main component of the wall, which is represented by uncoupled fibers interwoven in different directions,
  • mucous membrane lining the organ cavity. It is represented by the ciliated epithelium, in which various types of glands lie.

The cervix is ​​the narrowest part of it. The length of its neck is within 2-3 cm. Its channel opens into the cavity of the vagina by the uterine opening, which forms the internal pharynx. In women who did not give birth, it is round or transverse, and in those who gave birth, in the form of a transverse slit with tears along the edges. When visually examined, a specialist always assesses the condition of the neck and its internal pharynx. These data can tell him about the problems with the female reproductive system.

We found only two studies comparing lymphadenectomy without lymphadenectomy in women with endometrial cancer. When the results of these two tests were combined, it was found that there was no evidence that women who underwent lymphadenectomy were more or less likely to die or have a relapse of cancer. During the tests, a significant number of deaths and recurrences of the disease were observed. Uncertainty as to whether lymphadenectomy is better or not, lymphadenectomy probably reflects the fact that there are no advantages in performing lymphadenectomy, and not the lack of statistical power to detect the difference.

How does this organ change during ovulation?

The fact that the size of the uterus grows during pregnancy is clear to everyone, but what happens to her during time. Normally, before ovulation, its neck is dense and dry. During ovulation under the influence of hormones, it becomes loose, preparing for conception. The mucus, which covers the inner throat, becomes viscous and more easily misses sperm than on other days. The position of the cervix on these days is lower than usual. All these changes are aimed at preparing the woman's body for conception.

As a result of lymphadenectomy, more women showed serious adverse events than those who did not have lymphadenectomy. The main limitations in the review were that no studies were found that evaluated a sample of pelvic lymph nodes, pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy or the removal of bulky pelvic lymph nodes and the fact that quality of life was not reported in the tests.

Anomalies of the location of the body

SELECTION CRITERIA: randomized and quasi-randomized controlled studies comparing lymphadenectomy without lymphadenectomy in adult women diagnosed with endometrial cancer. Receive and analyze data. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed the risk of bias on their own. The risk factors for overall survival and progression-free survival and the risk factors that compared adverse events in women undergoing lymphadenectomy and those who did not undergo this were combined into meta-analyzes of random effects.

What happens to the uterus during pregnancy weekly

During pregnancy, the size of the body quickly change. After the 8th month, it becomes oval-round, about 20 cm long. The individual muscle fibers increase not only qualitatively but also quantitatively.

Meta-analysis did not indicate significant differences in overall survival or survival without relapse among women who underwent lymphadenectomy, and those who did not undergo lymphadenectomy. There were no statistically significant differences in the risk of a direct surgical incidence among women who underwent lymphadenectomy and those who did not undergo lymphadenectomy. However, women undergoing lymphadenectomy had a significantly higher risk of systemic morbidity associated with surgery and lymphedema or lymphocyte formation than among those who did not.

The growth of the uterus occurs throughout pregnancy. In the first weeks, it retains its pear shape and does not change, since the size of the fetus is very small.

In the second month, it becomes rounded and its size increases several times. Her weight is also growing, by the end of pregnancy the rate is almost a kilogram.

The organ of the female reproductive system responsible for pregnancy. It is a hollow pear-shaped muscular organ in which a fertilized egg is implanted and the fetus develops. It is located between the vagina and the fallopian tubes. It consists of two parts: the body and the cervix.

The uterus is formed by three layers: the endometer, myometrium and parametriem. The endometrium internally covers the uterus and becomes vascular during pregnancy. Myometrium is an intermediate layer of the muscular type. Parametria is the outermost layer formed by connective tissue.

At a reception at the gynecologist at each scheduled examination, the doctor measures the height of the uterus floor. This helps to predict the duration of the pregnancy and notice when it begins to descend in preparation for the birth. The table below shows the normal height of standing of the bottom of the uterus by week.

Questions to the specialist

Question : I learned that the height of the bottom of the uterus, you can find out the gestational age How does the height of the bottom of the uterus by week?

Answer : The approximate height of the bottom of the uterus in centimeters is equal to the duration of your pregnancy by weeks. So, if it is 23 cm, then you are 23 weeks pregnant.

99. Uterine tubes. Development structure and function. Vagina. Development. The structure of its walls. Change due to menstrual cycle.

Uterine tubes are paired organs through which an egg from the ovaries passes into the uterus.

Development. The fallopian tubes develop from the upper part of the paramesonephral duct.

Structure. The wall of the oviduct has three membranes: mucous, muscular and serous. The mucous membrane is collected in large branched longitudinal folds. It is covered with a single-layer prismatic epithelium, which consists of two types of cells - ciliated and glandular. The muscular layer following the mucosa consists of an inner circular or spiral layer and an outer longitudinal one. Outside, the oviducts are covered with a serous membrane. At the time of ovulation, the vessels of the oviductal fimbriae increase in volume and the funnel tightly encloses the ovary. In the composition of the mucous membrane there are three layers: basal, intermediate and superficial.

The epithelium of the mucous membrane. Keratogyalin grains are deposited in the cells. Cells of this layer of the epithelium are rich in glycogen. The breakdown of glycogen leads to the formation of lactic acid. Glands are absent.

Under the mucosa, the base is not expressed and the lining of the mucous membrane passes directly into the connective tissue interlayer in the muscular sheath. The adventitia of the vagina consists of loose, fibrous, unformed connective tissue that connects the vagina with neighboring organs. In this envelope is located the venous plexus.

100. Breast (breast) gland. Origin. Development. Structure. Postnatal changes. Functional morphology of lactating and non-lactating (non-functioning and after lactation) mammary gland. Neuroendocrine regulation of the functions of the mammary glands. Changes in the mammary glands during the ovarian-menstrual cycle and during pregnancy.

Development. The mammary glands are laid at the embryo at the 6th-7th week in the form of two seals of the epidermis. “Milk points” are formed from these thickenings. Then they form the rudiments of the mammary glands.

Bookmark glands in boys and girls is the same. During childhood, dairy passages proliferate in both sexes. With the onset of puberty sex differences. During the ovarian-menstrual cycle, cyclical changes of the end sections occur. Construction. In a mature woman, each mammary gland consists of 15–20 separate glands separated by layers of loose connective and adipose tissue. Excretory ducts pass into the dilated dairy sinuses, in which milk accumulates. Milk ducts flow into the milky sinuses. Молочные синусы открываются на верхушке соска, представляющего собой утолщение кожи, в которых располагаются многочисленные инкапсулированные нервные окончания. Полного развития молочная железа достигает во время беременности. Во второй половине беременности железистые клетки начинают вырабатывать секрет. Выработка молока происходит в альвеолах.Изменения молочных желез половозрелых женщин в течение овариально-менструального цикла.The proliferation of the end departments is noted several days before ovulation and continues until the 20th day: from 22-23rd day the proliferative processes cease and the alveoli undergo the reverse development until the first days of the menstrual phase. From the 9th to the 10th day, the acini begins to grow again, but there are no signs of secretion in their cells.

Uterus form during pregnancy

The shape of the uterus during pregnancy undergoes the following changes. Before the beginning of pregnancy, the uterus has a pear shape. Then, when the fertilized egg is embedded in the wall of the uterus, it acquires a somewhat asymmetrical form due to the fact that the place of attachment of the fetal egg protrudes. By about 8 weeks of pregnancy, the uterus takes the form of a ball, and in the second half of pregnancy, the uterus is already egg-shaped.

Changes in the internal structure of the uterus during pregnancy

The uterus is a muscular organ, so the change in the size of the uterus during pregnancy occurs due to elongation and increase in the number of muscle fibers. The walls of the uterus during pregnancy have a thickness of not more than 15 mm, even before the very moment of birth. They are abundantly permeated with blood vessels, as well as nerve fibers that stimulate the contraction of the uterus.

The muscles of the uterus are represented by three layers:

  • outer layer - long muscles, covering the front, back and top of the uterus,
  • middle layer - intertwined muscles with large blood vessels passing through them,
  • inner layer - circular muscles that come from the lower part of the uterus and the cervix and cover the uterus around the circumference.

During pregnancy, the uterus muscles work as follows: the external muscles, contracting, push the child to exit the uterus, the middle muscles, contracting, squeeze blood from the walls of the uterus, and when they relax, then the blood vessels of the uterus are filled with fresh blood. With the reduction of internal muscles, the entrance to the uterus overlaps. Thus, for successful expulsion of the fetus while reducing the external muscles of the uterus, the internal ones must be relaxed. And if a woman is scared during contractions, then the internal muscles contract and it turns out that the two muscle groups work against each other.

Understanding how the muscles of the uterus work during pregnancy and childbirth will be of great service, allowing you to take some measures to combat the pain of childbirth. If two large muscle groups work against each other, then it causes pain, which soon becomes difficult to carry. A woman, experiencing fear, causes the circular muscles of the uterus to contract, thereby hindering the flow of labor. In most cases, this explains the severe pain and various troubles during childbirth.

Uterus after pregnancy

The uterus after pregnancy undergoes the process of involution - the reverse development: it decreases to its original size and restores its inner surface. Due to the rapid decrease in the volume of the wall of the uterine cavity after pregnancy acquire a folded structure, but then smoothed. Reducing the size of the uterus begins immediately after birth, a day later the bottom of the uterus is already at the level of the navel. In the first week after the baby is born, the weight of the uterus is halved. The involution of the uterus ends at 6-8 weeks after delivery. The uterus after pregnancy in different people can shrink at different rates. Thus, a decrease in the size of the uterus after pregnancy in breastfeeding women goes more quickly, while slower rates are observed in many women who give birth, in nulliparous women over the age of 30 years, with pathological labor, with the wrong regimen during the postpartum period. To speed up the reduction of the size of the uterus in the first 2-3 days after birth, it is also recommended to sleep on the abdomen, while the breasts allow it.


What is a uterus? This is the main part of the reproductive system. It, together with other important functional components, is the main organ necessary for conceiving and carrying a child. In this material, it is considered together with the appendages, because it does not function without them. The structure and its structure, together with the appendages, is represented by the diagram in this article.

The cervix is ​​a cervical canal. Inside it is lined with endometrium, and consists of elastic muscular tissue. The structure of the cervix also suggests the presence of a large number of cervical glands that produce specific cervical mucus. The length of the neck is 3-4 cm, but changes throughout pregnancy.

This part connects the uterine cavity with the vagina. It is through the cervical canal that sperm penetrate the cavity for fertilization of the egg in it.

The body of the uterus is the main part of this organ. It has a rounded or slightly ovoid shape, which changes during pregnancy. It consists of a cavity and the walls by which this cavity is formed.

The lower body (relative to its location in the body), with its part, connects to the cervix, at an obtuse angle, if the location of the cervix is ​​normal. Fallopian tubes join the organ from two sides.

The size norm for this part of the body is as follows:

  1. The weight of the uterus - 50-60 g, in women who have given birth - up to 80 g,
  2. The length of the uterus - 4-7 cm
  3. Width - up to 4 cm
  4. The thickness of the uterus - 4-5 cm.

Read more in the article: "The size of the uterus."

The uterus cavity is the free space that exists inside the uterus and is formed by the uterine walls. It is in it that the fertilization of the egg takes place, the placenta and the embryo are subsequently formed there, etc. The volume of this space is 5-6 cubic centimeters. But during pregnancy it increases significantly.

How many layers do uterine walls have? If you look at them in section, you can distinguish three functional layers:

  1. Endometrium (located inside)
  2. Myometrium (muscle layer,
  3. Subserrous sheath (outer layer).

This structure is constant for the entire cavity, that is, it has both the back and the front wall of the uterus. The walls of the uterus in normal have a variable thickness, depending on the stage of the menstrual cycle. They can reach 3-4 cm in thickness.

Ligaments of the uterus and fascia - formations that fix the body of the uterus in the pelvis. They are rather elastic, therefore they are able to stretch with increasing body cavity during gestation. They connect the walls of the uterus with the peritoneum, other organs, muscle tissue. Thanks to them, the organs are located in the small pelvis at some distance and do not put pressure on each other. The thickness of the ligaments 3-5 mm.

Ovaries and appendages

Ovaries - pair formation, connected to the body of the body by the fallopian tubes. Special follicles mature in them, in which, during ovulation, an egg cell is formed.

Then she leaves them and enters the uterine cavity. Also, these organs produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone, which control the menstrual cycle.

The normal size of one ovary is 30-40 mm, with menopause, they are reduced to one and a half to two cm.

Circulatory system

There is a large paired uterine artery, it is through it that blood flows to the organ. Deliver to the organ its branches of the ileal artery. Uterine arteries are located on both sides between the ligaments, and their branches diverge to the surfaces of the body in front and behind. Upon reaching the bottom of the organ, the uterine artery ceases to be united and is divided into many branches, which are sent to the appendages.

Lymphatic vessels are associated with the lymph nodes of the loins. And besides this - with the internal lymph nodes of the iliac artery, the sacrum and groin.

Changes during pregnancy

The structure of the uterus during pregnancy, strictly speaking, does not change. It changes only its size and shape. In particular, it is very much stretched, increasing several times under the action of pressure of the fetus, placenta, amniotic fluid.

In addition, the placenta is formed in it, and some changes occur in the structure of its endometrium and the circulatory system, since in the early stages the embryo receives nourishment through them.

The structure of the myometrium does not change, however, its contractility under the action of hormones changes.

Some changes are the cervix. As it gets closer to childbirth, it shortens, which facilitates the birth process.

The photo shows the volume of the uterus and its structure when carrying a child.

All the characteristics of the body listed above are characteristic of the normal structure and development of the body, with its proper functioning and normal hormonal balance in the body.

However, there are many types of pathologies of this body.

Of course, most of them are acquired and can be (or are not) treated, but there are many congenital anomalies that can disturb or not disturb a woman, and require or not require treatment.


In this case, the bottom of the uterus is changed, and the organ itself is shaped, rather, not a ball, but a cone pointing downward (toward the cervix of the uterus). This condition often leads to infertility, since it is difficult to bear a child with him.

This is a modified structure of the uterus of a woman, when the organ has two protruding corners, symmetrically arranged. They are located in the upper part of the body, that is, directed toward the chest.


Another congenital pathological condition, which, without treatment, prevents the onset of pregnancy and / or normal gestation. In this condition, there is a septum, the isthmus of the uterus in its cavity.

As the name implies, this is a condition where the uterus or some of its parts are two (three or four - if we are talking about paired organs). They may have different or the same (very rare) degree of development. If pregnancy is planned, then first, usually, an operation is performed to remove the "extra" set of organs.


These are congenital underdevelopment of organ tissues, in particular, the thinning of its endometrium, associated with hormonal disorders or structural features of the tissues. This condition usually prevents you from getting pregnant, and therefore requires treatment if the patient wants children.

Another name for this innate condition is aplasia. In such a congenital state, the uterus is completely absent in women (in this case, the ovaries are present, and hormonal balance may be more or less normal, although more often this phenomenon is combined with signs of intersexuality).

Location violations

There are such congenital anomalies, when the position of the uterus in the body is changed (at the same time, the appendages of the uterus can be located normally or changed). It can be bent forward or backward, to a greater or lesser extent, but if this condition is congenital, then it does not require treatment and can even be corrected during pregnancy.

Anatomy of the uterus and appendages is quite complicated. And even minimal changes in it (congenital or acquired) can adversely affect the health, quality of life and reproductive function of women.

For this reason, doctors pay quite a lot of attention to the health of these organs, and even girls before adolescence are recommended periodic check-ups at a pediatric gynecologist.

They should not be neglected, as timely identified features and anomalies can be successfully adjusted in the early stages.

The role of the cervix during pregnancy - the cervix

During pregnancy, the woman's body undergoes serious changes that affect virtually all internal organs. First of all, the reproductive system changes - the uterus and cervix are actively “rebuilt” to carry the baby. Such changes allow you to identify regular gynecological examination.

It is extremely important to monitor changes in the uterine cervix, as this will help determine the exact duration of pregnancy and the date of the upcoming delivery, as well as the need for careful monitoring of fetal development by day.

The thickness of the uterine cervix, as well as its condition, may indicate the likelihood of preterm labor, since it is in this case that the organ is reduced as much as possible in size.

The structure of the cervix

The cervix can be called one of the most important elements of the female reproductive system, which performs extremely important functions.

Visually, the uterine cervix looks like a kind of ring consisting of muscle fibers and connecting the uterus and vagina. The color of the body is light pink.

In the area of ​​the neck of childbearing age is the cervical canal. The body also consists of internal and external pharynx.

The inner part is located in the lower abdomen, above the vagina, the external pharynx is located directly in the vagina. In the process of gynecological examination specialist can examine only the outer part of the cervix.

It is the cervical canal that plays a very important role - it serves to remove bleeding during menstruation, as well as penetration of spermatozoa during sexual contact.

In a woman who has never been pregnant, the external pharynx is tightly closed, and in the case of other women, the pharynx opens slightly on the little finger. Its shape is also significantly different for a woman who has given birth and not giving birth. In the first case, she has a pronounced cone shape, in the second case she is more similar to a flat cylinder.

In the normal state, the length of the uterine cervix is ​​about 35 mm, and during pregnancy this indicator varies.

But until the very moment of delivery, the cervix remains elastic and tightly closed, the uterine cervix shortens before the birth, its shape changes, it becomes softer and more friable.

This is necessary so that the child can normally pass through the birth canal. After delivery, the cervix returns to its normal state and parameters.

Uterine cervix function

The cervix plays an extremely important role in the female reproductive system. The main purpose of this body is to securely hold the baby in the abdomen of the mother. This allows the fetus to fully develop. If the uterine cervix is ​​opened prematurely, it can carry a serious danger to the child - abortion or severe developmental pathologies.

What are the functions of the cervix?

  • The cervix produces a special secret - the mucous substance, which serves to reliably protect the uterus from the penetration of various pathogens and bacteria.
  • Holding and protecting the child in the mother's womb - the pharynx should have the required length, the small and short neck is not able to fully perform its protective function.

In non-pregnant women, the cervix is ​​firm, dense and elastic, just before delivery, it becomes soft and loose. In the early stages of pregnancy, the genital organ increases significantly in size - this is due to the rapid growth of mucous and muscular tissues.

This process affects the color of the organ. It acquires a more saturated, purple-bluish tint. This is due to increased blood circulation in the cavity of the reproductive organs.

Uterine cervix location

Where is the cervix and how does its position change during pregnancy? After successful conception, it slightly deviates posteriorly, becoming a peculiar part of the posterior wall of the vagina. The location below allows you to firmly hold the fetus, preventing the likelihood of spontaneous abortion.

When examining the reproductive organs, the doctor must determine the level of the height of the cervix uterus. This is a very important indicator, because changes in the height of the cervix can be quite serious cause for concern, indicating that the tone of the uterus rises markedly.

Such a condition can be dangerous for normal childbearing and cause rejection of the fetus. With increased tone, experts most often recommend treatment in a hospital.

In most cases, a prematurely terminated pregnancy is the result of cervical insufficiency, ICN - that is, a pathologically short uterine cervix. This pathology can develop for various reasons:

  • Hormonal disorders in the female body, in particular - insufficient production of progesterone.
  • Various injuries of the uterus during previous births, abortions or surgical interventions.
  • Abundant uterine bleeding, which led to pathological changes in the structure of the genital organ.
  • Infectious and inflammatory processes in the pelvic organs.
  • Individual anatomical features of the female reproductive system.

Any deviation from the norm regarding the position and size of the cervix is ​​an alarming sign that can warn of possible risks for a successful childbearing.

Methods of examination of the reproductive system

To date, for the study of the female reproductive system during pregnancy, various diagnostic measures are used to determine the size and location of the cervix with maximum accuracy.

For this purpose, apply two basic techniques that are considered the most informative:

  1. Gynecological examination - the doctor can examine the cervix, assessing its size, length and density, as well as the height and degree of expansion.
  2. Ultrasound - it is also called cervicometry. С ее помощью врач исследует степень зрелости шейки матки и уровень ее раскрытия.

Одним из основных методов считается пальпация – процессе гинекологического осмотра врачи внимательно измеряют, какую длину и консистенцию имеет маточная шейка, где именно располагается ее наружный зев. В нормальном, здоровом состоянии шейка плотная, твердая, ширина наружного зева не превышает объем кончика пальца руки.

These diagnostic measures are recommended to be carried out regularly, starting from 19-21 weeks of pregnancy. This is necessary for permanent control over changes in the female reproductive system.

Ultrasound examination in the majority of cases is carried out in a transabdominal way - that is, measurement with the help of a sensor, which the specialist drives the future mother's belly.

If necessary, for example, in the event of a suspicion of a shortened cervix, an ultrasound scan may be additionally administered, which is performed by a transvaginal method.

In this case, the control is carried out by means of a sensor inserted directly into the vaginal cavity.

Changes in the cervix by week of pregnancy

In medical practice, there are certain standards that the cervix must meet in the process of carrying a child. Any changes in the length and parameters of the reproductive organ may indicate a risk of premature termination of pregnancy. The minimum indicators of the cervix should be recorded immediately before childbirth.

The table of norms is as follows:

Uterus: structure and location

The uterus of a woman is an organ envisaged by evolution for the carrying and birth of a child. What does a woman's womb look like? The shape is similar to a pear or has the shape of a truncated downward cone, hollow inside, is an organ of the reproductive system.

The place where the uterus is located is the central part of the female pelvic cavity and is reliably protected by the pelvic bone skeleton, muscles, and adipose tissue for complete and reliable protection during pregnancy.

The structure of the uterus of a woman is so thought out that it is difficult to find a more protected organ.


Where is the uterus in a woman? It is located inside the pelvic cavity behind the bladder and in front of the rectum.

In the place where the uterus of a woman is, its front wall to the neck is covered with sheets of peritoneum, and the back including the neck, which contributes to the division of space into separate anatomical zones.

Along the edges, two peritoneal leaves unite and participate in the formation of ligaments. Topographically stands out:

  • The front surface is the part of the organ located in front of the bladder. Before it is a cystic cellular space filled with fatty tissue, in which the lymph nodes and lymphatic ducts are located.
  • The back surface is located anterior to the rectum. Between it and the intestine is formed posadmachiate space, filled with fiber with lymphatic collectors.
  • The right and left edges of the uterus.

The fatty tissue surrounding from all sides is parametric fiber - the place where the arterial vessels supply blood vessels, veins, lymph nodes and ducts can be located.

The volume of the female uterus is about 4.5 cubic centimeters, the average size is 7x4x3.5 cm. The way the woman's womb may look, its shape, size, volume depends on how many births the woman had. The parameters of the organ giving birth and nonpartum women are different.

The uterus of the woman who has given birth weighs almost two times more than that of the unborn. On average, the weight ranges from 50 to 70 g. In order to show how the implementation of the main physiological function of this small organ occurs, consider the main features of the structure.

The structure of the walls of the body

The structure of the uterine wall has three distinct layers:

  • External serous - it is formed by a sheet of peritoneum, the lining organ outside - perimetry.
  • Medium muscular, representing several layers of muscle tissue - myometrium.
  • The inner lining organ from the inside, which is a mucous membrane - the endometrium.

The layers of the uterus have some differences depending on the functional purpose of its individual parts.

Muscular coat

The average shell represented by muscle fibers has a rather complicated structure. Its thickness in different parts of the body is different. In the region of the bottom, the uterine muscular layer is the most thick.

This is due to the need for the muscle to contract and expel the fetus during the delivery period.

The severity of the muscle layer of the bottom area is also different in the pregnant and non-pregnant uterus, reaching a thickness of four centimeters by the time of delivery.

Muscle fibers have a three-dimensional direction, tightly intertwined, forming a fairly reliable frame, between the components of which are elastinic and connective tissue fibers.

The size and volume of the uterus changes over time due to a change in the thickness and size of the fibers of the muscle layer.

This process is influenced by many factors, but the changing level of sex hormones in different periods of a woman’s life is of primary importance.

Significantly increasing during pregnancy and childbirth, the uterus is again reduced, acquiring the same size, 6-8 weeks after the birth of the child.

Only due to such a complex structure of myometrium can preservation of pregnancy, gestation and childbirth.

Inner lining of the uterus

Endometrium is represented by a cylindrical epithelium with a large number of glands, is a two-layer:

  • Superficially located functional layer.
  • The basal layer, located under the functional.

The surface layer of the endometrium is represented by glandular cylindrical epithelium, containing a large number of glands, on the surface of its cells are receptors for sex hormones.

It can vary in thickness at different periods of the reproductive cycle of a woman under the influence of varying hormonal levels.

It is this layer of epithelial cover that is rejected during menstrual bleeding, implantation of a fertilized egg occurs in it.

The basal layer is a thin layer of connective tissue tightly connected with the muscular layer, which participates in the formation of a single, functionally coordinated mechanism.

Features of the internal structure of the neck

The internal structure of this small part of the uterus has its differences due to the functional loads performed:

  • The neck is covered with an external serous cover only behind.
  • It has a thin, not very pronounced layer of smooth muscle fibers, a sufficient amount of collagen fibers. Such a structure contributes to the change in the size of the canal during childbirth. Cervical dilatation during labor reaches 12 cm.
  • A large number of mucous glands produce a secret that closes the lumen of the channel, which contributes to the implementation of the barrier and protective function.
  • The inner epithelial layer of the canal is represented by a cylindrical epithelium, the area of ​​the external pharynx is covered with a stratified squamous epithelium. Between these parts of the neck there is a so-called transition zone. Pathological changes in the structure of the epithelial cover of this area often occur, leading to the occurrence of dysplasia and oncological diseases. Absolutely shown is a special attention to this area during the examination at the gynecologist.

The function of the uterus in the body of a woman is difficult to overestimate. Being a barrier to infection penetration, it participates in the direct regulation of the hormonal state. The key purpose is the implementation of reproductive function.

Without it, the process of implantation, gestation and childbirth is impossible.

The birth of a new person, an increase in the size of the population, ensuring the transfer of genetic material is possible only thanks to the woman, the harmonious work of the organs of her reproductive system.

That is why the problems of preserving women's health in all countries of the world have not only purely medical, but also social significance.

External structure

In the external structure there are three structural parts of the uterus:

The border between the neck and the body of the reproductive organ of each woman is individually, for someone it can be sharply delimited, and for someone and smoothly passing.

The cervix is ​​the lower part of the uterus, and the narrowest part of it. There are two areas of the neck: located in the vagina and above it.

The supravaginal zone includes 2/3 of the entire upper part of the cervix, and the rest is the vaginal area located directly in the vaginal cavity itself. At the lower end of the cervix is ​​a round hole, the so-called cervical pharynx.

It opens into the cavity of the vagina with two lips formed by the edges of the hole: the back and front. Unlike the back lip, the front lip is much narrower and thinner, and is slightly lower.

The size and type of opening at the end of the cervix also depends on whether the girl has given birth or not. If the girl had a birth, then it looks like a small transverse slit, otherwise - a rounded hole.

On the length of the entire length of the cervix passes a channel, the inner surface of which is lined with epithelial cells capable of producing mucus, as well as connective tissue cells.

At the ends of the cervical canal is much narrower than in the middle, which is why it has a specific shape resembling a spindle. On the surfaces of the walls of the cervix of the uterus localized ridges from which depart the folds, resembling a palm tree.

These folds at the confluence of the canal into the uterine cavity form a complex that performs a barrier function, protecting the uterine cavity from the contents of the vaginal cavity. In addition, tubular glands are located in the cervical canal.

Next to the cervix is ​​the body of the uterus, the border between them is the isthmus - a small constricted part, in which the upper opening of the neck is located. In the body of the uterus emit an important part - the bottom of the uterus.

This is the upper portion of the uterus, under the arch of which are the openings of the tubes of the uterus. Having a convex shape, the bottom merges together with the upper corners of the body and forms indentations from which the fallopian tubes originate.

The place in which they fall, received the name - the horns of the uterus.

In addition, there are two surfaces in the uterus:

  1. Bubble surface. It is in direct contact with the bladder.
  2. Intestinal surface. It faces the rectum.

Thus, the uterus can be represented as a triangle.

Its upper corners are the site of the beginning of the fallopian tubes, and the third more elongated angle forms a transition from the area of ​​the cervix area of ​​the body. Differences in the shape and size of the uterus primarily depend on whether the woman gave birth or not.

Internal structure

The internal structure of the uterus also has several features. The wall of the penis is a layer consisting of three layers:

  • serous membrane,
  • a layer of smooth muscle cells
  • ciliated epithelium.

Perimetry, forming the uppermost layer of the uterine wall, consists of connective tissue cells of loose and fibrous type. Being a serous layer, perimetry covers almost the entire surface of the genital organ, excluding the lateral sides of that part of the uterus, which is located outside the vagina.

Myometrium is the middle layer of the uterine wall, consisting only of smooth muscle cells, located in a certain way in three layers:

  1. The uppermost layer is located on the border between the myometrium and the serous membrane and represents the annular and longitudinal fibers of the musculature.
  2. The middle layer consists of rings of smooth muscle cells in which a large number of blood vessels pass.
  3. The third layer of the myometrium is a layer of longitudinally arranged fibers forming a submucous membrane.

The inner layer of the uterine wall is the endometrium, which consists of epithelial cells of the secretory and ciliary types. The lining of the inner surface of the cervical canal of the uterus, the endometrium forms protrusions and folds. While the mucous membrane of the bottom and body of the uterus is absolutely smooth in its structure.

The function of the endometrium is to create the most favorable conditions in the uterine cavity so that the implantation of an embryo at the beginning of embryonic development, namely at the blastula stage, occurs.

Innervation of the uterus occurs due to the transmission of impulses through the fibers of the inferior hypogastric plexus of the pelvic intrinsic nerve.

The main function of the blood supply in the reproductive organ is performed by paired arteries.

Each of them, as a rule, originates from the lateral wall of the pelvic cavity, then carries blood to the broad uterine ligament, and then, branching out into smaller blood vessels, transports the blood to the bladder. Then she goes to the lateral walls of the uterus, skirting the ureter. This is where the vaginal artery originates.

The lymphatic system is represented by vessels located in the walls of the fundus of the uterus, which transport the lymph to the lymph nodes of the lumbar area, as well as the vessels of the body and cervix. The latter carry the lymph of Uza, located in the iliac, inguinal, and sacral areas.

There are two spatial parts of the uterus:

  • extraperitoneal,
  • intraperitoneal.

Covering a certain way the front and rear surfaces of the uterus, as well as capturing the adjacent organs of the excretory system, the peritoneum and the walls of the organs form two cavities:

  1. Bladder-uterine. It is a space bounded above the peritoneum, and on the sides - the bladder and uterus.
  2. Rectal uterine. Limited on three sides by the uterus, peritoneum and rectal wall.

At one level with the uterine neck is another layer - parametrii. It is a circulatory tissue located in the space between the sheets of peritoneum. Its main function is to fill the space between the organs and fix the structures. In the parametrium, there is a large number of vessels transporting blood and lymph, nerve plexuses, as well as the ureter.

Between the tube of the uterus and the mesentery of the ovary, extending from the back of the broad ligament, is the mesentery of the fallopian tube. On the back of the broad ligament, just below the middle of the fallopian tube, is the own ligament of the ovary. The edge of the wide ligament, located on top, side, forms ligaments that support the ovary in limbo.

Between the surface of the bladder and the lower part of the anterior wall of the cervix there is a connective tissue septum, which fixes both organs to each other. The cervix, in turn, is firmly connected to the vagina.

The vaginal part of the uterus is represented by a cervical area, which flows into the cavity of the vagina. In this area is the lower pharynx, which performs the function of a "pipeline" for the delivery of sperm from the posterior vaginal fornix into the body of the uterus.

Uterus location

Located almost in the center of the pelvic cavity, the reproductive organ - the uterus is in contact with other organs of this area. The surface of the front wall, it is in contact with the bladder, and the surface of the back wall - with a loop of the small intestine and rectum.

Since the uterus is slightly tilted forward, towards the bladder, its shape is slightly curved. The angle between the cervix and the body of the uterus is about 70-100 °, while the body itself can deviate to the left or right side, it all depends on how full the intestine or bladder is.

A complex of certain ligaments, which includes:

  • wide ligaments,
  • round bundles,
  • funnel pelvic ligaments,
  • ovarian ligaments,

All of the above structures determine the state of the fascia and pelvic muscles. They not only fix the position of the uterus, but also suspend the ovaries and fallopian tubes.

Uterus: structure and function

The uterus consists of the bottom of the uterus and the cervix. Between the cervix and the body of the uterus allocate the isthmus of the uterus. In turn, the uterus consists of three layers. The first layer is the inner layer, the mucous membrane is the endometrium. The middle layer consists of smooth muscle tissue - myometrium. The outer layer is the serous membrane of the uterus, which covers most of the organ and is called perimetry.

The function of the uterus in a woman’s body initially lies in the ability to bear a child. But this is not the only function of an organ. Each of these functions interact with each other.

As already mentioned, the uterus performs a generative function. In the period of this function, the uterus undergoes some changes. With the onset of pregnancy, its shape changes: rounded to oval. Depending on the timing of pregnancy varies wall thickness. In addition, the mass of the uterus during this period increases almost three times.

Changes occur with the cervix, but only at the end of pregnancy. In the last weeks of pregnancy, it becomes soft, shortened. This will indicate the readiness of the body for childbirth.

An important function of the uterus in the female body is menstrual function.

This function of the uterus is characteristic of those women who have reached puberty. This function is a cyclical process, normally occurring monthly, provided there is no pregnancy. During the menstrual cycle, the inner layer of the uterus changes. It thickens and is rejected by progesterone. В результате этого наступает менструация.

Гормональная функция

Внутренний слой матки имеет способность вырабатывать гормон пролактин. Значимость этого гормона велика. Он отвечает за вторичные проявления половых признаков, а именно за рост и развитие груди. В период наступления беременности участвует в продлении фазы желтого тела.

Также можно выделить несколько дополнительных функций матки в организме женщины:

  • защитная. The uterus is a barrier to infection through the vagina,
  • the uterus together with its ligamentous apparatus strengthens the pelvic floor.

Regular routine check-ups at the gynecologist make it possible to prevent possible pathologies in time, which will allow an important organ to function normally.

What is the uterus and where is it located

The uterus is the organ of the reproductive system in a woman, in which the fetus develops from the moment the fertilized egg leaves the fallopian tube until the child is born. In shape, it resembles an inverted pear.

The uterus is located in the pelvis between the bladder and the rectum. Its position may change during the day: when the organs of the urinary and digestive systems are filled, it shifts slightly, and after urination or defecation returns to its original place. But the most noticeable change in the position of the uterus is observed simultaneously with its growth during pregnancy, as well as after childbirth.

Ligaments and muscles of the uterus

In order for the uterus to maintain its position, it is retained in the pelvic cavity by connective tissue ligaments, the most famous of which are:

1 Paired broad ligament of the uterus (right and left) are attached to the membrane of the peritoneum. Anatomically, they are associated with ligaments that fix the position of the ovaries.

2 Round bundle contains both connective tissue and muscle cells. It starts from the wall of the uterus, passes through the deep opening of the inguinal canal and connects with the fiber of the labia majora.

3 Cardinal ligaments connect the lower part of the uterus (near the cervix) with the urogenital diaphragm. Such fixation protects the organ from shifting to the left or right side.

Through the ligaments, the uterus is connected to the fallopian tubes and ovaries, which ensures the correct mutual arrangement of the organs of the female reproductive system.

In addition to the ligaments, the correct location of the pelvic organs, including the uterus, provides a collection of muscles, which is called the pelvic floor. Its outer layer includes the sciatic-cavernous, bulbous-spongy, superficial transverse and external muscles.

The middle layer is called the urogenital diaphragm, it contains a muscle that contracts the urethra and a deep transverse muscle. The internal pelvic diaphragm unites the pubic-coccygeal, sciatic-coccygeal and iliac-coccygeal muscles. The pelvic floor muscles prevent the deformation of organs, which would entail a violation of their blood supply and function.

Contraction of the uterus during pregnancy and childbirth

Myometrium (middle, thickest layer of the uterus) contains smooth muscle cells. Their movements cannot be controlled deliberately, the process of fiber contraction occurs under the action of hormones (primarily oxytocin) and the autonomic nervous system. The muscle fibers of the myometrium are reduced in the period of menstruation: this ensures the expulsion of secretions from the uterus.

While carrying a baby, the uterus also sometimes shrinks. Its surface hardens, and a pregnant woman may feel pain or heaviness in the stomach.

This happens either because of the threat of miscarriage (hypertonus), or during training bouts, which periodically occur when carrying a child and prepare the myometrium for labor.

The strongest uterine contractions occur during labor contractions. When the muscles of the myometrium contract, on the one hand there is a dilation of the cervix, on the other hand the bottom of the uterus begins to press on the fetus to advance through the birth canal. With the approach of the moment of birth of the baby, cuts occur more and more frequently.

Uterus after childbirth

After the baby is born, the myometrium continues to contract, the uterus decreases, the muscles and ligaments return to their original position. There is a healing of the wound surface of the endometrium, which is formed during the separation of the placenta. Periodic reduction of the body, accompanied by the cleansing of the cavity from the remnants of the placenta and bleeding after childbirth (lochia) lasts up to 1.5 months.

The uterus is most actively reduced during breastfeeding, this is especially noticeable in the first days after birth. This phenomenon is associated with the release of oxytocin into the blood during nipple skin irritation.

Gradually shortening of the muscle fibers leads to clamping of damaged blood vessels, so the bleeding stops.

The cervix after the birth of a child is stretched and does not restore its original shape. By its elongated throat, you can determine whether a woman has given birth or not.

The uterus is an extremely important part of the reproductive system, it can withstand enormous stress and undergoes incredible changes when carrying a baby. From the health of this body depends on the ability of women to continue the race.

Fetal development and size in the 12th week of pregnancy

12 week of pregnancy is the period when the main organs and systems of the baby were formed and began to work actively, but their active development continues.

  • The child has even updated the epidermis, the old cells of which are peeled off. Where there will be eyebrows and eyelashes, as well as on the chin and above the upper lip, fluff hair appears. The fingers on all the extremities separated, and nails grow on them, and a unique pattern appears on the skin of the pads.
  • The future child is growing very quickly, the most important indicator is its length. At 12 weeks of gestation, it is about 8-10 cm in measurement from the coccyx to the parietal area. The weight of the child (fetus) at the 12th week of pregnancy is 15-20 g. The size of the fetus at the 12th week of pregnancy is commensurate with a lemon or goose egg.
  • The intestine of the baby periodically decreases, that is, its peristalsis appears. A child in the 12th week of pregnancy already occupies the entire abdominal cavity and is able to absorb glucose. The thyroid and pituitary glands produce hormones and iodine, the liver produces bile, the muscular and nervous systems are strengthened, the kidneys function, and the bone tissue matures. Thanks to the work of the liver, the functioning of the gallbladder is improving, so the fetus can already absorb fats. In the blood of the unborn child, in addition to erythrocytes, leukocytes also appear.
  • At the 12th week of pregnancy, the development of the thymus gland, which is responsible for the synthesis of lymphocytes, begins. After the baby is born, she is actively involved in the development of immunity. The brain of the child is divided into two hemispheres, forming the connection between the brain and spinal cord.
  • The amount of amniotic fluid in this period reaches 50 ml, it is updated daily. The female uterus is also increasing, its width is 10 cm. The baby is actively moving, but mother still does not feel it. On the doppler, you can already listen to his heartbeat. The frequency of heartbeats is 100-160 per minute. The functioning of the thymus begins.
  • A child in the 12th week of bermness moves a lot, but all his movements are still spontaneous. It pushes off the walls of the uterus and floats in the surrounding amniotic fluid.

What does a baby (fetus) look like at the 12th week of pregnancy

A child in the 12th week of pregnancy is becoming more and more like a person, but the head still seems to be much larger than the body. The limbs are still very tiny, but they are already fully formed.

The fetus at the 12th week of gestation with the movements of the chest imitates breathing, opens a tiny mouth, closes his eyes, moves his fingers and toes. There are already eyelids on the eyes, and small lobes on the ears. The kid still squeezes fingers, but learned to ape. It swallows amniotic fluid, which then leaves the body in the form of urine. There is no need to worry about this, as the amniotic fluid is very often updated.

The baby still does not distinguish sounds, only feels vibration. The facial features are becoming more distinct, although the forehead is still very high due to the predominance of the cranial skull over the facial. Sensitivity receptors appear on the skin.

Ultrasound in the 12th week of pregnancy

It is after the end of the first trimester, the doctor sends the expectant mother to the first and most important ultrasound. It sets the size of the fetus, the dynamics of its development and the approximate period of birth. It is important to have an ultrasound scan at the 12th week of pregnancy to determine the position of the placenta, the condition of the uterus and the absence of its tone. Estimated and the amount of amniotic fluid. By this time, the genitals of the baby are already formed, so the doctor can determine the sex of the child at the 12th week of pregnancy. But the exact answer may still not be.

Ultrasound during pregnancy: when to do the first, second, third ultrasound

Another important study at the end of the first trimester is screening. It is a complex of procedures consisting of ultrasound and a biochemical analysis of blood. Thanks to him, conformity with the norm in the course of pregnancy and the development of the baby is evaluated. Call it another double test.

Ultrasound examination at the 12th week of pregnancy makes it possible to study the so-called “collar zone” located in the neck between the skin and soft tissues of the child. Fluid accumulates in this place, the doctor measures the thickness of this space. The study helps in the early period to identify gross defects in the development of the unborn child (for example, Down syndrome), as well as anomalies that are incompatible with life. The thickness of the collar space in the 12th week of pregnancy should not exceed 2.5 mm.

The collar zone disappears with the growth of the baby, so it is important to conduct the first screening in the interval between 11 and 13 weeks of pregnancy.

Biochemical blood analysis is necessary to measure two important hormones (HCG and PAPP), the discrepancy between the level of which and the norm indicates the risk of the development of certain abnormalities in the fetus. This study reveals only the degree of risk, but does not indicate the presence of any abnormalities in the development of the baby. Based on the screening results, the doctor determines if further research is necessary. If any suspicion arises, a woman is sent for a consultation to genetics.

Tests on the 12th week of pregnancy

By this time, as a rule, the woman has already become registered for pregnancy, so all tests have been submitted. If, for any reason, this did not happen, you will have to undergo a complete blood and urine test, a blood sugar level test, blood clotting, an HIV and syphilis test, a blood group and rhesus test, and TORCH- infections and viral hepatitis. The doctor will also take a swab from the vagina.

According to the testimony may be appointed and other additional studies.

12 week of pregnancy. Sensations

  1. For a woman, this period is good because the signs of early toxicosis disappear, the future mother feels great. This is due to the fact that the yellow body gradually fades. The placenta begins to produce the hormones necessary for the pregnancy to proceed without complications. Another pleasant moment is the normalization of urination due to the raising of the uterus into the abdominal cavity.
  2. If, due to toxicosis, a woman has not gained weight or has lost weight altogether, now her body weight will grow. In a week, a weight gain of 500 g is permissible. The volume of blood increases, its circulation increases. This is expressed by increased blood pressure and increased heart rate. If the pressure was elevated and prior to the beginning of pregnancy, then the woman should constantly monitor it. The chest is still increasing in size, preparing for the upcoming lactation.
  3. When itching on the skin in the abdomen or mammary glands, you should start using stretch mark creams to prevent their occurrence.
  4. Still unstable emotional state of women. This is due to a change in her hormonal background, so the mood can change several times a day. Do not be afraid, if one fine morning pigment spots are found. They will pass without a trace after giving birth.
  5. From now on, the expectant mother may notice an increase in the abdomen. Its size depends on the body of a woman, the number of fruits and the place of attachment of the placenta.
  6. During pregnancy, the load on all internal organs of the expectant mother increases, so it is so important for her not to overwork. You need to walk more in the fresh air, relax and enjoy your interesting position.
  7. This stage of pregnancy should not be accompanied by painful sensations. Minor abdominal pain due to sprains supporting the growing uterus is allowed.

Consultation with a doctor is necessary for occasional pains of a whining or pulling character, as well as for prolonged painful sensations - for 2-3 hours.

The best stretch marks for pregnant women - 15 brands for you

Discharge in the 12th week of pregnancy

The future mother should be alerted by any discharge with an admixture of blood. If they are also accompanied by painful sensations, then the probability of a spontaneous miscarriage is great. If bleeding occurs after sexual intercourse or examination by a doctor, then this is a sign of cervical erosion. In any case, you need to consult a gynecologist.

If you notice a discharge in the 12th week of pregnancy of the following nature, consult your doctor:

  • highlight cheesy consistency,
  • the presence of a strong odor
  • significant increase in discharge,
  • admixture of mucus or pus,
  • yellowish tint.

Any infection can harm the health of the baby, so it should definitely be treated.

Colds and fever

Harmless cold in the 12th week of pregnancy can cause serious harm to the pregnant woman and the unborn baby, especially in the early stages. It is able to provoke miscarriage, the development of serious fetal malformations, hypoxia. Unpleasant cold and the fact that during pregnancy, many drugs for a woman are prohibited. For the prevention of acute respiratory viral infections should be avoided places with large crowds.

If you still could not avoid a cold, then you need to consult with your doctor about his treatment. Suitable folk remedies and herbal medicines. A woman should always comply with bed rest and drink plenty of warm fluid.

If cold symptoms do not disappear after 3-4 days of treatment, a second consultation is necessary.

The 12th week of gestation is the period when the normal temperature for a period of 12 weeks can reach 37.5 degrees. This is due to the body's response to elevated levels of progesterone. But sometimes the increase in body temperature is associated with the development of any hidden diseases. A general blood test will help to learn about them.

High body temperature affects the baby. She can even provoke a fade of pregnancy. You can bring it down with paracetamol and folk methods.

Cold and treatment of ARVI during pregnancy

Sex in the 12th week of pregnancy

The 12th week of pregnancy is the perfect time when toxicosis has already receded and the risk of miscarriage has significantly decreased, a woman should not deny herself sex. It is important to avoid postures in which the partner presses on the stomach, as well as too active movements. The future mother should monitor her feelings during and after intercourse.

Contraindications to having sex in the 12th week of pregnancy:

  1. threat of interruption
  2. low location of the placenta
  3. multiple pregnancy.

Sex during pregnancy. Can I have sex during pregnancy?

Nutrition in the 12th week of pregnancy

Nutrition in the 12th week of pregnancy should be varied and full, focus on fruits and vegetables. The body needs a lot of fiber to prevent intestinal problems. As a drink, carbonated drinks and purchased juices should be excluded. A pregnant woman should drink up to 2 liters of water per day.

  • You can not skip meals, as well as dinner before bedtime. Fast food, fatty, spicy and salty foods are excluded from the diet. The kid needs calcium and iodine, so you should choose foods rich in them. Folic acid is still important. Products rich in vitamins C and E are capable of making the placenta more elastic and durable.
  • Fatty and flour products can trigger the development of constipation.
  • Plays a big role and the way of cooking. Vegetables and fruits are best consumed fresh or baked. Eat better often, but in small portions.
  • A lack of vitamins and trace elements in the diet of a pregnant woman can further affect the health of the baby.

We offer you more detailed information about nutrition in the 12th week of pregnancy.

Tips for the future mom

At the 12th week of pregnancy you need to pay attention to the following points:

  1. Significant reduction in physical activity and the abandonment of dangerous sports.
  2. If you exceed the weight gain of 500 g per week, you need to revise your diet.
  3. If the breast has greatly increased in size, you need to purchase a cotton bra with wide straps, soft cups and seedless. Properly chosen underwear will help avoid stretch marks.
  4. For sleep, you should not choose a pose on the abdomen, because the pelvic organs can be squeezed due to the increase in the uterus.
  5. Give up bad habits if this has not been done before.

The 12th week of pregnancy has already begun, which means that starting from this moment, the future of the mother, if she suffered from toxicosis, will most likely start to get easier. Да-да, плацента потихоньку перебирает на себя жизнеобеспечивающие функции, желтое тело свою работу «сделало», а, посему, тошнота и рвота, скорей всего, теперь останутся в прошлом. Вот только, к сожалению, касается это больше «традиционной» беременности, если же беременность обозначена как многоплодная, явления токсикоза еще некоторое время могут оставаться с ней. Как и эмоциональные всплески, раздражительность и нервозность, вызванные гормональной перестройкой организма.

Even if a woman has lost some weight in weight during the first weeks of pregnancy, starting from week 12, her body weight will start to increase: it’s considered normal plus 500 grams per week. A new life growing in the womb of a woman requires from the mother's organism "to the maximum", in connection with which all of its systems and organs work in full force. The blood volume increases, its circulation increases, the lungs and kidneys work more actively, the heart beats more often. At the same time, urination is “debugged” - the frequent urge to go to the bathroom “small” will not disturb a woman, as in the beginning of pregnancy. But there may be a problem with bowel movement: the growing uter puts pressure on him, the work of the intestine slows down, against the background of which there can be constipation.

At the 12th week of pregnancy, the expectant mother can already feel how her stomach is slowly starting to grow. Usually, if the pregnancy is new for a woman, then the tummy begins to grow later, at week 12 it practically did not increase, the future mother feels comfortable and ordinary clothes fit her well. If pregnancy is not the first for a woman, then the belly usually begins to grow earlier, often forcing the expectant mother to start looking for clothes of a free cutter by the 12th week. Often the growth of the abdomen is accompanied by itching, this is a kind of "hint" for a woman concerned about the choice of suitable means that will help avoid the formation of stretch marks, not only on the abdomen, but also on the chest, thighs. In addition, on the abdomen, at the 12th week of pregnancy, it can be indicated by pigment spots and a dark stripe, which, starting from the navel, goes down. Experts reassure: there is nothing terrible in this, these phenomena are temporary and are not cause for concern.

Uterus in the 12th week of pregnancy

Probably, it is not difficult to guess that the stomach starts to grow just due to the gradual increase in the size of the uterus. Thus, the uterus at 12 weeks of pregnancy usually grows to such a size that it simply becomes crowded in the hip area. At this stage, the width of the uterus "grows" to about 10 centimeters, therefore, goes beyond its ordinary location and rises into the abdominal cavity. Increased its size, a woman can already even feel and feel.

Usually, at the 12th week of pregnancy, the first ultrasound study is performed, with the help of which the doctor determines the size of the fetus, and also establishes the estimated time of birth. Ultrasound in the 12th week of pregnancy becomes a real revelation for the future mother: her first encounter with the baby is taking place, she already distinguishes him as a tiny little man who is destined to be born in the near future. Although such indicators are extremely important in ultrasound, but other, much more important results can show ultrasound in the 12th week of pregnancy.

Thus, during the ultrasound study, the doctor assesses the condition of the uterus and determines its tone, analyzes the location of the placenta, eliminates the likelihood of ectopic pregnancy, and clearly determines how many fetuses develop in the womb. A woman can quite well see her future baby on the ultrasound monitor, but without the help and explanation of the doctor, the child cannot always tell where the baby is and how she feels. Do not hesitate to ask the doctor for explanations - he can answer all questions for the mother, thus acquainting her closer with her baby.

The results of ultrasound in the 12th week of pregnancy, the doctor compares with the figures shown in the table of values ​​of the norm. This will make it possible to establish whether everything is going “in its turn”, and in the future the indicators of the first ultrasound will be compared with the rates of repeated ultrasound examinations. Thus, the specialist will be able to monitor whether the pregnancy is proceeding normally, whether there are any abnormalities.

It happens that early diagnosis becomes a disappointing “surprise” for parents: an ultrasound scan at the 12th week of pregnancy can already give an answer if congenital defects or chromosomal abnormalities do not threaten the baby. Unfortunately, such diseases are not amenable to treatment, and parents, learning about deviations, are tormented by a difficult choice: to leave the baby or still resort to abortion.

Screening in the 12th week of pregnancy

Screening at the 12th week of gestation can be an even more informative method for assessing fetal development and pregnancy. This is a comprehensive study that covers not only ultrasound, but also biochemical blood analysis. A blood test involves measuring the body of a woman of two markers - free b-hCG (free beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin) and PAPP-A (plasma protein A associated with pregnancy). In this regard, the first screening is also called a double test.

Optimal screening for the entire pregnancy is carried out three times, and the first is recommended for just between 11 and 13 weeks. The fact is that screening at the 12th week of pregnancy, which includes mandatory fetal ultrasound, is aimed at studying the so-called “collar zone” of the fetus. Such a study makes it possible to exclude gross fetal malformations and even abnormalities that are incompatible with life. Collar area - the neck area between the skin and soft tissues in which fluid accumulates - refers to non-permanent markers. With the development of the baby, the norms of the collar space change, and therefore the study should be carried out strictly in certain periods. And, moreover, the analysis of the state of the collar zone can be carried out under the condition of high qualification and special training of the operator, otherwise the presumptive diagnosis can be strongly questioned.

In turn, the study of the level of hormones (free b-hCG and PAPP-A) carried out as part of the screening at the 12th week of gestation makes it possible to determine the degree of risk for the development of certain abnormalities in the fetus. For example, an increase in the values ​​of free b-hCG on average twice can be the reason for suspicion of the presence of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) in a fetus, a decrease in trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome).

However, despite the high information content, screening at 12 weeks of pregnancy is not a reason for the final analysis. The study only establishes the degree of risk and the possibility of the presence of trisomy 21, trisomy 18, as well as the neural tube defect. The results of screening become a pretext for further research using special methods. Among other things, the doctor will, with questionable analyzes, usually refer the future mother to genetics, and the latter, in turn, recommends other additional studies.

In addition to ultrasound and biochemical analysis of blood, the doctor may prescribe a future mother and some other tests in the 12th week of pregnancy. Usually, all routine tests for a woman have to be taken when registering at a antenatal clinic. But it happens that tests at the 12th week of pregnancy may be needed due to the late treatment of the woman to the gynecologist about the pregnancy. Or it happens that the tests at the 12th week of pregnancy are needed for an extended examination of the future mother in connection with her condition - as an additional monitoring tool.

In addition to the traditional blood test for AIDS, syphilis, hepatitis B, for blood group and Rh factor, by this time a blood test for sugar and a biochemical analysis should be taken. Among other things, the analysis at 12 weeks of pregnancy, exploring the "biochemistry", will determine the level of hCG in the body of the future mother. And biochemical analysis of blood is carried out, as mentioned above, as part of a screening examination of a pregnant woman. If there are any suspicions about specific diseases, a woman can also be sent for hormone tests and tests for urogenital infections.

Fetus at 12 weeks gestation

All these actions are necessary both to control the state of the future mother, and in order to carefully monitor the formation and normal development of the fetus in the 12th week of pregnancy. At this stage, he has already grown significantly: the fetus at the 12th week of gestation, when it is 10 weeks old, weighs about 14 grams, while it is 6 to 9 cm in length (from crown to the tailbone). From this point on, by the way, its growth rate and length are a much more important indicator for doctors than weight.

The fetus at the 12th week of pregnancy is almost fully formed, all its systems and organs are actively working and continue to develop. So, the fingers are divided and marigolds are formed on them, a unique imprint is formed on the pads of the fingers, the upper layer of the skin is renewed, and where in the future the edges and cilia appear, the fluff appears. Also, fluff hairs are born on the chin and upper sponge.

By the way, the face of the fetus in the 12th week of pregnancy is already actively “expressing emotions”: it grimaces, opens and closes its mouth, and even takes a finger in its mouth. At the same time, the baby waves with arms and legs, and also tumbles and “floats” freely in the mother's womb.

The internal organs of the child at this stage, in parallel with the fact that they function, continue to develop. The baby’s intestine, having “occupied” its place, is periodically reduced, the liver synthesizes bile, and the pituitary and thyroid glands produce hormones and iodine. The bone tissue continues its maturation, the crumbs muscles strengthen, the heart quickly beats, the kidneys and the nervous system work fully. And at this stage in the blood of the fetus, in addition to red blood cells, leukocytes begin to form and more and more the immune system is improving.

12 week of pregnancy video 12 week of pregnancy photo

All this “magic” that is created in the mother’s tummy should not normally be accompanied by painful sensations. True, light and mild pains in the 12th week of pregnancy, noticeable in the lower abdomen, can be explained by the tension of the ligaments that support the growing uterus. At the same time, doctors often justify back pains by changing the center of gravity due to a gradually growing abdomen, and also by softening the supporting ligaments and disks under the influence of progesterone.

At the same time, back pain can also be triggered by an infection of the bladder; therefore, it is still better to consult a doctor in such a situation and, if necessary, be examined. Consultation of a specialist will not be superfluous if pains in the 12th week of pregnancy appear in the lower abdomen periodically, are aching and pulling in nature, and also if the pain in the lower abdomen lasts for 2-3 hours. And, moreover, accompanied by bloody discharge - this dangerous sign indicates the threat of premature termination of pregnancy. If a woman reacts in time to the appearance of painful sensations, miscarriage can be avoided, therefore, you should seek help immediately.

Spotting in the 12th week of pregnancy, even minor ones, should always alert the woman. Moreover, if they are still accompanied by pain in the abdomen - all this indicates the risk of spontaneous abortion. But bleeding that appears after a gynecological examination or sexual intercourse can be explained by cervical erosion. And this condition is also a sufficient reason to consult a specialist and additional examination.

Normally, discharge in the 12th week of pregnancy is moderate, light or with a milky tint, with a uniform consistency and a slight sour smell. No pus, mucus, green or yellow, cheesy discharge or discharge with a sharp and unpleasant smell should not be: such discharge becomes a sign of infection. Changes in the consistency and color of secretions can be a symptom of thrush, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, which require mandatory treatment, because the infection is quite capable of hitting the fetus.


Bleeding in the 12th week of pregnancy always requires consultation with a doctor, because it is always defined as a very dangerous sign. Although bleeding of a different nature is considered to be quite common in early pregnancy, it is still impossible to risk and let the situation take its course, in order to prevent a possible miscarriage, which is the precursor of bleeding in the 12th week of pregnancy.

Particularly dangerous bleeding, which are accompanied by cramping or pulling pain in the lower abdomen, painful sensations in the lower back. Indeed, in addition to the threat of spontaneous abortion, such bleeding can also indicate an ectopic pregnancy - a complex and pathological pregnancy, which is a threat to the health and life of a woman.

Cold in the 12th week of pregnancy

The twelfth week ends one of the critical periods of pregnancy - the first trimester, after which most of the anomalies and malformations of the baby will not be terrible. But for now, this last and crucial week of the first trimester, you still need to take care of yourself, including colds.

Early colds can cause a lot of trouble: provoke the development of placental insufficiency, fetal hypoxia, significantly increase the risk of miscarriage. After all, a “cold untreated” postponed, cold at the 12th week of pregnancy still remains a significant danger: it can cause malformations of the baby, even incompatible with life, which may end up with spontaneous abortion.

Significantly complicates the situation and the fact that cold in the early stages of pregnancy in order to avoid negative consequences is forbidden to be treated with drugs. In this case, perhaps the means of traditional medicine, and even some herbal remedies - and then, exclusively after consulting a doctor.

Mandatory for women in the process of treating a cold rest and bed rest. Shown abundant drink (warm, but not hot) - herbal tea, broth hips, berry fruit drinks from cowberries, raspberries, currants. Honey is also useful, although in small quantities, as it has a strong allergenic effect. Honey can be added to tea, drink with warm milk. Also a good remedy in the treatment of colds, first of all, against cough, is considered warm milk in half with mineral water Borjomi. Coughing can be fought with the help of a mixture with altea, syrup or lozenges. Dr. IOM, Gedelix remedies.

It is imperative to return to the doctor is necessary if the cold in the 12th week of pregnancy does not subside within 3-4 days, if its symptoms worsen, there are headaches and no cough accompanied by wheezing. Moreover, a mandatory consultation with a specialist is required if a cold in the 12th week of pregnancy is accompanied by a high fever - within 38 degrees or more.


The temperature at the 12th week of pregnancy, which is marked by indicators slightly above the norm and varies between 37-37.5 degrees, can be both a normal variant (the body reacts to elevated levels of progesterone in the woman’s body) and indicate hidden diseases. Analyzes will help identify these diseases - usually inflammatory provoke changes in white blood cell levels, as well as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). And, nevertheless, more often, a slightly elevated temperature at the 12th week of pregnancy is a characteristic feature of the future mother's body.

But the noticeable high temperature at the 12th week of pregnancy, accompanying any diseases, represents a significant threat to the baby. So, under the influence of high temperatures, the fading of pregnancy can occur even at such a time, because a long-lasting high temperature is simply not permissible. But after all, the majority of antipyretic drugs are banned at the 12th week of pregnancy (the only exception is paracetamol, and only with the permission of a doctor). So what to do?

First of all, do not “disdain” popular methods of reducing the temperature - wiping with cool water with the addition of a small amount of vinegar, wet and cool lotions on the ankles and hands, cool shower. But all this - only after the doctor was called to the house: he will help determine the degree of danger of high temperature, and prescribe a dosage in which paracetamol will not cause much harm.

Should abstain from alcohol in the 12th week of pregnancy, as, incidentally, during the whole time of carrying a baby. Conscious mother, after all, is unequivocally interested in her baby being born a full and healthy baby, while alcohol in the 12th week of pregnancy, consumed even in the smallest doses, can prevent this.

At this stage, the formation of the brain is still ongoing, and no specialist will assume the responsibility to suggest how alcohol will act on this process. Thus, alcohol can cause irreparable damage to brain cells - up to the destruction of some of them, which will not be restored in the future. Воздействие алкоголя может проявиться в этом случае даже через несколько лет после появления малыша на свет: в какой-то момент станет ясно, что тяжело обучаем, излишне возбудим и гиперактивен, страдает от плохой памяти.

В более тяжелом случае алкоголь на 12 неделе беременности все еще способен вызвать тяжелые пороки развития ребенка и физические уродства, повлияв на формирование костной ткани, на развитие мышц. Alcohol in large quantities, constantly penetrating the placenta to the baby and exerting a toxic effect on it, can completely lead to a miscarriage. Therefore, alcohol in the 12th week of pregnancy should definitely be excluded from the life of the future mother.

Briefly about the structure of the uterus

To understand how the uterus changes in early pregnancy, one should know that it is up to it. This organ has the shape of a pear and includes the neck, isthmus and body. The layer holding the ovum is called the endometrium. In many ways, it ensures the retention of the embryo inside, especially at first.

The structure of the uterus and the passage of the egg cell monthly cycle

By the time of implantation, the upper portion of the mucous membrane should be fairly loose and thick.
In addition to the endometrium, two more layers are distinguished: myometrium (muscle base) and perimetry (outer part of the uterus). Their integrity, adequate functioning is also necessary for a healthy pregnancy.
The parameters of the uterus before it starts have the following values:

  • length 7 cm
  • cross size 4 cm,
  • thickness 4-5 cm

In women who already have a child, the size is slightly larger, and the mass of the body is 20-30 g higher.


Many women would like to know what the uterus looks like in early pregnancy. The appearance of the body for a specialist can be one of the signs of the condition. And although during the inspection only a part of it called the cervix is ​​visible, and then not entirely, but partially, the changes taking place with it will unequivocally indicate the presence of a new organism in the uterus. Usually the pink shell is bluish in color. The symptom is caused by the entry of a significant volume of blood into this area, as well as the expansion of blood vessels and the appearance of new capillaries necessary for improving oxygen metabolism. All of these criteria are important for the healthy development of the embryo. The cyanosis of the mucous is noticeable at a very early stage, almost immediately after implantation of the embryo.

What the doctor sees and feels when examining the cervix

The size of the body at the beginning of the process

At the initial stage of its development, the fetus is still very small. It's just a collection of cells that take up very little space.
Find out what the size of the uterus in early pregnancy, you can by its duration:

  • to 4 weeks the size corresponds to a chicken egg,
  • by 8 weeks the parameters double and resemble a goose egg,
  • by 12 weeks, the uterus can be compared to the head of a newborn,
  • By the 16th week, the organ is similar in size to a small melon, because the height of the fetus reaches 13 cm.

The size of the uterus in early pregnancy are smaller (if the parents are not tall, respectively, and the fetus is small). But the situation in any case will have to be controlled, since it can be a reflection of anomalies in the development of the state. A larger organ in each of these stages occurs with multiple fetuses.

In early pregnancy, the uterus increases due to the stretching and growth of muscle cells, that is, myometrium. They have the ability to divide, form new fibers, make them longer and more dense. Cicatricial inclusions resulting from diseases or previous births that have occurred with a caesarean section may interfere with this.

To determine which uterus during pregnancy in the early stages, bearing in mind its size, it is possible with the help of an ultrasound or an examination by a specialist. The highest point of the organ, called the bottom, is important. Its height corresponds to the duration of pregnancy.

The usual pear-shapedness of the uterus changes from the time the embryo is fixed in it. If the increase in size is evident from 4 weeks, then the form takes on a slightly different shape even earlier. At the point where the embryo is screwed into the mucosa, a slight protrusion forms. The uterus seems asymmetric. With the growth of the fetus, its gradual transformation into a ball is noted. The change in shape is due not only to the growth of the embryo, but also to the tissues that ensure its existence.


Changes in the uterus in early pregnancy are not only related to its size and configuration, they are more global. This is reflected in the fact that the tissues become different than was observed before. Changes are marked in all layers of the body. One of them has already been mentioned: the endometrium is made more malleable, so that the fertilized egg can firmly fix in it and exist comfortably.

An important sign of the correctness of what is happening is that the uterus to the touch in the early stages of pregnancy is noticeably softer. This is ensured by the relaxation of its smooth muscles. This quality is also a prerequisite for the safety of the embryo. The contractile capacity of the body is reduced. If this does not happen - the probability of rejection of the fetus.

The hardest part of the uterus is her neck. It plays the role of a boundary blocking off the approaches to the embryo. But its tissues are made more pliable than before conception.

Features of the location of the body

The softest part of the body is the isthmus. This determines the position of the uterus in early pregnancy. The organ is still localized only in the pelvis, but noticeably bends forward. The softening of the isthmus allows it to also become more mobile, which is necessary for further trouble-free growth.
By week 16, due to a significant increase in the size of the organ, part of it is already in the abdominal cavity, which causes the tummy to appear in a woman.

What does a woman feel

Feelings in the uterus in early pregnancy often before other symptoms give a woman to feel the new situation. Although there is nothing unpleasant or extraordinary in them. There is a slight tingling in the area of ​​the organ, fullness, sometimes a weak bursting. This is not caused by the growing fruit, it is still too small.

The sensitivity of the uterus gives swelling of the tissues, which is characteristic of the beginning of pregnancy. It provokes increased blood supply to the body. Tide at this stage is necessary for the formation of amniotic membranes, the placenta, the growth of capillaries, which will feed the fetus to their formation and further.

Due to the increase in ligaments of the body stretching in the volume of the body, the expectant mother can feel weak pain in the area of ​​the uterus.

We also recommend that you read the article methods for diagnosing pregnancy in the early stages. From it you will learn what signs will indicate conception even before the onset of menstruation, what methods do the doctors use, what does the woman herself feel, and how will the first consultation with the doctor take place.

What does "uterus in tone" mean?

The early stage of pregnancy is a period when the situation itself is in question. Even in healthy women there may be problems related to the usefulness of the fetus, which provoke the body’s attempts to get rid of it.

But still the state of the uterus in early pregnancy is often determined by the health of the woman and her behavior at this stage. Not everyone is trying to protect themselves from physical and psychological stress. Therefore, many are diagnosed with hypertonicity of the uterus. This is a condition in which the danger of rejection becomes especially close for the fetus. There are several signs that indicate the potential danger:

  • uncomfortable sensations in the lower abdomen, soreness radiating to the sacrum - sensations are similar to those seen before critical days,
  • the uterus is made "stone"
  • red colored secretions appear.

Hypertonus means the necessity of taking measures to prevent interruption, especially if the pain does not go away for a long time, and the removal of bloody mucus from the vagina increases. But sometimes, if you pull the uterus in early pregnancy, this only indicates an increase in the load on her muscles, which is absolutely normal and safe. The tension of the body is removed at the same time the correct mode, rest. But the gynecologist about the sensations must be told, because only he can correctly assess what is happening.

Another reason for the aggravation of sensitivity and the simultaneous appearance of bloody mucus is the attachment in the cavity of an organ of the embryo. But this does not happen more than 40 hours, and in most women, there are no noticeable signs.

Increasing the size of the uterus during pregnancy. Contraction of the uterus after childbirth

In the body of the future mom there are numerous changes that allow you to make a child. But there is no doubt that the most significant changes occur in the uterus - the organ in which the new life develops.

Uterus: some physiology

The uterus is a unique organ whose structure is such that it is able to stretch and increase its size dozens of times during pregnancy and return to its original state after giving birth. In the uterus, a large part is excreted - the body located above, and a smaller part - the neck. Between the body and the cervix is ​​an intermediate section, which is called the isthmus. The highest part of the body of the uterus is called the bottom.

The wall of the uterus consists of three layers: the inner - endometrium, middle - myometrium and outer - perimetry (serous membrane).

Endometrium - mucous membrane, which varies depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle. And if the pregnancy does not occur, the endometrium is separated and excreted from the uterus along with the blood during menstruation. In the event of pregnancy, the endometrium thickens and provides the fertilized egg with nutrients in early pregnancy.

The main part of the uterine wall is the muscular layer - myometrium. It is due to changes in this shell that the size of the uterus increases during pregnancy. Myometrium consists of muscle fibers. During pregnancy, due to the division of muscle cells (myocytes), new muscle fibers are formed, but the main growth of the uterus occurs due to elongation of 10-12 times and thickening (hypertrophy) of muscle fibers 4-5 times, which occurs mainly in the first half of pregnancy , by mid-pregnancy, the wall thickness of the uterus reaches 3-4 cm. After the 20th week of pregnancy, the uterus increases only due to stretching and thinning of the walls, and by the end of pregnancy the thickness of the uterus walls decreases to 0.5-1 cm.

Outside of pregnancy, the uterus of a woman of reproductive age has the following dimensions: length - 7-8 cm, anteroposterior size (thickness) - 4-5 cm, transverse size (width) - 4-6 cm. The uterus weighs about 50 g (for giving birth - up to 100 d). By the end of pregnancy, the uterus increases several times, reaching the following dimensions: length - 37-38 cm, anteroposterior size - up to 24 cm, transverse size - 25-26 cm. By the end of pregnancy, the weight of the uterus reaches 1000-1200 g without a baby and fetal membranes . With polyhydramnios, multiple fetal sizes, the size of the uterus can reach even larger sizes. The volume of the uterus by the ninth month of pregnancy is increased 500 times.

What is considered normal?

Pregnancy is characterized by an increase in the size of the uterus, a change in its consistency (density), shape.

The increase in the uterus begins at 5-6 weeks of pregnancy (at 1-2 weeks of delay), while the body of the uterus increases slightly. First, the uterus increases in the anteroposterior size and becomes spherical, and then the transverse size increases. The longer the gestational period, the more noticeable is the increase in the uterus. In the early stages of pregnancy, asymmetry of the uterus often occurs, with a bimanual examination a protrusion of one of the corners of the uterus is palpated. The protrusion occurs due to the growth of the ovum, as the pregnancy progresses, the ovum fills the entire uterus and the asymmetry of the uterus disappears. By 8 weeks of pregnancy, the body of the uterus increases approximately 2 times, by 10 weeks - 3 times. By 12 weeks, the uterus increases 4 times and the bottom of the uterus reaches the plane of exit from the small pelvis, i.e. the upper edge of the pubic symphysis.

From the second trimester of pregnancy (from the 13-14th week of pregnancy), the uterus extends beyond the pelvis, and it can be felt through the anterior abdominal wall. Therefore, starting from this date, an obstetrician-gynecologist measures the height of the uterus bottom (HLM is the distance between the upper edge of the pubic symphysis and the highest point of the uterus) and the abdominal circumference. All measurements are recorded in an individual card of a pregnant woman, which makes it possible to trace the growth dynamics of the uterus and estimate the growth rates. WDM is measured with a measuring tape or a tazomer (a special device for measuring the distance between two points) in the position of a pregnant woman lying on her back. Empty the bladder before measuring and inspecting it.

For a normal (physiological) course of pregnancy, the following indices of WDM are characteristic:

  • at 16 weeks of gestation, the bottom of the uterus is located in the middle of the distance between the navel and the pubic joint, VDM - 6-7 cm,
  • at 20 weeks the bottom of the uterus is 2 cm below the navel, WDM 12-13 cm,
  • at 24 weeks the bottom of the uterus is at the navel level, WYD 20-24 cm,
  • at 28 weeks, the bottom of the uterus is 2-3 cm above the navel, VDM - 24-28 cm,
  • at 32 weeks, the bottom of the uterus is midway between the navel and the xiphoid process (lower part of the sternum), WYD - 28-30 cm,
  • at 36 weeks, the bottom of the uterus rises to the xiphoid process and costal arches. In this period, there is the highest location of the bottom of the uterus. WYD - 32-34 cm,
  • at the end of pregnancy (at 38-40 weeks) the bottom of the uterus falls, WYD - 28-32 cm.

At the same time, the height and position of the uterus is affected by the size and position of the fetus, the amount of amniotic fluid, and multiple pregnancy. With a large fetus, double, polyhydramnios the uterus stretches more, and accordingly, the bottom of the uterus will be higher. With oblique or transverse GMR may be less than the norm. You should also note that the height of the bottom of the uterus at the same gestation period in different women varies by 2-4 cm due to individual characteristics, therefore, when determining the duration of pregnancy, they never focus only on the size of the uterus. Other indicators are taken into account, such as the date of the last menstruation, the date of the first movement of the fetus, the results of ultrasound.

How to assess the condition of the uterus?

If in the first trimester of pregnancy the state of the uterus is evaluated during a bimanual examination, then from about the fourth month, the obstetrician-gynecologist uses four methods of external obstetric research (Leopold's techniques) to assess the progression of pregnancy and the condition of the uterus:

  1. At the first reception of an external obstetric study, the doctor places the palms of both hands on the uppermost part of the uterus (bottom), thus determining the GMR, the relevance of this indicator to the gestational period and the part of the fetus located in the bottom of the uterus.
  2. At the second reception of an external obstetric study, the doctor moves both hands from the bottom of the uterus down to the navel level and places them on the lateral surfaces of the uterus, after which it alternately palpates the parts of the fetus with the right and left hands. In the longitudinal position of the fetus, on the one hand, the back is felt, on the other - small parts of the fetus (arms and legs). The back is felt in the form of a uniform platform, small parts - in the form of small protrusions that can change their position. The second method allows you to determine the tone of the uterus and its excitability (contraction of the uterus in response to palpation), as well as the position of the fetus. At the first position, the back of the fetus is turned to the left, with the second - to the right.
  3. At the third admission, the obstetrician-gynecologist determines the presenting part of the fetus - this is the part of the fetus that faces the entrance to the small pelvis and first passes the birth canal (usually the head of the fetus). The doctor is standing on the right, face to face pregnant. With one hand (usually the right hand), palpation is performed slightly above the pubic joint, so that the thumb is on one side, and the other four are on the other side of the lower part of the uterus. The head is felt in the form of a dense rounded part with clear contours, the pelvic end - in the form of a soft, volumetric part that does not have a rounded shape. With the transverse or oblique position of the fetus, the presenting part is not defined.
  4. At the fourth admission palpation (palpation) of the uterus is carried out with two hands, while the doctor becomes facing the feet of the pregnant. The palms of both hands are placed on the lower segment of the uterus on the right and left, with extended fingers gently palpating the height of her standing and the part of the fetus presenting. This technique allows you to determine the location of the presenting part of the fetus relative to the entrance to the small pelvis of the mother (the presenting part above the entrance to the small pelvis, pressed against the entrance, dipped into the pelvic cavity). If the head is supposed to be present, the obstetrician determines its size, the density of its bones and the gradual descent into the small pelvis during labor.

All techniques are carried out very carefully and carefully, as sudden movements can cause reflex muscle tension of the anterior abdominal wall and increase the tone of the uterus.

During an external obstetric examination, the doctor assesses uterine muscle tone. Normally, the uterine wall should be soft, with increasing uterine tone, the uterine wall becomes hard. Increased tone (hypertonia) of the uterus is one of the signs of threatened abortion, it can occur at any time, while the woman usually feels pain in the lower abdomen and lower back. The pain may be minor, smarting or very severe. The severity of the pain symptom depends on the threshold of pain sensitivity, the duration and intensity of hypertonia of the uterus. Если повышенный тонус матки возникает кратковременно, то боль или ощущение тяжести внизу живота чаще всего незначительные. При длительном гипертонусе мышц матки болевой симптом обычно более выраженный.

Что происходит с маткой после родов

После рождения ребенка и последа уже в первые часы послеродового периода происходит значительное сокращение (уменьшение в размерах) матки. Высота дна матки в первые часы после родов составляет 15-20 см. Восстановление матки после родов называется инволюцией. During the first two weeks after birth, the bottom of the uterus falls daily by about 1 cm.

  • On the 1-2 day after birth, the bottom of the uterus is at the level of the navel - WDM 12-15 cm,
  • on the 4th day WYD - 9-11 cm,
  • on the 6th day WDM - 9-10 cm,
  • on the 8th day WDM - 7-8 cm,
  • on the 10th day WDM - 5-6 cm,
  • On days 12-14, the bottom of the uterus is located at the level of the connection of the pubic bones.

Completely the uterus is reduced to the size that was before delivery, approximately 6-8 weeks. Reverse development of the uterus depends on many different factors: the characteristics of the course of pregnancy and childbirth, breastfeeding, woman's age, general condition, the number of births in history. The uterus contracts more slowly in women older than 30 years old, in weakened and multiparous women, after many fetal pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by polyhydramnios, with myomatics, as well as inflammation in the uterus (endometritis) during pregnancy, childbirth or the postpartum period. In lactating women, uterine involution occurs faster, since breastfeeding produces the hormone oxytocin, which contributes to uterine contraction.

Marina Ershova, obstetrician-gynecologist, Moscow