Man's health

Cystitis from what happens in women


Inflammation of the bladder is a frequent and unpleasant companion of the female half of the population. The causes of cystitis in women are very diverse, they lead to frequent morbidity and the appearance of complications. Consider the most common causes of cystitis in women.

What provokes cystitis

Inflammation of this organ develops due to the ingestion of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and even the simplest parasites. In addition, cystitis in women can occur as a result of ingestion of foreign bodies, chemicals, and certain drugs into the bladder.

Cystitis in women develops 10 times more often than in men. This is due to the fact that the female urethra is much shorter than the male (4-5 cm versus 18-23 in men) and wider in diameter. So the bacteria and other pathogens are much easier to overcome these few centimeters and get to the bladder.

Immediately near the urethra contains much more pathogenic bacteria: after all, in the immediate vicinity of the vagina and the anus. This is the main reason why cystitis occurs predominantly in females. Men also suffer from this disease more often in old age on the background of prostatitis or adenoma.

Causes of interstitial cystitis

Interstitial cystitis is a syndrome in which inflammation of the bladder develops without the preferential effect of infection. This cystitis, the causes of which are not entirely clear today, is often observed in women and much less often in children.

As already mentioned, the cause of cystitis is not entirely clear. Some of the prerequisites for the occurrence of such pathology are as follows:

  • weakness of the protective layer of the mucous organ,
  • infectious lesion of the indicated organ by viruses, bacteria,
  • lymphatic stasis
  • neuropathy,
  • violations of nitrogen metabolism in the body,
  • influence of stress factors
  • insufficient activity of the immune sphere,
  • ingestion of some toxic products that can cause inflammation of the mucous and muscular layer of the organ.

The risk factors for interstitial inflammation of the bladder are:

  • gynecological and obstetric inflammations,
  • spastic type colitis
  • constant irritation of the large intestine,
  • rheumatoid arthritis
  • asthma,
  • different reactions to certain types of medications,
  • some autoimmune pathologies (today they are not amenable to adequate and effective therapy).

Possible risk factors

The risk factors for cystitis in girls and women are as follows:

  1. Reduced immunity. In turn, it causes hypothermia, gynecological diseases, infections that are sexually transmitted, a decrease in the immune response before the onset of menstruation, and other problems.
  2. Hypothermia This is the main reason why there is cystitis in the summer. Especially dangerous is overcooling of the pelvic region, waist, legs.
  3. Pathological changes in the mucous membranes of the vagina, urethra. These diseases often develop in patients receiving oral contraceptives, inflammatory phenomena in the pelvic organs of women.
  4. Constipation. Due to the increase in intra-abdominal pressure, inflammatory processes and diseases occur in the urogenital organs, in particular, the bladder.
  5. One of the most important reasons why pathology occurs is the lack of hygiene. The main recommendation for all women during menstruation: gaskets and tampons should be changed as often as possible. Due to improper washing, women also develop cystitis. That is why in such cases it is only necessary to wash back. Otherwise, the causative agent of cystitis, Escherichia coli, enters the bladder from the intestine.
  6. Failure to hygiene during sexual intercourse often leads to inflammation of the urinary tract in women. No need to alternate between anal and oral sex.
  7. Wearing non-physiological and tight clothing is a common cause of the onset of this disease, especially in girls. Wearing strings is dangerous: this is the most correct way to develop inflammation. In addition, a similar problem arises for those who like to often wear tight-fitting and tight jeans.
  8. The abuse of spicy food, alcohol leads to the fact that the mucous membrane of the urinary organs is irritated. In combination with hypothermia, infection of the bubble and an unpleasant disease occurs.
  9. Abnormal location of the urethra (for example, if it opens very close to the vagina or in it).
  10. Long and intensive sex (with irritation of the external opening of the urethra), defloration. For reasons of this kind include the change of sexual partner.
  11. Overflow of the bladder as a result of urinary delays is the cause of cystitis, which causes it to gradually lose its elasticity. The same can be said about frequent urination as a result of stress.

These causes of cystitis are specific to women. They can prevent this dangerous disease by maintaining hygiene and proper nutrition.

Causes in pregnant women

Pregnant women are much more likely to suffer from this disease. The most common cause of infection of the urinary tract is the ingestion of Escherichia coli in them. During pregnancy, the position of the bladder and other organs changes, which leads to inflammation.

In the early stages, the cause of cystitis is depression of the immune system and changes in the balance of hormones. And since the immune system is weakened, it cannot overcome the pathogenic activity of some microorganisms, including those that enter the organ cavity.

In later periods, inflammation may occur due to the increasing pressure of the uterus and other organs on the bladder. Because of this, its volume gradually decreases, which is why it often becomes overcrowded. And this is one of the main causes of inflammation.

Very rarely, such inflammation develops in people suffering from increased allergic sensitivity. Because of pregnancy, sensitivity and susceptibility to certain substances and components of food varies. And even the usual products can cause such women increased allergic reactions.

Causes of inflammation in girls

Often, girls inflammation can develop due to the appearance of menstruation. This is due to changes in the microflora of the vagina. Pathogenic microorganisms easily enter the bladder through the short urethra, causing pathological changes in these organs.

Contributes to the inflammation of non-compliance with the rules of hygiene. Girls before the start of menstruation should be especially careful to monitor the health and cleanliness of the external genital organs. Prohibits excessively active physical activity, as it can lead to an increase in the intensity of inflammatory events. As a rule, girls in the period of menstruation is better to abandon physical education. At least 2 times a day should be washed.

Main symptoms and therapy for cystitis

Characterized by a significant increase in urination, which is joined by a sharp pain and fever. Most often, the pain is localized in the perineum and small pelvis. At the end of the miccia, a small amount of blood is secreted. The stronger the inflammation, the more intense the symptoms. Severe forms of this disease make a person urinate every 15–20 minutes. Sometimes it happens at night, which impairs the quality of sleep.

Inflammation of the bladder is caused by many varieties of bacteria. Because of this reason, treatment of cystitis can be difficult.

Pathology therapy should include such measures:

  1. Bed rest (must be at least a few days).
  2. Compliance with a diet with the exception of spicy and salty foods and adequate drinking regime. It is necessary to enrich your diet with cereals, soups, vegetables.
  3. If a woman has acute cystitis, the symptoms can be relieved with a heating pad. It should be applied to the lower abdomen. Heat helps to expand the ureters, relax the urethra. For the same reason, warm sedentary baths are beneficial.
  4. It is imperative to abandon sex for the period of treatment.
  5. In women, treatment is based on antibacterial therapy and measures aimed at normalizing the microflora of the vagina and intestines. It is necessary to use only those drugs that have been prescribed by a doctor.

Subject to hygiene treatment of this disease rarely lasts more than 5 days.

However, you should not carry it to the lungs and neglect all the recommendations of the doctor. Otherwise, an acute illness has every chance of becoming chronic.

Cystitis is characterized by specific symptoms, the causes of which in women are very diverse. Most of them depend on the anatomical structure of the genital and urinary organs. Overcooling, excessive physical activity, non-compliance with the rules of hygiene are much stronger. A healthy lifestyle, the absence of bad habits, and sexual hygiene are fundamental factors that can prevent the development of the disease.

With cystitis - which doctor to contact?

Cystitis is quite painful, with frequent urination, burning and sharp pain after emptying, with a constant feeling of bladder overcrowding, low body temperature, sometimes even with admixture of blood and mucus in the urine. If a woman has the listed symptoms, which doctor should you go to?

For women with cystitis, in order to clarify the diagnosis, it is necessary first of all to consult a urologist, since this doctor is engaged in the diagnosis and treatment of cystitis, for examination it is necessary to pass a urine test - general analysis, for bacterial inoculation according to Nechyporenko, an ultrasound of the bladder and cytoscopic examination.

In addition, you should definitely visit the gynecologist, as often cystitis can be caused not only by banal bacteria, but also be combined with sexually transmitted infections, therefore, a gynecologist's examination and smear examination for the study of the vaginal microflora are also necessary. In women with cystitis, treatment includes antibiotics and uroseptics, sometimes instillations of the bladder and physiotherapy can be prescribed by a doctor.

Causes of cystitis in women

The most common cause of cystitis in women is infectious agents, since the close location of the vagina, anus, and a short and fairly wide urethra have the potential to penetrate various pathogenic microorganisms into the bladder along the ascending pathways. However, there are other ways for bacteria to enter the urinary system:

  • ascending path - urethral, ​​that is, from the urethra
  • descending path - on the contrary, from the upper urinary tract
  • lymphogenous - from other organs of the small pelvis
  • hematogenous - a rare way of infection from distant organs.

When a woman develops symptoms of cystitis, do not self-medicate, because there are a large number of causes of cystitis, pathogens, and for proper successful treatment, you should first determine them, clarify their sensitivity to antimicrobials, and only then carry out comprehensive treatment as prescribed by a doctor.

Cystitis in women is very rarely an isolated process when hygiene, constipation, the common cold, the abuse of spicy foods or alcohol, the use of thongs, changing partners, the rare emptying of the bladder, etc., cause reproduction of banal pathogenic bacteria. In 80% of these are E. coli, in 15% of staphylococcus, 5% of other bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella, Proteus.

  • Most often, cystitis occurs on the background of inflammatory processes in the vagina or in diseases of the female genital organs, such as bacterial vaginosis, thrush, sexually transmitted diseases (gonorrhea, mycoplasmosis, chlamydia, ureaplasmosis), sometimes cystitis is accompanied by female genital tuberculosis. Many latent infections and tuberculosis for a long time are asymptomatic, imperceptible, the woman only occasionally experiences some discomfort, low-grade fever, weakness, does not visit the doctor, and does not go to diagnostic centers to investigate the cause of light ailments.
  • Pyelonephritis, stones in the bladder, and urinary congestion with diverticulums can be attributed to additional provocative factors in the development of cystitis.
  • Very often, cystitis occurs in pregnant women, this is due to a change in the microflora of both the vagina and the urological tract, under the influence of endocrine and hemodynamic rearrangement in the body of a pregnant woman.
  • If a woman has diabetes mellitus, frequent manifestations of allergic reactions, she is exposed to constant toxic effects or treats cancer with radiation therapy - these are also risk factors for the development of cystitis.
  • Sometimes after carrying out surgical procedures, operations, endoscopic examinations, mucous membrane injury occurs, which contributes to the development of cystitis in women.
  • Symptoms of cystitis also occur during menopause, as during menopause, atrophic changes in the body and lack of estrogen also affect the urogenital tract.

In addition to acute cystitis, many women suffer from a chronic inflammatory process on the background of either the sluggish infections listed above, or chronic cystitis in women is associated with the prolapse of the uterus, vagina.

Symptoms of cystitis in women

After provocative factors, such as injury, a cold, after unprotected sexual intercourse, an infectious disease, etc., acute cystitis in women can occur, which always begins very abruptly, suddenly:

  • Dysuria - frequent urination, cutting in the bladder, burning and pain in the urethra, the constant desire to empty the bladder.
  • Before urinating, a woman usually has to make an effort to push. The frequency of urging is so high that a woman has to go to the toilet every 15 minutes, sometimes involuntary urinary incontinence occurs.
  • Nocturia - the predominance of nocturnal desire to empty the bladder.
  • Pain usually accompanies the beginning and end of the process of urination. Outside the process of emptying the pain is localized only in the pubic part and perineum. The intensity of pain may be different, from a slight discomfort to unbearable, strong cutting.
  • Almost always with cystitis in women, urine is cloudy, purulent.
  • In acute cystitis, the temperature may rise to 38 ° C, respectively, there is a weakness, a deterioration in general well-being.
  • Very often, after the first acute process, recurrences of the disease occur, if a month after treatment acute cystitis develops again, therefore, it indicates that the infection persists.
  • In chronic cystitis in a woman, the symptoms and treatment of the disease are identical, it is only possible that the pain and frequency of urge to urinate are not so pronounced. During the exacerbation of a chronic process, a clinical picture of acute cystitis is possible, and during remission, neither laboratory nor symptomatic data indicate an inflammatory process.

Treatment of cystitis in women

For the treatment of both acute and chronic cystitis in women, one should consult a gynecologist and a urologist at the same time. Usually, in case of acute cystitis, with adequate therapy, the cure occurs in just a week.

If the infectious nature of the occurrence of cystitis in a woman is confirmed, treatment is mandatory directed at the destruction of pathogenic microorganisms with antimicrobial agents, antibiotics, to which the causative agents are sensitive:

  • Recently, fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin (Cifran, Ciprolet A), norfloxacin (Nolicin, Normax), fosfomycin (Monural), nitrofurans (Furadonin), are widely used to treat cystitis in women. These drugs for the treatment of cystitis in women have side effects and have a number of contraindications, so their use is possible only on prescription.
  • If the analysis reveals a specific microflora, the treatment includes possible antiviral agents, antifungal or antimicrobial.
  • For severe pains, antispasmodics are prescribed - No-Shpa, Papaverin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - Diclofenac, Nimesil.
  • If there are no allergic reactions to medicinal herbs, then you can use different versions of phyto tea - lingonberry leaves, horsetail, bearberry. It is best to use herbs not packaged packing, but in the form of collection, powder - brew and insist them like any ordinary decoction of medicinal herbs.
  • Monural - a broad-spectrum antibiotic, an anti-uretic agent, which is an effective remedy for cystitis, is a one-time dose of this drug.
  • There is also a mass of ready-made tablet drugs of plant origin, which are used as auxiliary for the remission of the acute inflammatory process, they should be consumed for a long time, for a more stable effect - Cystone, Canephron, Fitolysin. Также многим помогает клюква, клюквенный морс при цистите или таблетированная форма препарата, содержащего экстракт клюквы — Монурель.
  • In the treatment of cystitis, women should increase the daily amount of fluid consumed, for the rapid elimination of toxins from the body, you should also follow the milk-vegetable diet.

Cystitis Prevention - Tips for Women

  • Defloration cystitis and transient urinary tract infection associated with sexual life occurs with frequent changes of partners, if the man does not observe hygiene and does not use condoms during sexual intercourse.
  • Personal hygiene is the key to no recurrence of bacterial cystitis. Use intimate hygiene products with a neutral acid-base balance.
  • Control the fullness and timely emptying of the bladder, do not allow long-term stagnation of urine.
  • Hypothermia, especially wet feet in cold weather, provoke exacerbation.
  • Drink at least 2 liters of water, fresh juices or cranberry juice daily.
  • Do not wear shorts panties, if you have chronic cystitis, when wearing such underwear, E. coli gets into the urethra very easily. And also do not wear too tight clothes, jeans, they disrupt the normal circulation in the pelvic region.
  • Constipation also provokes relapses of cystitis, try to include dried apricots, prunes, fresh cabbage and other fruits and vegetables in your daily diet.

Main causes Classification Symptoms and Diagnosis Treatment

Every woman at least once in her life experienced symptoms of cystitis: difficulty in painful urination and pain in the lower abdomen. However, many simply do not consider it necessary to seek help from a specialist, and are engaged in self-treatment. This is absolutely wrong! After all, self-medication leads to the development of a chronic process, which is very difficult to get rid of. That is why medical care is simply necessary when signs of this disease appear. In order to properly diagnose and prescribe an effective treatment, the doctor must establish the causes of cystitis.

Cystitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bladder, usually of infectious origin. The causative agents of the disease are:

bacteria, viruses, fungi.

This pathology affects mainly women of childbearing age from twenty to forty years. At the age of four to twelve years, cystitis occurs in girls three times more often than in boys of the same age. Quite often, cystitis in women becomes chronic and occurs with frequent exacerbations.

The main causes of cystitis in women

Hypothermia is the most common cause of cystitis in women. Many girls wear mini-skirts during the cold season, and in the heat everyone loves to relax near the air conditioner. Hypothermia reduces the body's resistance, thereby contributing to the proliferation of microbes in a woman's body. In this case, it does not matter if any part of the body is frozen or the whole body is frozen. Thus, it is necessary to ensure that the body is not supercooled. Anatomical features of the female urethra: it is short and wide, and topographical features: the proximity of the vagina, anus, urethra, facilitate the upward penetration of pathogenic microorganisms into the bladder.

Infection can also enter the bladder in a descending way from the upper organs of the urinary system, lymphogenous from the organs of the small pelvis, and hematogenous from distant organs.

The urethra is the main route of infection. So from the vagina genital infections can penetrate into the bladder and lead to the development of cystitis. In other words, cystitis often occurs as a result of:

vaginal dysbiosis or inflammation with the development of obesity, inflammation of the cervix with the development of cervicitis, inflammation of the urethra with the development of urethritis, inflammation of the genital organs with the development of parametritis, candidiasis.

Among bacteria, most often cystitis is caused by staphylococci, streptococci, E. coli and some other members of the enterobacteriaceae family. They pass through the urethra into the bladder from the woman's vagina.

Pathogenic agents can enter the bladder by swabbing, catheterizing, or performing other medical interventions. Pyelonephritis and chronic kidney tuberculosis are common causes of diseases such as cystitis. Specific inflammation of the bladder caused by mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas, chlamydia, trichomonas, as well as pathogens of sexually transmitted infections. Cystitis may develop after losing virginity. It is also called “honeymoon cystitis”. This is explained by the fact that during the first sexual intercourse urethral mucosa may be injured, and violations in the vaginal microflora may occur. With climate change, the body experiences stress and is unable to resist infections. A failure in the nervous system also affects the whole body - its resistance decreases. The cause of cystitis in adulthood is a lack of estrogen. This leads to a violation of bladder motility and incontinence. At the slightest disregard for personal hygiene, bacteria enter the bladder and cause cystitis. When choosing intimate hygiene products, you need to know that allergens can also cause the development of cystitis. Skinny jeans are often the cause of cystitis in women.

Attention: it has been proved by European urologists that a woman who wore jeans at least one size smaller than the one needed developed cystitis, and wearing jeans two sizes smaller guarantees the development of a gynecological disease.

A sedentary lifestyle leads to cystitis due to impaired blood circulation in the bladder wall.

Provoking factors

The initial occurrence or periodic exacerbation of cystitis in women is associated with:

hypothermia, cold, onset of sexual activity, frequent change of sexual partners, abuse of spicy food, abundant alcohol consumption, wearing tight clothes, pyelonephritis, stones and foreign bodies in the bladder, urinary congestion during narrowing or urethral diverticula, menstruation, constipation.

Hypothermia - the main cause of cystitis

The provoking factors of cystitis in women are very diverse. And what causes cystitis in girls? The reasons for this pathology in girls are the following: poor hygiene of the genitals and the so-called neurogenic bladder. In pregnant women, cystitis is usually caused by hemodynamic and endocrine changes in the body, as well as an imbalance in the vaginal microflora.

Sometimes provoke cystitis:

Radiotherapy sessions to treat pelvic tumors, allergies, toxic effects, metabolic disorders, such as diabetes, menopause, endoscopic surgery, and other medical procedures that traumatize the bladder mucosa, the prolapse of the uterus or vagina.

Why is cystitis after sex?

Cystitis after sexual intercourse deserves special attention because it is familiar to many sexually active women firsthand. The first signs of the disease occur immediately after coitus or during the first two days.

Postcoital cystitis is also called “honeymoon syndrome”. This disease was known at the time when girls innocent were getting married, and immediately after the first wedding night there appeared such unpleasant symptoms as pain and pain during urination and others.

The causes of cystitis in women after sex are:

Urogenital anomaly with displacement or increased mobility of the external opening of the urethra inside the vagina. At the same time, the urethra is easily irritated during sexual intercourse, the mucous membrane is injured, the protective forces of its epithelium are reduced, and bacteria freely enter the bladder, causing its inflammation. Bacteria affect the bladder mucosa in the absence of hygiene before and after sex, as well as the alternation of vaginal sex with anal. In this case, E. coli is a dangerous pathogen. Prolonged sexual intercourse with a lack of lubrication and dry genital organs can injure the urethral mucosa. Bacteria of the skin and mucous membrane of the penis during coitus are mixed with microorganisms in the vagina, causing both of them to penetrate the urethra and then into the bladder of the woman, causing it to become inflamed. With frequent use as a contraceptive diaphragm or spermicide, the normal composition of mucus near the external opening of the urethra and the entrance to the vagina is disrupted, which also leads to the development of the disease. Of great importance in the development of cystitis are sexually transmitted diseases. In the presence of a pathogen in a partner, the infection easily penetrates the woman’s body.

Classification of cystitis

infectious: bacterial, viral, other, non-infectious: radiation, allergic, chemical, medicinal, toxic.

By type of pathogenic pathogen:

specific: ureaplasma, mycoplasma, chlamydial, gonorrheal, nonspecific: streptococcal, staphylococcal, caused by opportunistic flora.

According to the prevalence of the inflammatory process, cystitis is diffuse or total and limited or focal.

By the type of flow cystitis is divided into acute and chronic, primary or self-arising and secondary, which develops against the background of urological diseases.

Symptoms and diagnostics

What causes cystitis and how does it manifest itself? There are a lot of reasons: each of them or in combination with each other causes the development of the disease. But the symptoms of the pathology is very characteristic and specific.

The main clinical manifestations of cystitis are:

painful urination, frequent urination, residual burning sensation and pain, pain in the pelvic area and lower abdomen, feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder, fever to subfibril values, the presence of mucus and blood in the urine.

Abdominal pain - one of the manifestations of cystitis

It is not difficult to diagnose cystitis by the characteristic clinical signs and according to the results of additional studies: general urinalysis, urine analysis according to Nechyporenko, urine bacillus, gynecologist examination, vaginal microflora, bladder ultrasound, cystoscopy.

Cystitis in women is treated by a gynecologist and a urologist. It is possible to arrest the acute phase of the disease in five to seven days. To do this, use antibiotics from the group of fluoroquinolones, fosfomycin, nitrofurans, cephalosporins.

To relieve pain, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antispasmodics are prescribed.

Advice: you can supplement the main treatment with herbal tea and herbal pharmacological preparations - kanephron or phytolysin.

Recommended adherence to the milk-vegetable diet with an increase in water load.

In cases of recurrent cystitis, instillations of the bladder, UHF, intravesical iontophoresis, magnetic laser therapy and other physiotherapeutic methods of treatment are indicated.

Cystitis is a fairly common disease that doctors often deal with. By the way, according to statistical studies, the fair sex is more susceptible to this ailment. It is quite natural to ask what causes cystitis in women and what factors can cause the disease. And the patients are interested in the methods of diagnosis and treatment offered by modern medicine.

What is cystitis?

Before considering the question of why women’s cystitis often happens, it’s worth finding out what the disease is. Cystitis is a disease that is accompanied by an inflammatory process in the walls of the bladder.

It is believed that this is a kind of "female disease". Naturally, men are subject to this kind of disease, but 80% of patients with this diagnosis are women who are between the ages of 20 and 40 years old. What causes cystitis in women and why are they so susceptible to the disease? Here the features of the female anatomy matter, because the anus and vagina are located very close to the urethra, and the canal itself is wider and not as long as in men, due to which infection from the outside enters the urogenital organs more often.

Why is there cystitis in women? The main causes of the disease

Many patients face this diagnosis. But before considering the methods of treatment, it is worth knowing what causes cystitis in women. In most cases, inflammation develops against the background of the activity of a bacterial infection. Pathogenic microorganisms can get into the tissues of the reproductive system from the external environment, and can spread from other foci of inflammation.

In fact, there are a huge number of factors that can provoke an inflammatory process in the bladder:

Previously transmitted infectious diseases with a chronic or acute course. This can be salpingitis, pyelonephritis, urethritis, adnexitis, sexually transmitted diseases. The anatomical features of the female urogenital system, for example, strictures. Oncological diseases can also interfere with the normal excretion of urine, causing it to stagnate, which, accordingly, creates ideal conditions for the reproduction of bacteria. of the organism. Decrease in immune activity, including during pregnancy. “Sitching” work, as in such a situation stagnation of urine and other fluids in the pelvis is often observed. The presence of xp onic foci of infection, including, for example, caries, chronic tonsillitis and rhinitis. Sugar diabetes, which affects the immune system. Constant stress and nerve overstrain (affect the state of the immune system). Take medications that depress the activity of the immune system. Non-compliance with intimate hygiene standards. Chronic lack of sleep, unhealthy diet. Elderly age. Early sexual debut, frequent change of partners. Injuries to the genitals and lower back.

It is very important to know what causes cystitis in women. Treatment in fact in most cases depends on the original cause. That is why a thorough diagnosis is so important.

Classification: what types of disease exist?

In modern medicine, there are several classification schemes for this disease. So what is cystitis in women? Depending on the reasons, they distinguish:

Infectious cystitis caused by the activity of pathogenic fungi, bacteria and viruses. Noninfectious inflammation can be triggered by an allergic reaction, medication or toxins entering the body, radiation therapy.

Depending on the type of infection, cystitis is divided into:

Specific, which is caused by the infiltration of causative agents of chlamydia, gonorrhea, ureaplasmosis. Nonspecific cystitis is caused by the activation of conditionally pathogenic microflora of a woman’s body, for example, E. coli, staphylococci, streptococci.

Depending on the course, an acute and chronic form of the disease is distinguished. Cystitis can be primary or secondary (occurs as a complication of another disease).

The main symptoms of the disease

Now you know what causes cystitis in women. But, of course, you should familiarize yourself with its main symptoms, because the sooner you notice the signs and consult a doctor, the easier the treatment process will be.

Acute forms of the disease have a very characteristic clinical picture. One of the most common symptoms include frequent urination (sometimes every 10-15 minutes). At the same time, not much urine is excreted, and the process of urination is accompanied by sharp and severe pain. Many women complain of pain in the suprapubic area - it can occur during urination or be constantly present.

Urine usually becomes turbid. Often in it you can see white flakes, impurities of pus or even blood. Some patients have pain in the lower back (this, as a rule, indicates the spread of the inflammatory process to the kidneys). There are also symptoms of the inflammatory process, in particular, fever, chills, weakness and fatigue, body aches.

Modern diagnostic methods

If there are symptoms, be sure to consult a specialist. To begin with, the doctor collects anamnesis. Patients are shown a gynecological examination, as well as a consultation about a therapist and a urologist. Diagnosis includes several laboratory tests, in particular, a vaginal smear for the determination of microflora. You also need to take blood samples and urine - so you can detect the presence of an inflammatory process in the body.

Bacteriological seeding is required to isolate the pathogen and test its sensitivity to antibacterial agents. Next, an ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs. Sometimes doctors additionally prescribe cystoscopy (makes it possible to assess the condition of the bladder from the inside) and urography.

How is cystitis treated? Drug therapy

In the process of diagnosis it is very important to determine from what is cystitis in women. Лечение напрямую зависит от причины развития воспалительного процесса и общего состояния организма пациентки.

Терапия в данном случае обязательно должна быть комплексной. Если цистит вызван активностью бактериальных микроорганизмов (что происходит в 80% случаев), то пациентке назначают антибактериальные средства. Preference is given to protected penicillins, as well as second and third generation cephalosporins - these are Monural, Azithromycin, Ciprofloxacin.

Uroseptics, in particular, Furagin, Canephron, are necessarily included in the treatment regimen. Cystitis often uses non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, for example, Ibuprofen, Ibufen, Nurofen, Paracetamol. Sometimes “No-shpa” is used to relieve the patient's condition, relieving the spasm of smooth muscles. Since antibiotics negatively affect the beneficial microflora, therefore, probiotics are used to protect it, and in particular, Bifiform, Linex, and Acipol.

Other treatments and helpful recommendations

In some cases, along with conservative therapy, women also recommend thermal procedures. It is recommended to refuse salty and spicy foods, spices, chocolate and coffee at the time of treatment. It is also important to drink plenty of fluids to maintain water balance.

Physiotherapy is usually used in the treatment of chronic forms of cystitis. And in such cases, effective mud applications, UHF procedures, electrophoresis with the use of drugs, iontophoresis (using antiseptics and nitrofurans).

Possible complications of the disease

Now you know what causes cystitis in women (with blood). The treatment in most cases goes smoothly. Complications develop in the event that therapy was carried out incorrectly or was completely absent.

The infection can spread to other tissues, in particular, to the muscular layer of the bladder - this form of cystitis is much more difficult to treat. The inflammatory process often moves to other organs of the genitourinary system, causing the development of nephritis and other diseases. The most dangerous complications include bladder rupture with subsequent peritonitis - fortunately, this is registered very rarely in modern medicine.

Why is there cystitis in women after sex?

Quite often, inflammation of the bladder develops in women after the sexual act. In the people, this phenomenon even has its own name - “honeymoon syndrome”. Often, cystitis develops immediately after the first sexual experience, as the habitual microflora of the vagina changes.

Why is it often cystitis in women after sex? In fact, there can be many reasons. For example, not all partners adhere to the rules of hygiene before and after intercourse (this applies not only to women, but also to men). Infection of tissues can occur due to failure of condoms. Prolonged sexual intercourse, especially in the absence of a sufficient amount of lubricant, injure the mucous membrane of the vagina, which creates excellent conditions for the reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms and their migration through the urogenital system. The risk factors should also include the use of those contraceptives that change the normal composition of vaginal discharge.

Is home treatment appropriate?

Today, many patients are interested in the question of what is cystitis in women and how to treat it at home. To date, there are a huge number of popular recipes, but it is worth understanding that any means can be used only after consulting a doctor. The inept use of homemade recipes can lead to a lot of unpleasant and dangerous consequences.

Quite often, they recommend thermal procedures that help relieve pain. For example, you can put a heating pad on the lower abdomen or prepare a sitz bath from a decoction of medicinal plants (sage, chamomile flowers, grass turns). Tea from the bark of red mountain ash is considered useful (100 g of bark should be boiled in a liter of water).

Echinacea can be helpful. In itself, this tool can not cure cystitis, but the tincture of this plant stimulates the activity of the immune system, which speeds up the process of treatment.

Prevention of cystitis: useful recommendations for women

Now you know about what is cystitis in women and how to treat it. But, you see, it is much easier to prevent the development of the disease than to undergo therapy and cope with the consequences. There is no specific prophylactic, but women are advised to adhere to certain rules.

It is known that infections are often caused by inflammation, which is why patients are recommended to adhere to the rules of personal hygiene, to refuse to wear shorts - strings and any too tight underwear. It is very important to use condoms during sexual intercourse. You should avoid hypothermia and dress for the weather. And women are recommended to follow the rules of hygiene and undergo planned medical examinations.

Almost every woman at least once in her life experienced discomfort and burning during urination, but often these symptoms are often ignored, and they disappear after a certain time without treatment.

In certain cases, these warning signs indicate the onset of inflammation in the bladder, that is, cystitis. By the nature of the course it is classified into acute cystitis (occurring in the acute phase with the manifestation of typical symptoms) and chronic (occurring in latent form or recurrent).

Effective treatment of cystitis in women should be quick and complex to prevent complications.

Cystitis is an inflammation of the bladder. In most cases, the cause of the disease is an infection that resides in the woman’s body. As a rule, the main causative agents are E. coli and Staphylococcus bacteria. These bacteria enter the bladder from the skin or rectum through the urethra.

The causes of cystitis in women are quite diverse, so we highlight the main ones:

  • gestation and labor,
  • genital infection,
  • stagnation of urine in the bladder,
  • avitaminosis and unbalanced nutrition,
  • hormonal disorders,
  • non-compliance with the rules of intimate hygiene,
  • significant hypothermia
  • operations on the uterine cervix and urinary organs.

It is believed that hypothermia serves as a trigger for the development of cystitis, because it weakens the body's immunity and contributes to the reproduction of viruses and bacteria in it.

This bladder infection creates a lot of unpleasant symptoms, causing the woman to constantly worry and be nervous. Since cystitis is not even much, but at times it changes the quality of life for the worse, creating various troubles in all spheres of life.

Nature of pain

As already mentioned, a common symptom of illness is pain in the lower abdomen and in the perineum.

The intensity of pain can be different. In about 10% of cases, cystitis is painless. Only slight discomfort and pain can be felt, which is often ignored. Pain often extends to the back, and the patient may get the impression that his back hurts. Often, pain is accompanied by symptoms such as headache, fatigue, fever.

Doctors consider pain and intoxication as a single symptom complex. However, with a weakened immunity, fever and other symptoms of intoxication may not be.

Presence of blood in the urine

Sometimes blood is found in the urine. Urine may acquire a pale pink and brick tint. Often, blood in the urine indicates a viral lesion of the mucous membrane of the urinary tract.

When hematuria, doctors consider two variants of the disease: acute and complicated. In this case, a thorough diagnosis is carried out to determine the type of cystitis and the appointment of further treatment regimens for the disease.


Primary diagnostics includes an on-site inspection of the relevant specialists: urologist, nephrologist, and gynecologist. Experts are engaged in collecting history and establish the possible causes of the occurrence of the disease.

When taking the history, doctors are especially careful about the risk factors:

  1. Hypothermia,
  2. Unprotected intercourse,
  3. Medications taken
  4. Excessive emotional stress
  5. The presence of comorbidities and pathologies (in the field of the pelvic organs in the first place).

Laboratory tests include:

  1. A urine test for crops according to Nechyporenko. Helps to identify the pathogen.
  2. Complete urinalysis. Erythrocytes, leukocytes, protein are detected in the urine, the urine itself is turbid, and may be mixed with blood or pus. With a hemorrhagic form of the disease, the urine is pink.
  3. Complete blood count. In general, according to the results, a picture of the inflammatory process is taking shape, possibly an increase in ESR, leukocytosis. However, there may be no change in blood. Complete blood count shows whether there are more dangerous diseases that “mask themselves” as cystitis: oncology, etc.

Among the instrumental methods used two main:

  1. Ultrasound examination of the bladder. Allows you to identify organic changes by the body.
  2. Urethroscopy and cystoscopy. Endoscopic examinations are aimed at visual inspection of the state of the mucous membranes of the urethra and bladder. Despite the discomfort during these procedures, their information content is extremely high.

Why does the inflammatory process affect women more often than men?

Cases of cystitis are mainly diagnosed in women, although neither men nor children are insured against them. This has nothing to do with the fact that the body of the beautiful half of humanity is worse at coping with a negative external influence or weaker. The reason for everything is the peculiarities of the structure and physiology of the female body, the specificity of their vital activity.

To understand why cystitis is more common in women, it is only necessary to evaluate the structural features of their genitourinary system. Smaller bladder volume causes women to go to the toilet more often. Many women because of the specifics of the activity or even for some reason try to endure, and not to cope with the natural needs at the right time, which causes stagnation.

In some situations, their use is convenient and appropriate, but do not turn it into a system. These accessories are a direct way to transfer aggressive microflora to the sensitive tissues of the bladder.

How to treat cystitis: a list of drugs

Most often, when drawing up a scheme for treating a disease in women, doctors necessarily include in the therapeutic process such drugs as uroantiseptics (antibiotics) and anti-inflammatory drugs. This treatment allows you to quickly get rid of the symptoms of cystitis, and to overcome the infection.

1) Analgesics and antispasmodics for symptomatic treatment, they will eliminate the spasms and contribute to the reduction of the smooth muscle tone of the bladder:

  1. No-spa - 120-240 mg per day in 2-3 doses,
  2. Papaverine - 40-60 mg 3-4 times a day,

2) When the diagnosis is confirmed and already known to the woman, antibiotics are prescribed for etiotropic treatment:

  1. Monural - 3 mg once, 2 hours after a meal,
  2. Nolitsin - 1 tablet 2 times a day, for 3 days,
  3. Biseptol - 2 tablets 2 times a day, for 3 days,

3) Herbal preparations also help to reduce spasm and pain:

  1. Cystone - 2 tablets 2 times a day,
  2. Canephron - 50 drops 3 times a day, diluted in a small amount of water,
  3. Spasmotsistenal - up to 10 drops 3 times a day, diluted in a small amount of water,
  4. Fitolizin - 1 tsp. Paste dissolve in 1/2 cup of warm sweet water, take 3-4 times a day after meals.

The choice of a suitable drug for cystitis, the determination of its single dose, the order of administration and the duration of the treatment course should be in the exclusive competence of the doctor. Self-treatment is not only not conducive to rapid recovery, but also entails the development of serious complications of the disease.

In the recurrent form of the disease, in addition to the aforementioned etiotropic and symptomatic therapy, bladder instillations, intravesical iontophoresis, UHF, inductothermia, magnetic laser therapy, and magnetic therapy are indicated. If recurrent cystitis is diagnosed in a woman in menopause, intravaginal or periurethral application of estrogen-containing creams is recommended. With the development of coarse bladder neck hyperplasia, transurethral resection is used - TURP of the bladder.

It is the most common and modern drug in the fight against such a disease. It has a high bactericidal activity against virtually the entire spectrum of pathogenic microorganisms.

The active ingredient of the drug is fosfomycin trometamol. It is absolutely safe for use even in pregnant women and children. At the same time, 1 packet is enough once a day to solve health problems. That is why when women have a question about how to treat cystitis, they choose Monural from a variety of drugs (see the instructions for use).

What to do at home?

In addition to the main treatment, follow the simple rules at home. This will help get rid of the disease faster.

  1. It is very desirable during an exacerbation to observe bed rest. It is necessary to lie under a warm blanket with a heating pad in the lower abdomen.
  2. How to drink more. Cranberry, lingonberry and blueberry fruit drinks are very welcome.
  3. As for food, then you need to limit the intake of food, which contains a high level of calcium. It can be milk, yogurt, cheese.
  4. Herbal medicine is most effective in the form of fees, the pharmacy will always offer ready-made. You can brew herbs yourself, or you can use pills (Cyston, Canephron), drops (Spasmotsistenal) or paste (Fitolysin) - this is also nothing but herbal preparations, only “compactly packed”.

But in any case, antibacterial drugs are necessary in the treatment of infection.

Nutrition for cystitis

With cystitis, women need to follow a certain diet. The use of caffeinated beverages or alcohol is unacceptable, as they can dramatically worsen the course of the disease.

For the prevention of the disease it is recommended to drink cranberry juice. It contains hippuric acid, which prevents the attachment of bacteria to the mucous membrane of the bladder. It is also very useful to add cranberries to yogurt.

In standard cases, with typical symptoms and timely treatment, acute cystitis in women passes quickly - the main task in this case is to prevent the transition of the acute process to the chronic form.

Since chronic cystitis can rise higher, initiating inflammation in the kidneys. If infected urine enters the ureters, then their purulent inflammation is possible, as well as signs of pyelonephritis. With cystitis, more severe lesions may begin, for example, apostematic nephritis and even perirephritis, that is, inflammation of the pararenal tissue.

Physiological causes of bladder inflammation

A disease that is characterized by the development of an inflammatory reaction on the epithelium lining the bladder can be represented by various forms and types of ailment. Depending on the chronic or acute cystitis of a woman, the causes of the disease may vary. In the first case, only one factor plays a crucial role - ignoring the acute phase of the condition or its incorrect treatment.

The most common cause of cystitis type is the penetration of the infectious pathogen into the cavity of the bladder. The pathogen is fixed on the mucous membrane, begins to actively multiply and release toxins, causing a change in the texture of tissues on the surface of the organ. It is worth considering that for the development of pathology alone the presence of pathogenic microbes is not always enough.

After identifying cystitis, it is necessary to understand where it came from, and only then proceed to treatment.

If the cause of the problem is not resolved, the inflammatory process will return with an enviable constancy.

After some time, it will turn into a neglected chronic form, which is not so easy to get rid of.

In some situations, the occurrence of cystitis is the result of the influence on the female body of factors whose action can hardly be called pathological. Some of them are not even possible to cancel. In this case, it remains only to wait until their influence stops, or to make any adjustments to the usual life.

Even such causes of cystitis should not be ignored. They are not only a source of unpleasant sensations that occur with enviable regularity, but also can provoke more serious problems.

Much more often, the appearance of cystitis is a consequence of diseases that already exist in the body, failure to follow a diet or exposure to external harmful factors. Some of them act on the body for a long time. Others are able to provoke the disease in a very short time. If you treat cystitis, without taking into account these moments, the risk of complications and the transition of the disease into the chronic phase increases markedly.

Here are the main points that may cause cystitis in girls and women:

  1. Infectious diseases of the genitourinary system. The pathogens that stimulate these processes can move to the bladder mucosa. Риск того, что микробы перейдут с эпителия влагалища или спустятся из почек, пораженных болезнью, одинакового высок. Особую опасность представляют агенты, лежащие в основе венерических заболеваний.
  2. Снижение иммунной защиты. Avitaminosis and immunodeficiency lead to the fact that even those bacteria to which the body has not reacted before begin to pose a threat to it. In such conditions, even conditionally pathogenic fungi can provoke infectious cystitis.
  3. The presence of a source of infection. There are frequent cases when the symptoms of cystitis in women appeared on the background of sinusitis, boils, abscesses and other diseases associated with the presence of a local infection process. Pathogens can get on the bladder mucosa with blood or lymph, so even carious teeth are considered a risk factor.
  4. Congestion in the pelvis. Rejection of physical activity and a sedentary lifestyle lead to the fact that blood stagnation occurs in the small pelvis, and urine in the bladder. The body begins to experience a lack of oxygen and nutrients, the metabolic processes in it slow down. Tissues begin to literally poison themselves with their own toxins, which causes the development of inflammation.
  5. Violation of the conditions of sterility during procedures. A visit to a gynecologist or venereologist may also cause infection of the organs of the urogenital system if the doctor uses non-sterile instruments during the examination or manipulation process.
  6. Improper nutrition. The use of salty, fried, smoked and fatty foods in large quantities causes malfunctions in the work of the internal organs. This causes stagnation of fluid in the tissues and the active production of toxins by the body. Richly flavoring food with spices, people increase the risk that aggressive ingredients will irritate the bladder mucous membrane.
  7. Stones in the kidneys. A history of urolithiasis is also a risk factor, because small stones and sand can penetrate through the ureters into the bladder cavity, where its walls will begin to irritate. In this case, the presence of microbes is not even required to provoke inflammation.
  8. Conducting radiation therapy. These processes reduce the functionality of the internal organs and change the physiological processes. According to statistics, cystitis, as a consequence of radiation exposure to the pelvic organs, is observed in 20% of patients.

It is imperative to find out why cystitis occurs, because it can be just one of the manifestations of a serious pathological process. Sometimes stagnant fluid in the bladder is triggered by a benign or malignant tumor. In this case, therapeutic measures will show their effectiveness only after the removal of the tumor.

First and foremost, the cause of the disease is an incompletely treated or neglected disease of the kidneys, the bladder, the entire excretory system as a whole. In this case, there are also venereal infections. Since women have a short vagina, it is easy for bacteria to enter the bladder and begin to spread there - these are the main causes of cystitis in women.

In some cases, the disease develops due to improper washing. Infection from the rectum is carried to the bladder. This may occur if there is already a kidney infection, for example, pyelonephritis. In this case, the infection enters the bladder along with the flow of urine during urination.

In some cases, the cause of the disease may be banal hypothermia. Doctors say that it is enough to sit in the winter on a cold surface for only half an hour, and the disease will already be provided. This also includes light clothing out of season, swimming in ponds in cold weather.

Sometimes cystitis can be earned with deprivation of virginity. The hymen breaks through, the vaginal microflora for the first time enters the bladder and is not yet adapted to it.

Inflammations in women appear on the background of constant nervous stress, anxiety, continuous work, and chronic lack of sleep.

With a sedentary lifestyle, there is an increased risk of developing cystitis.

The reason may be the wrong food. Do not get involved in salty food, it can also sooner or later provoke inflammation of the bladder. It should especially be alerted if the urge to urinate is too frequent, but the feeling of its fullness remains even after going to the toilet. This can be signaled by the peculiar smell of urine, something resembling the smell of fish.

If the cystitis is not treated and try not to pay any attention to its symptoms, its next form will develop when blood appears in the urine. This suggests that the bladder vessels are damaged.

Infection occurs when a woman is wearing very often or permanently synthetic underwear, which does not allow the body to breathe.

Indiscriminate sex can provoke cystitis in both women and men. From them, too, should refrain, and for sex to find a single partner or partner.

If a woman does not observe urination and for some reason suffers, then this behavior may well lead to cystitis, as the infection gets into the overflowing bladder much more often. Ideally, a woman should go to the toilet at least 5 times a day. And in no case can not be tolerated, you need to go to the toilet room when you only want, and not when it is already unbearable.

Inflammation of the bladder in women is considered an infectious pathology. Pathogens trapped in the urinary organs can cause its acute form. Pathology can occur if the body is exposed to the negative effects of low or high temperature. That is why the fair sex is so important not to overcool.

Pathogens of pathology very successfully move through the vessels carrying blood. Infection brought into the bladder from the lesion, which is located in other parts of the urinary system, also provokes the appearance of inflammation.

Factors contributing to the development of cystitis in women

Treatment of cystitis in women does not always give a quick and pronounced positive result, even if the cause is eliminated. Most often this is the result of the influence on her body of negative factors. Many of them provoke the occurrence of relapses. Some may even be an independent cause of the onset of the inflammatory process.

Here are a few things that may cause cystitis, if there is a predisposition to it:

  • Hypothermia In and of itself, it will not cause illness, but it can reduce the protective functions of the body to such an extent that inflammation will develop upon contact with the epithelium of the bladder even by opportunistic pathogen.
  • Diabetes. Any failures in metabolic processes increase the likelihood of cystitis. The decrease in the functionality of the pancreas is one of the most frequent factors causing pathology.
  • Non-compliance with the drinking regime. Refusal from the daily use of 1.5-2 liters of water leads to an increase in the concentration of urine and its stagnation in the bladder. People who drink enough liquid constantly flush the organ, reducing the risk of infection.
  • Alcohol abuse. It leads to a general failure of the body systems, reducing the functionality of the blood vessels supplying the tissues of the bladder.
  • Constipation. Violation of the stool leads to the accumulation of toxins in the body, which can cause the onset of the inflammatory process even without negative external influence.
  • Menstruation. Some women note that they often have an exacerbation of cystitis during the beginning of the cycle. Contrary to popular belief, this may not happen to every girl. This pattern indicates the presence of problems in the urogenital or hormonal sphere.

Even chronic stress and allergic status are regarded by doctors as provoking factors. You need to carefully monitor your psychological state and health to reduce the likelihood of developing such a frequent and unpleasant illness as cystitis.

Most often, cystitis can occur due to the ingestion of pathogenic bacteria from the surrounding skin in the urethra. Then the microbes rise with the current of circulating blood and lymph up to the bladder, causing irritation and inflammation of the mucous walls of it.

Depending on the cause of cystitis, the following types of diseases are distinguished:

  • bacterial, caused by pathogens,
  • non-bacterial, developing due to irritation of the mucous membrane with chemical or medicinal substances,
  • primary, in which the bladder is affected by the influence of the above factors,
  • secondary, which may appear as a result of pathology of the bladder or organs close to it - prostate adenoma, narrowing of the urethra, urolithiasis.

In order to accurately diagnose the disease and correctly prescribe treatment, the practicing urologist must identify the causes of the pathological process. And it will be useful for each patient to find out where the cystitis comes from.

According to statistics, bladder inflammation affects 75% of women on the number of all patients. That is why cystitis is considered a "female disease", entailing a lot of unpleasant feelings and serious complications.

Clinical manifestations of the disease depend on the type of pathogen, localization and nature of the pathological process. What is cystitis in women?

Very often, the disease occurs due to:

  • violations of the vaginal microflora,
  • pathological processes in the cervix,
  • chronic gynecological diseases
  • unbalanced nutrition
  • candidiasis (or thrush) of the genitals.

Microorganisms that lead to cystitis can get into the female body when:

  • defloration (violation of the integrity of the hymen),
  • gynecological examination
  • taking a scraping or smear for research,
  • catheterization.

The spread of infection contribute to stress, climate change, reduced immunity. A special category of circumstances is a violation of hygienic rules:

  • failure to urinate,
  • rare change of sanitary pads during menstruation,
  • wearing tight-fitting synthetic underwear
  • unprotected intimacy
  • constant use of daily pads.

Causes of the inflammatory process in the bladder in men

Knowing from what appears cystitis, you can prevent the occurrence of the disease. To do this, at least it is necessary to exclude the influence on the body of the already listed negative factors. It is not as difficult as it seems. It is only necessary to develop certain habits which will eventually become a part of life and will not cause any difficulties.

Sometimes with the prevention of cystitis, it is not enough to eliminate the causes of the disease, it is also necessary to pay attention to increasing the body's resistance to infections. It should be started not with synthetic immunostimulants, but with a change in the usual way of life and regimen. Healthy sleep, proper nutrition, a long stay in the fresh air and an optimal level of physical activity are no less important than timely treatment of diseases and compliance with the rules of personal hygiene.

The patient wants to go to the toilet too often, literally, every 15 minutes. This relief does not occur, and urine comes out in very small quantities. The urination process in a sick person is accompanied by pain and burning, this is easily explained by the fact that the walls of the bladder are strongly inflamed, and when it is emptied, they touch each other, causing severe pain.

Urine becomes turbid, it has a very strong and unpleasant smell, completely uncharacteristic for the smell of urine. In the initial stage of the disease, the person simply feels weakness in the whole body and chills, and then a high temperature rises, antipyretic drugs do not help or heat down for a short time, then the temperature rises again. It can also be accompanied by nausea and vomiting.

There are other causes of cystitis in women. Early sexual debut in girls will be a prerequisite for the development of pathological changes. Often the prerequisites for the manifestation of pathology lie in a neglect of the rules of hygiene, wearing constraining clothing. All ladies know that the symptoms of cystitis in women are observed in the first weeks of carrying a child.

When menopause, the disease manifests itself due to a decrease in the amount of estrogen and modification of the epithelial tissues of the organs of the urinary system. Sometimes the cause of cystitis lies in the elderly patient.

It can be explained why cystitis occurs in severe cases associated with oncology: impaired urine discharge leads to its stagnation and infection.

Symptoms of inflammation of the bladder in women can occur due to prolonged stress, with emotional stress. Irregular nutrition, diet abuse, short duration of sleep harbor the causes of cystitis in women. Passion for spicy and salty foods, alcohol can provoke the manifestation of pathology.

Signs of cystitis in women are immediately noticeable. The patient feels discomfort that occurs in the pelvic region, a burning sensation during the discharge of the urine, a feeling of squeezing in the lower abdomen. The number of micci is increasing, especially at night. But little urine is excreted. It is cloudy, sometimes there are flakes, blood or purulent clots.

The symptoms of cystitis in women depend on the form of the pathology. By the nature of the course, urologists divide cystitis into acute and chronic forms. Signs of pathology are pronounced, if it is acute. When the disease becomes chronic, the signs of inflammation become less noticeable, but now there is a threat of serious complications. Even the slightest hypothermia will cause a relapse of the disease.

In this case, comorbidities occur. This may be pyelonephritis, kidney abscess.

The treatment of cystitis in women of any age is of undiminished interest. Each lady is interested in finding an effective remedy that can cure pathology. Often, the fair sex try to treat the ailment on their own, do not seek to get an appointment with an experienced specialist.

To get rid of pain when urinating, the diseased begin taking painkillers and antispasmodics. Many people like No-shpa. It eliminates cramping and reduces pain. But the drug can not destroy the pathogen that causes the disease, and the urea continues to inflame.

  • Anatomy of the genitals. Located in close proximity to the anus, the female genitals are highly susceptible to infection, especially E. coli. Penetrating into the urinary system, bacteria cause inflammation and contribute to the development of cystitis.
  • Hypothermia No matter how trite, but it is the most common cause of the disease. This usually happens because of the reluctance to sacrifice beauty for the sake of health. Thin tights, light shoes and short skirts in cool weather serve a disservice and contribute to the appearance of cystitis. However, hypothermia is also possible in hot weather, for example, when staying in a conditioned room for a long time, while swimming in a pond. Therefore, you should be attentive to your feelings and avoid hypothermia.
  • Sexual relationship. Active sex life can also cause cystitis. The reason for this can be microtrauma, obtained during sexual intercourse (especially often this happens with defloration), sexually transmitted infections (gonorrhea, chlamydia and others), and simply non-compliance with personal hygiene.
  • Inflammatory processes and "female" diseases. Violations of the microflora of the female genital organs, uterus, urinary canal can also cause the penetration of the infection into the urinary system, which subsequently leads to the disease of cystitis.
  • Pregnancy During pregnancy, the vaginal microflora changes, becoming more vulnerable to infections. In addition, in the later stages, the fetus puts pressure on the internal organs, including the bladder, causing urine stagnation and the creation of a favorable environment for bacteria.
  • Climax. Changes in hormonal levels, reducing the amount of estrogen also simplify the spread of bacteria and make a woman more vulnerable to cystitis.
  • Insufficient sterility during medical procedures (taking a smear at the reception at the gynecologist, installing a urinary catheter).
  • Lowering the bladder. It often happens after childbirth and in older women.
  • Diseases of the kidneys and urinary system, for example, pyelonephritis, kidney tuberculosis, kidney stones or in the bladder, and others.
  • Malnutrition, abuse of salty and spicy foods, insufficient water intake.
  • Tight and tight clothing as well as underwear that puts pressure on the pelvic organs.
  • Stress.
  • Sedentary lifestyle .

Depending on the symptoms and condition of the body, doctors may prescribe different types of treatment. It is not necessary to go to the hospital. With proper care and taking the necessary medicines, the disease can be defeated at home.

The main thing - do not run and at the first negative signs will consult a doctor.

After infection, there is pain in the abdomen and urination becomes more frequent. Over time, the periods between visits to the toilet are reduced to a couple of tens of minutes. If you do not start treatment, urination becomes difficult and very painful.

Сегодня медикаментозное лечение имеет хороший эффект. Современные препараты для лечения цистита у женщин при соблюдении дозировки хорошо борются с бактерией. Главное сразу начать лечение после диагностирования формы цистита.

In addition to the course of antibiotics, experts recommend drinking more fluid, eliminating spicy foods from the diet, and spending as much time as possible in a warm bed. If cystitis is a concomitant disease or a consequence of a more serious illness, all efforts should be directed to complete recovery. Supervision of the doctor in this case is simply necessary.

Cystitis after the acute form may take a chronic form. This can be noticed when symptoms reappear after a few months. Comprehensive examination and taking vitamin complexes - these are the first steps to full recovery.

What drugs treat the disease?

Nowadays, it is very important to completely cure cystitis and not allow it to go into a chronic form. We recommend not to rely on folk remedies, but to give preference to drug treatment. How to treat cystitis in women, what antibiotics to take and how long to take them - these questions interest many women.

Usually, doctors prescribe the following drugs:

  1. Monural - an excellent uroantiseptic, which is used in the acute form. It is made on the basis of phosphoric acid and well suppresses the affected area,
  2. Nolitsin - an effective drug against germs, it is usually prescribed together with ofloxacin,
  3. Furagin - a broad-spectrum drug, relieves the inflammatory process of the urogenital system,
  4. Palin - quinolone antibiotic series,
  5. Rulid is a semi-synthetic drug, it is also prescribed against urogenital infections.

Each antibiotics are targeted for a specific type of infection. They are prescribed after a precise definition of the causative agent. Although the main symptoms of cystitis in women are approximately the same, the types of bacteria and ways to combat this disease are different.

Folk remedies and methods

Special infusions and teas will help relieve painful symptoms and inflammations. They are made from herbs and other useful ingredients. Doctors also recommend using hot water bottles and special baths.

Black and lime tea will give a good effect. A couple of drops of urolesana with sugar will ease the pain. You can use a warm heating pad, it must be placed between the legs and go to bed.

Some traditional healers advise making a bath of hot milk to warm the legs. The procedure can be repeated several times, heating the milk after cooling. It is enough to 3 liters of milk, the hotter the bath, the better.

Features of cystitis in women during pregnancy and menopause

  • changes in hormonal levels and microflora of mucous membranes,
  • the oppression of the defenses - it makes the female body very vulnerable to infections,
  • a growing uterus compressing the bladder, which disrupts the normal flow of urine and causes the multiplication of pathogenic bacteria.

At a certain age, every woman has menopause (or menopause) - the absence of menstruation. This period is due to the extinction of reproductive function and the lack of sex hormones (estrogens). In the absence of a regular monthly cycle, the woman’s general well-being deteriorates, and the following are observed:

  • tides
  • violation of the functional activity of the bladder,
  • urinary problems
  • irritation of the urethral area.

These factors also contribute to the development of an inflammatory process in the bladder.

Cystitis can begin unexpectedly and cause a lot of pathologies that negatively affect the human body. That is why, when signs of a bladder problem appear, an urgent need is to consult a specialist - a gynecologist or a urologist, who can determine the causes of the disease and prescribe rational treatment.

Symptoms of pathology in women

Symptoms of cystitis are usually difficult to miss. These include:

  • frequent urination (up to several times per hour),
  • pain, burning behind the pubis and a little higher,
  • decrease in urine volume,
  • pain, pain during urination,
  • urine becomes turbid, has a very unpleasant smell,
  • fever and general malaise,
  • sometimes urinary incontinence.

In the presence of such symptoms should immediately consult a doctor, because self-medication can lead to the development of chronic cystitis.

This disease belongs to two areas of medicine - gynecology and urology.

A gynecologist diagnoses cystitis, because the cause that caused it is often gynecological.

However, sometimes for diagnosis, you can contact the therapist. To accurately determine the cause of the disease you need to pass a urine test. After that, the urologist may prescribe a course of treatment required in a particular case.

Symptoms of cystitis in women appear in bright form in the presence of an acute form of the disease, which occurs as a result of exposure to several factors at the same time. For the chronic type is characterized by mild symptoms that are almost invisible. How does cystitis manifest? For the disease is characterized by the appearance of common symptoms, including fever, weakness, nausea, vomiting and chills. With cystitis in women, there are specific signs such as:

  • the frequent urge to urinate, sometimes having a false character,
  • with cystitis, the lower abdomen hurts, and there are cutting and burning pains in the lower abdomen, especially manifested during urination, when it pulls in this area,
  • discharge becomes muddy shade, they can manifest purulent clots and flakes,
  • urine has an unpleasant smell
  • may occur hematuria (blood impurities in the discharge),
  • feelings of partial emptying of the bubble from the liquid,
  • sometimes there is nagging pain in the lower back or kidney area in case of progression of the disease,
  • due to the prolonged course of the disease in a patient with age, the appearance of enuresis, urinary incontinence, is possible.

Features of the treatment of acute cystitis

Few antibiotics for women with cystitis have a wide spectrum of action. Usually they are aimed only at the destruction of a bacterial infection. Therefore, a number of folk remedies to relieve symptoms are found in the recipes of specialists. With all the recommendations and bed rest, the disease will quickly recede.

In some cases, the usual form may be complicated by other comorbidities. Blood may appear during urination, inflammation of neighboring organs and other unpleasant symptoms. In these cases, candles are used for cystitis in women who warm the affected area well.

Disease therapy

For the treatment of cystitis is not required hospitalization. Depending on the patient's condition, the doctor either waits for test results to prescribe drugs, or immediately prescribes broad-spectrum antibiotics, and after receiving the results, corrects the course of treatment.

In addition to antibiotics, painkillers are sometimes recommended, but only a doctor should do this.

To achieve the best result, a woman should be warm for several days, drink more fluids and temporarily eliminate salty and spicy foods from the diet.

As a rule, the positive effect is noticeable within a few days after the start of treatment. If improvement does not occur, you should again consult a doctor.

Possible complications of the disease

The cold of the bladder in women disappears literally within a week if the patient begins to heal properly. But if cystitis in women of age is not treated, complications appear, one of which is pyelonephritis. When the disease spreads to the muscular layers of the organ, the interstitial form appears. In severe cases, the organ may rupture, resulting in peritonitis.

Prevention of cystitis in women

In order to avoid such an unpleasant disease, you will have to follow a series of very simple rules. First of all, you need to revise your attitude towards personal hygiene, if earlier it was not carefully observed. This applies to both men and women. You need to wash yourself at least 1 time a day, you need to change your underwear regularly. Synthetic underwear is best changed to cotton.

As for women, to maintain personal hygiene during critical days you need to be more careful, wash more often than once a day. When washing it is impossible to prevent the infection from the anus to fall into the vagina. It is necessary to wipe properly after an act of defecation.

You can not engage in promiscuous sex, and if this happens, then you need to use condoms, only they will help avoid both unwanted pregnancy and infection. Sexual partner should be the only one. If a couple is practicing anal sex, then you can’t immediately move on to vaginal sex, and if you have such a desire, you need to carry out the necessary rules of hygiene, and only then engage in vaginal sex.

In winter, you need to dress carefully, not to wear too light jeans or pantyhose, no matter how beautiful and fashionable they would be. Do not swim in cold waters. As for those people who lead a sedentary lifestyle, they will have to diversify it. Of course, it is very difficult to do this if it is directly related to work, if it is sedentary. But still you need to arrange a short break for walking in the fresh air.

Knowing the causes of cystitis in women, you can protect yourself from the disease. Follow these simple rules of prevention, and the disease will not affect you.

Preventive measures are important. Ladies should not forget about the harmful effects of hypothermia on the body. It is necessary to try not to undergo an abrupt change in temperature, in the cold period of the year the legs must be kept warm. An important rule for all women: at any time of the year, the waist should be protected from cold and wind gusts.

Avoid the disease by following simple tips:

  • Careful about personal hygiene. This includes the regularity of hygiene procedures, and careful selection of personal care products. It is especially important to adhere to this rule during menstruation and after intercourse.
  • Try to avoid tight linen and clothing. Pressure on the organs in the pelvic region can lead to poor blood circulation and the development of cystitis, so you should not abuse the wearing of overly fitting parts of the toilet.
  • Avoid hypothermia. This applies not only to the winter season, but to the vacation period when swimming in cool water can lead to cystitis.
  • Drink more fluids, especially water or juices. Add fresh vegetables and fruits to your diet to avoid problems in the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Do not overfill the bladder, empty it in a timely manner.
  • Do not allow the urinary system diseases to drift to prevent the spread of infection.

Women's health is very fragile, so it is important to carefully treat yourself and your body. Compliance with simple preventive measures significantly reduces the likelihood of developing cystitis.

Well, if the disease still overtook you, you should immediately consult a doctor, not allowing the constraint to aggravate your condition. Proper and timely treatment will help avoid many unpleasant consequences and maintain health.

Prevention of illness after intercourse

If, after intercourse, cystitis in women is constantly exacerbated, it is necessary to consult a doctor for recommendations on preventive measures. Experts advise after sex to use an antibiotic or sulfonamide. Using this increases the chance of avoiding infection, but it does not entail the appearance of unpleasant consequences, which happens in cases of a long-term course of antibiotics.