Pregnancy

When strabismus passes in newborns, the causes and the need for treatment

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Often babies cannot control their eye muscles and because of this their eyes can act asynchronously. This pathology is called strabismus, in scientific circles - strabismus (from ancient Greek - curve) or heterotropy (another turn).

As a rule, strabismus in newborns passes in 4-7 months. If strabism remains after this age, this may indicate more serious problems. So that necessarily Take the six-month-old baby to the doctor.

When a baby first opens its eyes, it does not know how complex and diverse the world surrounds it, how difficult it is for a small organism to properly adapt to it. All organs of the newborn undergo constant development, including the eyes. In order for the eyeballs to function properly, the muscles that control the brain must help. As we have already said, babies do not always succeed in this, because of which they have a squint.

Parents are very concerned about when strabismus passes in newborns and whether it is necessary to treat it. All these questions are very important and, in principle, parental concerns are not groundless. In the first months of life, squint is natural, and by six months of age this trouble in healthy eyes will pass.

But if you notice that your baby has not learned how to control the eyes properly after six months, you should contact a specialist.

Causes of Strabism

In order to avoid mistakes, young parents need to know the reasons for the nonsynchronous look in an infant, try to prevent this, and consult a doctor in time. Strabismus in newborns can occur as a result of various circumstances:

Eye muscle weakness characteristic of newborns

A small squint in the first months of life due to poorly developed brain nerve fibers (posterior or medial longitudinal bundle) is characteristic of infants (that is, children up to one year old). These fibers are responsible for the synchronization of the movement of the eyeballs. It takes half a year.

Damage during pregnancy or delivery

If there are any complications while carrying the fetus, the child is born prematurely, the delivery takes a very long time, the mother takes strong medicines, drugs and so on, a small hemorrhage can occur in the fetal part of the medial longitudinal beam of the brain strabismus. In this case, only the operation will help.

Infectious disease

The disease can occur in both the mother during pregnancy and the baby after birth. This includes such diseases as measles, flu, any viral diseases, even the common cold, can provoke strabismus in an infant.

It is necessary to treat them in time, only under the supervision of a specialist, and in any case not to start the disease.

Genetic predisposition

If the next of kin has eye defects from birth or cases of central paralysis of children, it is necessary to be constantly observed by a specialist from the first months. He will tell if there is a deviation in the development of the baby, if there is, how serious it is and how to treat it.

Dr. Komarovsky talks about strabismus in children under one year of age:

Baby scare

Sometimes during stress caused by various kinds of negative experiences (inoculation, fright), the baby’s eyes begin to squint - this is usually a temporary phenomenon that passes after calm returns to him.

Mistakes in child care

Sometimes young parents hang rattles very close to the baby’s eyes or direct the light into the baby’s eyes, which may cause vision problems.

Manifestations of strabismus

Squint is not always true, it can be false.

Real (true) heterotropy - real pathology of vision. This violation includes various varieties; for more details, they can be found in the main article on strabismus.

False strabismus divided by:

Imaginary heterotropy - this is the normal state for:

  • children under six months who can not focus on the subject, they have, like a "floating" view,
  • in a child with a large upper septum between the eyes, a small distance between the pupils, a large fold inside the eye (epicanthus).

Hidden heterotropy (heterophoria)- occurs with uneven development of the eye muscles. If both eyes are squinting not noticeable, when disconnecting from the work of one of the eyes, the other starts to mow. We recommend reading the article about hidden strabismus.

Depending on the direction of the eye, the heterophoria is divided into:

  • exophoria (deviation out).
  • esophoria (deviation inward),
  • hyperforia (deviation up),
  • hypophoria (deviation downward).

The treatment of heterophoria is indicated in the case when it causes fatigue of the visual muscles, which leads to asthenopia.

Heterotropy treatment in infants

Squint in children under one year is a normal phenomenon, so doctors often take the time to treat it. However, this is not always correct.

Know that if a specialist has diagnosed - true strabismus, it is necessary to identify and eliminate the cause of the appearance of pathology. Ignoring this fact can lead to loss of vision.

Treatment of strabismus in newborns consists of the following actions (what needs to be done):

  • Ensure the correct development of the visual apparatus in the infant. About this in more detail below.
  • Correct other ocular abnormalities (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism). Usually, doctors prescribe glasses.
  • Application of the occlusion method (elimination from the work of a healthy eye with a bandage).
  • Also, doctors can prescribe hardware treatment (alpha stimulation, magnetic stimulation, photo stimulation).
  • More complex treatment methods, in the form of operations, are prescribed in children after two years.

Parenting

All parents should know what to do if they have noticed their child’s squint:

  • Regularly visit the eye specialist. After six months, the doctor can make a final diagnosis of whether your baby has a difficult pathology and prescribe treatment.
  • To make the child's eye muscles work. To do this, you can buy him bright toys and hang over him, above the level of his outstretched hand.
  • Do prophylactic gymnastics. Put the baby on your knees and drive a bright rattle in front of him, right - left, up - down and vice versa, causing her to concentrate his attention on her.

What is strabismus?

In medicine, the term "strabismus" is used when talking about the pathology of the organs of vision, in which one or both eyes look in different directions. However, the sight lines do not have an intersection point. On the subject looks one eye, and the other is directed past. In such cases, the muscles of the optic organ are working inconsistently.

Pathology can be either congenital (present from birth or appears in the first six months of life) or acquired (appears before 3 years of age).

Sight in children under one year old: normal

As soon as the happy mother returns from the maternity hospital with a newborn, she is surrounded by caring grandparents and other relatives. Everyone looks at every part of the body of the baby, watching his every movement, every breath. And often pay attention to the fact that the newborn's eyes mow. Does this pass, parents are going through? In most cases - yes! Therefore, do not immediately panic and run to the doctors.

The fact is that for a newborn this is quite normal. An infant is still a tiny, not fully formed organism. Many organs and systems are just beginning to adapt to new environmental conditions. Including vision. Eyes - complex analyzer. He begins to work in full force only at the end of the first year of life. Immediately after birth, the baby's eyes can only distinguish between the presence or absence of a light source. This is exactly how vision is checked in the maternity hospital, the beam is directed at the eyeball, if the baby squeezes his eyes, the reaction is correct. In the first months of life, the child poorly distinguishes objects, sees them as in a fog. Look turns to focus only on large objects. In 3-4 months the baby tries to catch sight with smaller objects and their movement. During this period, the vision of each eye develops separately. The muscles there are still quite weak, and it is difficult for the kid to focus his eyes on the subject. Therefore, it is absolutely normal when a child’s eyes mow. When does strabismus occur in newborns? This usually occurs by 4-6 months. Until six months there should be no signs of physiological strabismus.

Convergent squint

Squint is a pathology in which the visual axis is displaced. With converging strabismus, these axes are located closer to the nose. This can apply to one eye, or both. They seem to be going "in a bunch." The eyeball is offset from the center to the nose. This problem occurs most often in 90% of cases, and most often in newborns. Most likely, you should not worry if the baby mows only occasionally, but not constantly.

Exotropia

Much less often, only in 10% of all cases, the visual axes are displaced relative to the center not to the nose, but in the opposite direction, to the temples. Often divergent strabismus is also accompanied by long-sightedness.

Strabismus treatment

When does strabismus occur in newborns? Usually by 6 months the babies get rid of it. But if the child is already six months old and the look does not return to normal, in such cases it is important not to lose time and begin treatment. You can help your baby with a whole range of special measures:

  1. Create the right conditions for normal visual function. That is, to ensure the mode of visual work, to monitor the good lighting of the playing area, bright toys should not be close to the crib.
  2. Correct other diseases accompanying strabismus. With farsightedness and myopia, lenses or glasses are used. Thus, the load on the weak muscles of the eye is reduced, and the disease passes.
  3. Temporarily close the healthy eye. To do this, use a special bandage, or simply inject one glass of glasses. Thus, the muscles of a healthy eye are temporarily switched off, forcing the muscles of his “lazy fellow” to get into work and train.
  4. Hardware treatment. These are computer techniques, magnetic stimulation, laser stimulation, electrostimulation and others.
  5. Surgical intervention. This is a cardinal method, but it is necessary if all the above conservative methods have not brought any improvement.

When will strabismus in a newborn? This question worries parents. Does strabismus in newborns fast? The baby physiological age feature will be held by 6 months. And if treatment is required, it will take about 2-3 years. The sooner they discovered the disease and started the treatment, the sooner she would leave.

Strabismus prevention

As with any disease, strabismus is better not to allow than to treat. There are simple techniques that will help prevent the occurrence of the disease:

  • do not overload the visual muscles and nerves, toys should not be too close to the eyes,
  • do not start appearing eye diseases, immediately treat them,
  • pay attention to the planned examination of the oculist.

Strabismus in children. The reasons

How to cure and when the squint goes, we found out in this article, but why do some children suffer from this disease, while others do not? Why does this disease appear? The reasons why it may appear in a child are different:

  • viral and chronic diseases transferred by the mother during pregnancy can affect the baby’s health,
  • difficult childbirth
  • various infectious diseases and inflammatory processes in the newborn,
  • external damage and injury to the organs of vision,
  • genetic predisposition
  • obvious violation of eye hygiene,
  • incorrect visual function when the toys are too close to the baby's face all the time in the crib and the stroller.

This pathology refers to a small number of diseases, which can almost always be diagnosed by the parents themselves, without the participation of a doctor. It is only necessary to closely monitor the development of visual functions. And when the squint in the newborn passes, the caring parent will immediately notice. It is only necessary to closely monitor the baby.

Squint in newborns when passes? Komarovsky answers

Oleg Yevgenyevich agrees with other doctors in this matter. Komarovsky says that this physiological feature is quite characteristic of newborns. Moreover, it is the norm. When does strabismus occur in newborns? It passes on its own without any treatment to 4-6 months of life. By this time, the eye muscles of the child should be quite strong. If this does not happen, without wasting time, you need to contact a specialist, he said. Particular attention should be paid to this parents, if the family had cases of such ailments. The main thing is not to miss the time. After all, for babies, an untimely visit to a doctor can lead to the fact that binocular vision (the ability to simultaneously clearly see the picture with both eyes) does not form. They cannot see objects by volume. And to fix it in a more mature age will not succeed. But when strabismus passes in newborns, parents can completely forget about the disease. Most likely, it will not appear.

Disease characteristic

Strabism is a condition of the oculomotor apparatus in which there is no coordinated fixation of two eyes, that is, the eyes of a newborn cannot focus on the subject at the same time. Doubtful parents see this as a pathology, while strabismus often has a functional cause.

Many children, up to six months of age, occasionally show symptoms of strabismus and this does not go beyond the normal range. A newborn baby is just learning to control its muscles, and the eye muscles as well.

For him, all nine months in darkness, it will take some time to adapt to new conditions. It should also be taken into account that the eyes of newborns are far-sighted. And besides, due to the immaturity of the cerebral cortex, he still does not know how to process visual information.

What is the danger for the newborn?

Squint in a newborn baby may not take place over several months of life, until eye muscles are strengthened. Experts indicate different periods of completion of the pathological process - these are two, four months and even half a year.

During this period, the eyes are able to learn to look in one direction and not disperse at the same time. Provided that such a process has not occurred, it is necessary to visit an oculist doctor who will help identify the causes and types of the defect.

In 90% of cases, when the squint in infants passes, it is convergent, when two eyes or at least one of them is directed towards the nose.

Only in 10% of cases the divergent form of strabismus develops, when the gaze is directed in different directions. In any situation, the child requires the supervision of an experienced specialist.

Most often, the speed of recovery processes will depend on the speed of access to an optometrist. If the treatment is delayed, and the parents believe that the disease will pass away on their own, the child may begin to deteriorate their vision, which, if there is no proper help, will only progress.

Revealed strabismus does not become a cause for panic. During the first months of life it becomes a natural process of weakening the work of the eye muscles. If you save strabismus after three to four months, you should immediately contact an optometrist.

Such violations of the eye are not only associated with various diseases that weaken the immune system, but also with improper care. For example, parents often show toys to children very closely or place them too close above the crib.

Possible reasons why the baby can mow his eyes

The causes of strabismus in children can be very different, but the pathology is inextricably linked with the weakness of the eye muscles. As you know, infants are still not able to control the movement of the eyeballs, from which their eyes sometimes look in different directions.

Often parents begin to sound the alarm prematurely. However, adults need to understand when a disease can develop and need to be treated. So, in the first month of life, this situation should not disturb the parents because during this period, the eye muscles are only strengthened.

A similar situation occurs with infants born prematurely, with low body weight.

Strabismus in children may appear as a result of the following circumstances:

  • previous injuries and various infectious diseases of the brain,
  • changes in the muscles of the eye inflammatory, vascular or tumor character,
  • lack of assistance and the lack of timely treatment of myopia, astigmatism, hyperopia,
  • some congenital diseases or birth trauma,
  • as a result of increased physical and mental stress,
  • improper care of a child, in particular, too close arrangement of children's toys in front of his face,
  • ignoring visual loads.

Hereditary strabismus in infants is also quite common in practice. If one of the parents or two has this pathology, then the probability that their child will inherit it is very high.

Strabismus can manifest itself as a symptom of other congenital diseases or as a result of the diseases that the mother had transferred to the child during pregnancy or difficult delivery. It also happens that parents panic when they do this, they absolutely should not.

Imaginary strabismus can occur as a result of a specific cut of the eyes or their location. This form of treatment is not necessary, it passes on its own when the shape of the nose changes with age.

The most common symptoms are:

  1. the child cannot direct the eyes simultaneously to one point in space. If the glance deviates only slightly, you may not notice
  2. eyes do not move together,
  3. one eye mows or closes in the bright sun,
  4. the child tilts or turns his head to look at the object
  5. the child stumbles upon objects (squint worsens the perception of the depth of space).

Older children may complain of blurred vision, eye fatigue, increased sensitivity to light, a split of objects. Symptoms may appear and go away. They usually worsen when the child is tired or sick.

As for newborns, their gaze may be uncoordinated at first, but by 3–4 months of life, both eyes must align. In some cases, in children with broad nose, strabismus may be apparent.

But if after 4 months of life your child’s eyes are not looking at one point most of the time, be sure to consult an ophthalmologist.

Diagnostics

To make a diagnosis of "squint", a doctor often needs only to look at the eyes of a child. As a rule, discoordination in the eyes of both eyes is obvious.

The doctor may ask the child to monitor the object, while he closes and opens one eye. This allows you to understand which of the eyes mow, how much, in what direction, and under what circumstances. Also, this test helps to identify amblyopia ("lazy eye"), which is often found in strabismus.

Most experts consider it necessary to test the eyes of all children from 3 to 5 years. In any case, the lower limit of age does not exist, and in the presence of the slightest suspicion of strabismus, it is necessary to visit an ophthalmologist.

There are 20 types of strabismus, the exact diagnosis of which only a specialist can deliver. Treatment in this case occurs in a complex. First, the doctor conducts a full diagnosis and looking for reasons. When strabismus is paired with diseases such as hyperopia and myopia, glasses are prescribed to the patient.

There are situations when the glasses are able to completely correct the negative phenomena. Nevertheless, the widespread practice of combating strabismus suggests that only glasses are not enough. It helps hardware treatment with modern techniques. This technique teaches the child to carry out the movement of the eyes synchronously.

If the doctor establishes a serious stage of strabismus, then surgery may be necessary. A similar operation is performed on the eye muscles that rotate the eyeballs. Doctors carry out the restoration of muscle balance. After this, conservative treatment will be required, which stimulates the reduction of the rehabilitation period.

Treatment of strabismus in children is carried out only after a thorough examination and clarification of the reasons that provoked the pathology.

With the help of special equipment and tables, the ophthalmologist will check the angle of strabismus in a baby, examine the mobility of the eyes in different directions, evaluate the friendly work of the eyes, and, if necessary, recommend counseling with a neuropathologist.

Treatment of this disease in children should be carried out in a timely manner, since it is quite long and may take about 2-3 years. The result in this case will depend on careful compliance with all the recommendations of the doctor. The course of treatment requires constant examinations and correction.

Among the main methods of treatment should be noted:

  • occlusion, which implies that a valve (occluder) is worn on a healthy eye in order to stimulate vision in a weak eye,
  • special gymnastics for a weak eye,
  • orthoptic treatment with the help of special ophthalmologic apparatus, by means of which they act on the center of the brain responsible for the vision and combination of two images into one,
  • diploptic therapy with the help of photalmological equipment, which fixes the positive dynamics of orthopedic treatment and restores binocular and stereoscopic vision,
  • computer treatment with the help of programs aimed at teaching the weak eye to focus correctly on the image,
  • surgical intervention is shown in the absence of positive dynamics as a result of treatment by other methods and is carried out no earlier than at the age of 3 years.

Surgical

If congenital strabismus is diagnosed, then the operation should be carried out before the child reaches the age of three. An experienced specialist will carry out surgical operations without much difficulty.

Moreover, modern equipment allows you to do without the use of cutting objects. Anesthesia, administered during surgery, provides complete relaxation of the eye muscles. The child is discharged home two days later.

A healthy eye during the recovery time is closed with a bandage. Thus, the child is trained to look with an operated eye. A person’s vision finishes its formation by the age of twenty, therefore it is necessary to treat this disease to this very age.

Hardware

Hardware treatment of strabismus in children If gymnastics and medical optics do not help, and it is too early to bring up surgery, hardware treatment of squint in children can be used to treat strabismus, which allows not only to eliminate strabismus, but also to improve visual acuity and restore binocularity.

Among the most common means in this regard is synoptophor, in which the apparatus generates two flashing images that eventually merge into one. This contributes to the formation of binocular vision during the course of treatment.

Another popular option is video-computer auto-training, which in practice is watching a cartoon or a children's program. In the process of viewing, an electroencephalogram is taken from the child’s brain, which records the activity of the visual system.

If such signals stop, this means that the child stops following the cartoon and does not focus on the characters and objects (which the doctors are trying to achieve), and the cartoon stops.

Sometimes light laser therapy is used, in the course of which a laser is activated on the retina, activating blood circulation and other processes, during normalization of which the vision system works in the usual way.

A complex approach

All treatment is carried out in a complex, only such methods can achieve truly positive results. Not surprisingly, 97 percent of children are completely cured of the problems associated with strabismus. The most important thing is to pay attention in time to the problems of the child’s vision.

He himself is not able to make an adequate assessment, since he does not know what normal vision should be. Modern laser and ultrasound equipment allows for complex operations with minimal injuries.

You should not start a squint at an early stage and wait for it to pass with age. Parents can easily pass the point after which their vision will not be restored. For this reason, the entire responsibility for the condition of the child lies on the shoulders of the parents.

Qualified doctors will not be able to make a diagnosis if you do not make an appointment in time. However, strabismus is not such a terrible disease. Yes, the problem is present, but today they have learned to treat it well. After the restoration procedures, the child’s vision will become normal.

What exercises can help?

It is necessary to perform exercises with children in the daytime, with good lighting and mood. It is necessary to engage in several techniques in order not to overstrain the visual apparatus. If the activity is too long, the child will get tired. The next time he just does not want to train.

At preschool age, the game must have an element of the game, then it will be more effective, and young patients recover faster. And for this you need to use interesting objects for children - colored balls, cubes, lotto, pictures, dominoes, a bright mosaic.

With paper and figures

This is a classic “find” pair game that helps your child train and shape binocular vision. For such a game exercise, you can use the painted figures, but it is better to cut them yourself, drawing the child to it.

It should be paired figures, and they can be any, but it is desirable that these are simple and familiar objects and images to the child: stars, Christmas trees, balls, outlines of familiar animals.

Having drawn a large piece of paper on the cells (4x4 or 5x5 is enough), in each of them the figures are placed so that they all fit in the cells in a random order, but always have their own “pair” somewhere on the field. The task of the child is to look for the same figures among the figures and remove them from the field as they are located.

With a musical top

Exercise is quite difficult to implement for one reason only: it is necessary to acquire a music top sufficiently large in size, while there must be some objects inside of it that would come into motion during rotation of the top.

While spinning, the spinning top loses the melody that attracts the baby, but its task is to follow the moving figures, focusing their eyes on them.

Unlike the previous exercise, which is designed for children from three years old, a whirligig or spinning top is suitable for young children who are not yet able to compare and associate images, but are fully capable of concentrating attention on objects.

Other eye exercises

So, we recommend carrying out such exercises with children:

  1. Turn on the desk lamp with a 60 watt bulb. At a distance of 5-7 cm in front of him secure the bright ball. Its diameter should be no more than 1 cm. Close your child a healthy eye, sit at a distance of 40 cm from the lamp. Ask to look at the ball for 25-30 seconds. Then alternately show the child color pictures in front of the lamp.
  2. Attach an interesting and bright figure to a small stick. Close the baby's healthy eye. Let the machine sit up straight and not turn its head, but move the figure, which is 40-50 cm away from the eyes, from side to side. Movement should not be too fast, but the pace of movement must be increased. The child should monitor the figure with a sore eye. Then the figure is brought closer to the face. In this case, the eye should be reduced to the nose. This exercise increases the mobility of the eye muscles, allows you to achieve harmonious work of the right and left eyes.
  3. Take the plate, make it with a dozen holes of different shapes. Give the child a task to stretch the ropes or laces through them. Kids love these exercises. And they, in turn, make eyes work synchronously.
  4. Encourage the child to extend his hand and move his index finger slowly toward the nose. This task corrects the angle of strabismus.

Consequences of the disease

In addition to the appearance of the defect, strabismus can cause visual impairment in the squinting eye. The fact is that the child's body is endowed with very high adaptability.

With strabismus, different information enters the visual center, and the brain cannot process it and match it into a whole image. Therefore, it receives information only from one eye - a healthy one, and the squinting eye eventually loses its initial visual acuity, since it ceases to participate in the transmission of visual images.

In a short time, the eyesight of the squinting eye is irreversibly suppressed.

Therefore, treatment of strabismus should be aimed primarily at preventing the consequences in the form of amblyopia, and then at eliminating the cosmetic defect. But amblyopia is not the worst consequence of strabismus.

Much more serious is the fact that a defect in appearance from early childhood can leave an imprint on the formation of the child's personality.

When will strabismus in newborns?

As you know, a newborn is born completely unprepared for a new environment. Adaptation of all organs and systems of a child begins from the first minutes of his life, this also applies to the eyes.

In order for them to be in the correct position, the eyes must be held by the appropriate eye muscles. The brain of a newborn in the first months is not able to control their work, therefore, often in infants and there is a divergence of the eyes.

This condition is considered perfectly normal. Up to about 4 months, the baby’s vision is very poorly developed. This is especially noticeable in the first few weeks, when the eyes of the baby wander in space, completely independently of each other.

It is also known that babies tend to have only horizontal vision, and the possibility of vertical is mastered a little later. In this regard, the eyes can also mow.

Prevention

Prevention of strabismus in infants is to comply with several rules:

  1. Do not play too small toys.
  2. Toys should be placed at arm's length.
  3. The toys above the crib should hang in the center so that the child can see them equally with both eyes.
  4. No need to approach the child unexpectedly with bright objects - this can also entail the occurrence of strabismus.

Prevention, like gymnastics, can never be a complete solution to the problem of strabismus. It is sad, but the older the child is suffering from strabism - the greater the likelihood that getting rid of strabismus will be obtained only with the help of an operation.

But this is not the worst option, after which the child will forever get rid of this burden and will be able to fully engage and develop.

What should parents know?

The eyes are a complex mechanism, it begins to work in full force in children after the first year of life. All this time, the visual organ of the baby is formed:

  • in the first hours of life, the child reacts only to the light source,
  • in 1 - 2 months, the gaze stops with the eyes only on large objects, the rest of the world is in a “fog”,
  • in 3–4 months, small toys and their movement are attracted, but the muscles that hold the eyeballs are still quite weak.

Experts say that baby strabism completely disappears four or six months after birth. In some cases, the squint in children under one year of age is preserved and depends on the individual characteristics of the infant.

This does not mean that you should sit back and wait for a positive outcome. It is necessary to control the situation:

  1. Regularly visit with your baby ophthalmologist. At 2, at 4 months and 6, it is necessary to undergo examination by this specialist. Only when the child is six months old will he be able to accurately determine the diagnosis and identify one of two dozen types of strabismus.
  2. Perform visual gymnastics. When the baby begins to follow the objects, put him reclining (you can on bent knees) and drive the toy from side to side. It is better to take a musical rattle, so that the sound additionally attracted attention.
  3. Stimulate eye activity. Choose a child large toys of different colors, perfect multicolor developing crumbs. They need to be suspended in a stroller or crib at such a distance that the baby stretches towards them.

Absolutely all the babies are born with the farsightedness of two eyes. If you bring or hang toys close to your face, then a child who tries to focus his or her gaze on an object may have his eyesight deteriorated for the rest of his life, and you will aggravate strabismus in infants.

Causes of strabismus in newborns

Squint of newborns is a fairly common occurrence among children under two months of age. In medical practice, it is called functional strabismus or strabismus. Its causes are related to the underdevelopment of the eyeball, since the child in the womb did not need to focus his gaze on objects. As he develops, the child learns to distinguish objects, control the direction of his gaze, and the problem disappears on its own by a certain age.

But there are other causes of strabismus in newborns. When such a disease passes, it is difficult to say, since its appearance is associated with the influence of indirect factors. Treatment of this pathology is mandatory. Persistent strabismus occurs for the following reasons:

  • pathological development of some parts of the brain as a result of fetal hypoxia or impaired blood flow,
  • complicated childbirth,
  • transferred to the first weeks of pregnancy, ARVI and influenza,
  • infectious or respiratory viral diseases transferred to a newborn immediately after birth,
  • heredity.

Если у мамы или папы в раннем возрасте была диагностирована такая патология, то вероятность, что ребенок унаследует страбизм, очень велика.

Когда проходит косоглазие у новорожденных

Physiological strabismus of newborns, in which there is a discrepancy in fixation of vision, does not require treatment and passes by itself to six months of age. Up to 4 months, the optic may develop slowly. Even if your three-month baby reacts weakly to a bright toy, and his eyes diverge, do not panic much.

Thus, up to 6 months, parents can wait for strabismus in a newborn. If this does not happen by the age of six months, then you should immediately show your baby to an ophthalmologist. Only a specialist can make the correct diagnosis and prescribe the appropriate treatment.

Symptoms of the disease

The task of the parents is to recognize the persistent strabismus in children as early as possible and start treatment in a timely manner. Parents need to know when a newborn passes strabismus and begin to sound the alarm at 6 months if the child has the following symptoms of the disease:

  • the child cannot direct his eyes to one point in space,
  • to look at the object, the child must bend or turn his head to the side,
  • when the camera flashes, or when the lamp is turned on with the lamp on, the light in the pupils is reflected asynchronously,
  • the kid stumbles upon objects, as it is difficult for him to see them.

Even if you do not see a clear strabismus in a child, the above symptoms should alert you, and prompt an ophthalmologist to immediately appear.

What happens if strabismus is not treated?

Visual impairment identified in childhood is fairly easy to correct. To correct the congenital pathology, parents are only required to diagnose the disease in time and bring the child to an ophthalmologist. If this is not done, the squint will remain at an older age, and this violation will have to be corrected by surgery.

Squint is not only a defect in appearance. The disease faces severe visual impairment in the squinting eye. Since the "diseased" eye cannot correctly reproduce the information entering the brain, over time its functions are suppressed and the vision drops almost irrevocably. Therefore, treatment should be aimed primarily at restoring visual acuity in the squinting eye, and only then can we talk about the elimination of the cosmetic defect.

Strabismus in newborns: treatment

The timely treatment of strabism will allow the child not to remain cross-eyed for life. Treatment of the disease involves the use of medical and surgical methods. After 6 months, it is too late to wait for strabismus in newborns. It is necessary to act immediately:

  • Improving vision in the "sick" eye contributes to occlusion healthy. To do this, the child is covered with a healthy eye with a special bandage to make the mowing activator.
  • Reflexology involves the use of acupressure techniques to influence the centers responsible for the work of the eyeball.
  • Orthopedic therapy is used for children of kindergarten age and involves working on special simulators at home or in special centers for children with visual impairments.

If none of the methods proposed by the ophthalmologist gave the desired result, after two years a surgical operation is performed to correct the pathology.

Opinion of Dr. Komarovsky

Before starting treatment, parents often try to find out the opinion of several specialists about the disease diagnosed in their child. Komarovsky O. Ye., The famous Ukrainian pediatrician, speaks about when the squint in newborns passes, just like most other doctors. He confirms that it’s not worth worrying at all for up to four months.

Dr. Komarovsky explains that the baby’s vision is formed gradually. At first his pupils work in a horizontal direction, and only after 3-4 weeks the vertical one is mastered. Formation of vision in children occurs in different ways: someone is faster, someone is slower. If at 6 months eyes are still mowing, you should see a specialist. Do not self-medicate in any case.

Parent reviews

Parents, whose children at an early age were diagnosed with strabismus, confirm that it is imperative that you come to an ophthalmologist for prophylactic examinations. Moms and dads know when strabismus passes in newborns, and that you can be sure not to worry about half a year.

According to most parents, the eyes stop mowing at about 3-4 months. In some children, the pathology is not corrected independently, but special gymnastics and occlusion of a healthy eye at an early age, give good positive results.

Features of vision in babies

When looking at the baby during the first weeks of life, it often seems that his eyes mow a little - instead of the usual synchronous movement, they converge or diverge.

This feature becomes a matter of concern for parents who are trying to show the child to all possible doctors and healers. Excessive anxiety often arises from a lack of knowledge about such features of newborns, but even in the worst case, if the diagnosis is confirmed, modern techniques allow you to quickly recognize and effectively treat the defect.

In the first weeks of life, visual strabismus in newborns is caused by the structural features of the facial bones — the left and right parts of the facial skeleton of infants are placed at an angle to each other; some time is needed to align them. During this time, the baby's eyes may converge and diverge. After the child reaches the age of 4-5 months, synchronous eye movement develops. Medical statistics says that 9 out of 10 babies will have infantile strabismus on their own.

A feature of vision in infants is the specific structure of the eye. The eyeball of a newborn is special - not round, as in adults, but flattened. Because of this, children are born far-sighted (up to +3 diopters).

The infant’s squint is triggered by the congenital weakness of the eye muscles, which the baby has not yet learned to control, because the eyes move in different directions in tension. In 1 out of 10 children, they are moving to the side edges (from the nose), for the other 9 - they come to the nose.

Eye formation

The eyes of a child are formed throughout the first year of life, and undergo several stages of development:

  1. in the first days of life they are able to respond only to a light source,
  2. in the second month of life, due to the congenital farsightedness of a child, he can fix with his eyes only large objects that are far away, he sees all other things vague and hazy,
  3. after reaching three months, the baby may consider small toys and focus on their movement, but only for a short time - this is due to the weakness of the eye muscles.

Ophthalmologists and pediatricians consider functional strabismus to be a normal physiological phenomenon - in the process of growing up a child he will learn to coordinate his eye muscles and look directly and meaningfully, like an adult.

Self-determination of strabismus

To determine the possible defect of eye coordination in a child, there are simple tests that parents can conduct on their own. Loving moms need to spend it from time to time, for this you need:

  1. take a bright rattle
  2. moving it from side to side, then moving it away from the baby’s eyes, then drawing closer,
  3. monitor the reaction of the eyes and pupils of the child.

Children under 4 months cannot coordinate their eyes; after this age, eye movements are synchronized. You need to be careful when conducting a test in a baby, whose feature of the exterior is a broad bridge of nose - in some cases the effect of false strabismus will remain. If the phenomenon of strabismus (strabismus) does not pass by six months, the child must be shown to the doctor.

Signs of strabismus

Periodic examinations of the child takes place every 2 months to six months, when strabismus in newborns physiologically passes. In some children, this process can stretch to a year.

Mom and dad need to pay attention to the following symptoms:

  1. the baby cannot simultaneously focus the eyes on a single object in space,
  2. there is no synchrony in the movement of the eyes,
  3. one eye “rolls back” to the side or spontaneously closes in the sun,
  4. for a better view of the subject, the child bows his head,
  5. If you shine a flashlight in the eyes of a child, the reflection is different.

If there is suspicion of a squint in a baby, or there are cases of such a defect in the family, parents should show the child to the specialist every two months. Already, at six months, after examining the baby, the doctor will be able to determine whether the defect is present and determine its type.

Parents often start to panic when confirming the diagnosis, mistakenly believing that it is impossible to correct the defect. This is not true - the disease is treated, modern methods allow you to completely rid the child of the disease.

The causes of the violation

The basis of the defect is a number of reasons, many of them have a physiological nature. These include:

  1. damage to infant brain centers, which are responsible for synchronizing the actions of the eyes during pathological pregnancy or difficult labor,
  2. viral infectious diseases that disrupt the baby’s body,
  3. some diseases of the mother during pregnancy,
  4. constant stress or illness that causes strong crying and the baby, and increases the desynchronization of the eyes,
  5. hereditary pathology, which is observed in the child's parents or close relatives,
  6. birth injury or postpartum injury (damage) to the eye,
  7. Mistakes in baby care.

In the presence of pathology in parents, the baby will inherit strabismus in 4/5 cases. A congenital defect of this kind can be caused by birth trauma, or it is the cause of microtraumas, which are formed in the system of the posterior longitudinal beam, as a result of oxygen starvation or damage. The consequence of such a lesion may be persistent, divergent or convergent strabismus in infants.

Gymnastics for the eyes

For the proper development of the eye muscles, a mother can do some kind of gymnastics with her child:

  1. after the baby learns to determine the object by sound, you need to put (put) it on your knees and show it a large bright toy, moving it from side to side,
  2. in order for the kid to train eye movements, it is necessary to hang large educational toys above the crib, which should be within the reach of the child,
  3. All toys need to be kept at a sufficient distance from the face of the child, given the congenital hyperopia of infants.

Such simple exercises will help the baby learn to synchronize the work of the eyes faster.

Treatment of the disorder

Dr. Komarovsky justifies his point of view on the naturalness of asynchronous eye movements in infants with physiological reasons that allow the eyes to move only horizontally first, and only vertically later a little later.

Komarovsky draws the attention of parents to the fact that after six months, if the defect persists, the child should be shown to the oculist and neuropathologist and treated.

Why treatment of strabismus should be carried out as quickly as possible? A timely visit to the specialist will help not only correct the violation, but also prevent possible visual impairment.

Unfortunately, all effective modern techniques that allow to eliminate strabismus, are designed for older kids. For babies, acupressure is indicated, which is performed by a professional, and medical methods of treatment are possible.

It is much easier to correct a tiny defect in the crumbs than to treat the joined vision disorders.

At an older age, surgical restoration of eye synchronization or stimulation of the eye muscles is possible by sticking the eye.

Why newborns mow

Up to six months, newly born babies and infants are not capable of fixing the gaze due to congenital weakness of the eye muscles, and the child does not know how to control the movement of the eyeballs. Therefore, in the event of tension, the organs of vision begin to move in different directions, the pupils roll, being on opposite sides of the center.

Approximately 1 out of 10 baby eyes go to the temples, and the remaining 9 converge at the nose. Also in the cause of transient or transient strabismus in a child during the first weeks of life is a feature of the structure of the bones of the face.

In infants, the right and left halves of the facial skeleton form an angle with respect to each other, which creates visual strabismus, which will pass after aligning the bones in a few months.

The severity of pathology:

  • heterotrophy or latent squint,
  • accommodating or compensated - wearing glasses eliminates strabism (no additional treatment is provided),
  • partially accommodating or subcompensated - wearing glasses only reduces strabismus,
  • non-accommodation or decompensated - not eliminated by wearing glasses and requires surgical correction.

The causes of strabismus in infants include:

  • pregnancy and childbirth, which occurred with complications (contribute to the occurrence of microscopic hemorrhages in the brain, including in those departments where the visual analyzer is located),
  • infections suffered by a baby before they are 12 months old (flu, measles, ARVI, scarlet fever, diphtheria),
  • stress (fright)
  • weakened immunity
  • wrong care for the baby (close to the eyeballs rattles),
  • pathology of the eye muscles (vascular or tumor),
  • genetic predisposition
  • other ophthalmologic diseases (farsightedness, myopia, conjunctivitis, cataracts or barley),
  • eye injury or brain injury during childbirth or after,
  • poisoning,
  • hydrocephalus,
  • chromosomal pathology (Down syndrome)
  • taking a number of drugs, including drugs, during the gestational period,
  • Cerebral palsy.

Clinical manifestations

Squint in children under one year old parents may be suspected on their own. If there is an asymmetrical arrangement of the pupils and iris in relation to the palpebral fissure (after 6 months), it is worth consulting an oculist. Suspicious symptoms include:

  • the peculiarity in holding the head - dear child tilts his head in one direction or another when trying to see something,
  • squinting - the kid squints the organ of vision involved in the pathological process, examining the toy,
  • frequent rubbing of the eyeballs - caused by rapid fatigue and tension when looking at something,
  • the veil before the eyes (can be identified in older children),
  • headache - caused by the tension of the organs of vision and their fatigue,
  • lack of deep vision - objects are perceived flat, while trying to walk, the child stumbles upon objects,
  • the impossibility (pain) of the perception of light,
  • double objects, their vagueness,
  • lack of simultaneous movement of the organs of vision
  • the impossibility of the direction of both eyeballs on the subject / picture,
  • different reflection - when you try to shine a child in the eyes in the pupils there are different reflections.

If the eye / eyes are deflected to the temples, then a decrease in visual acuity occurs in the manner of myopia. In case of deviation of the visual organs to the nose - there is a long-sightedness.

Paralytic heterotropism is accompanied by immobility or limited mobility of the squinting eye. In addition, with this type of pathology, an expanded pupil, ptosis (prolapse of the upper eyelid) and accommodation paralysis are observed. These symptoms indicate damage to the optic nerve.

What should parents do

Physiological strabismus should disappear to the execution of six months a child. At birth, the baby in the maternity hospital is examined only by a neonatologist, who determines whether he sees. The first examination by an ophthalmologist should occur at 2 months, then at 4, half a year and a year. If the squinting eyes have not ceased to "float", further observation is recommended, and if necessary, treatment.

To stimulate the eye muscles, increase their tone and strengthen it is recommended to entertain the child with toys. Rattles should be bright and large, hung not over the face, but slightly higher (20 cm). In this case, the kid does not reach them with his hands, focusing his vision on distracting objects. It is also useful to perform a simple exercise for the eyes. Having put the child on his knees face to himself, slowly drive the toy from side to side, raising it and lowering it.

Is it possible to correct strabismus? A similar question interests many parents. In addition, concerned about the timing of the start of treatment of pathology. Treatment of pathology should be carried out as soon as possible, that is, after establishing the cause and the final diagnosis at 6 months of age. Various methods of strabismus treatment in children up to 12 months are applied. The duration of therapy and the choice of a method depends on the form and severity of the pathology:

Diploptica

The method is to perform special exercises. Gymnastics for the eyes must be in glasses. Classes should be held daily for 2 hours, dividing them into several intervals of 20 minutes. Для упражнений используются цветные кубики, шарики или лото.

Остроту зрения повышают следующим образом:

  • включив настольный светильник, необходимо закрепить яркий предмет невдалеке от него (5 см).
  • The child should close the healthy eye and set it at 40 - 50 cm from the lighting device.
  • For 30 seconds, the baby must concentrate on the subject.
  • After it is necessary to show him bright pictures that will form a consistent image.
  • In one lesson, the exercise is repeated three times with different objects. The duration of therapy is 1 month.

The development of binocular vision and strengthening of the eye muscles is stimulated by another exercise. The bright subject suspended on a stick is led every which way in the face of the child. At this time it is necessary to close one and the other eye alternately. Bringing the subject to face, note the reaction of the eyeballs, which should converge at the nose.

Optical correction

This technique involves wearing glasses that correct myopia, astigmatism or farsightedness. Points are issued from 8 - 12 months of age. In addition, this type of therapy prevents the appearance of amblyopia, that is, the squinting eye loses sight in the absence of a load on it.

The method is aimed at the treatment of amblyopia. The technique consists in turning off a healthy organ of vision from the visual process. For this purpose, the occlusion of a healthy eye is performed using a bandage on it or the closure of one glass with glasses. In this case, the squinting eye begins to work hard and is aligned. If strabism is double-sided, then one or the other eyeball is pasted in turns. The organ of vision, which sees worse, is stuck for one day, and more healthy for 2.

Surgical correction

As a rule, it is used for the paralytic form of pathology or in the absence of the effect of conservative therapy. Surgical intervention eliminates the aesthetic defect, but does not always normalize visual acuity. The operation is performed on an outpatient basis, takes no more than 15 minutes. Surgery for strabismus is indicated when the child reaches 3 years of age. 2 types of operations are performed:

  1. reinforcing - aimed at shortening the eye muscles by removing parts of it,
  2. weakening - the place of attachment of the eye muscles is changed, due to transplanting it further from the cornea.

Why do kids mow their eyes?

Squint, or strabismus, is a disorder in the work of the eye muscles, in which the child is unable to focus on the subject with two eyes. Normally, both eyes, left and right, move symmetrically. When strabismus central axis is displaced, the pupils look in different directions. In this case, the brain is not able to combine the images seen by different eyes into one.

In newborns, strabism is common - 2 out of 100 children suffer from it. Each parent will be able to identify the pathology on its own - the squint is visible to the naked eye. Some children suffering from this disease are already born with one or two slanting eyes.

Squint in newborns can be formed in the womb or at birth and occurs for the following reasons:

  • effects of severe labor
  • infectious diseases of the mother during pregnancy,
  • use of certain medications or drugs by a mother
  • genetic diseases, for example, Down syndrome,
  • genetic predisposition
  • congenital malformations of the eye,
  • premature birth
  • Cerebral palsy,
  • hydrocephalus.
There are a number of adverse factors, due to which the squint occurs in the first days of a baby’s life.

In the process of life, squint is formed for the following reasons:

  • visual impairment, farsightedness and myopia - the child tries to focus his eyes on the subject and strains his eyes very much,
  • diseases and abnormalities of the eye muscles,
  • inflammation of the visual structures
  • consequences of an infectious disease (measles, scarlet fever, influenza),
  • eye damage, head injuries,
  • stresses and strong psycho-emotional states,
  • strong visual loads
  • pathology of the nervous system.

Types and symptoms of strabismus

By the time of occurrence, strabism is divided into congenital (occurs infrequently) and acquired (formed by 1-3 years of life of the child). Also strabismus happens:

  • permanent is the most frequent type, it is diagnosed in 75-80% of cases,
  • periodic - occurs in certain situations, for example, during illness or stress.

Pupils may diverge in different directions:

  • converging to the nose - esotropia,
  • diverging to the temples - exotropia,
  • vertical deviation - up or down,
  • mixed type.

In addition, the pathology is true and imaginary. The newborn baby is simply not able to focus his eyes, while he perceives the visual picture as a whole - this is imaginary strabism. With true strabismus, the picture is doubled or distorted.

Symptoms inherent in strabismus:

  • the child tilts his head and squints when looking at or trying to focus his gaze on the subject,
  • the baby does not perceive the depth of space, may stumble on something when walking,
  • fuzzy, blurry image, split objects,
  • pain in the head and eyes
  • dizziness,
  • the child cannot look at the light.
With a squint, the baby often squints and finds it hard to look at the bright light.

Some of these signs are constantly present. Others appear in severe stressful situations, fatigue or illness.

Strabismus correction

Treatment depends on the cause of strabismus and the degree of damage to the visual organ. If necessary, a child neurologist will be connected to the therapy. If the pathology is serious, it will be treated in a hospital. In other cases, outpatient and home treatment is provided.

Treatment of strabismus must begin immediately, as the development of the disease significantly affects vision. Which means of therapy will suit the particular child, only the doctor decides.

Treatment methods used to correct strabismus:

  • Okklyuder is a special valve, which is put on a healthy eye (with unilateral strabismus) or both in turn (with bilateral). With increased load, the diseased organ begins to see better.
  • Wearing glasses - when the cause is visual impairment (farsightedness, myopia or astigmatism), wearing glasses completely eliminates this defect.
  • Special eye drops. They temporarily impair the visual function of a healthy eye, causing the affected eye to work hard.
  • Ambliokor - a device that helps brain neurons to correctly interpret the picture, eliminates the syndrome of "lazy eyes."
  • Synoptofor - trains eyes and restores binocular vision.

The prognosis is favorable if the treatment is started in time and all the specialist’s instructions are fulfilled - the children stop mowing with one or both eyes. In most cases, visual function can be restored, the main thing is not to start the disease.

When do infants have a squint?

The visual system of the infant after birth and up to 3-4 years is unstable, because it is at the stage of formation. The usual things at first glance can provoke its pathologies, for example, watching TV, playing games on a mobile phone, or a toy that is too low in the cradle. That is why at this age, prevention of strabismus should be given special attention.

All babies up to 2-3 months still can not focus on the subject, so a small deviation at this age is not a bad thing and is a variant of the norm. By 3-6 months, this phenomenon passes.

True strabismus develops in 2-3 years, when the collaboration of the eyes is established. It can be diagnosed by improper tilting of the head of the child and his wandering gaze. However, in some cases, converse to the nose of the cross of the eye can pass independently, even if it appeared in children older than 2 years.

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