Signs of kidney disease in adults are very recognizable and simple. About them and will be discussed in this article, because for the correct and quick treatment is very important to properly diagnose.
For kidney disease is characterized by disorders of urination, back pain, swelling. For many diseases can be characterized by fever, shortness of breath, increased blood pressure. The appearance of the patient is changing. Often there are complaints of a general nature.
Reducing the amount of urine discharge (oliguria) or the complete absence of urination (anuria) may be due to acute renal failure as a result of acute glomerulonephritis.
Causes of acute urinary retention are often urinary tract obstruction (prostate adenoma, urolithiasis). Sometimes anuria can be caused by extrarenal fluid loss (fever, excessive sweating in hot weather).
A decrease in urination in a patient suffering from chronic kidney disease should be alerted to the possibility of transition to the terminal stage of chronic renal failure, especially if the appearance of oliguria was preceded by a period of heavy urination and thirst.
Increase urine amount
An increase in the amount of urine (polyuria) and a secondary increase in the volume of fluid consumed (polydipsia) can be a consequence of pronounced tubular disorders and damage to the tissues of the kidneys (polycystic kidney disease, chronic pyelonephritis).
The development of polyuria in patients with glomerulonephritis indicates the progression of the disease.
Perhaps the development of polyuria as a result of hypokalemia of various origins (for example, long-term use of diuretic drugs). Appointment of potassium drugs in this case leads to the normalization of the amount of urine discharge.
The occurrence of polyuria, frequent nocturnal urination (nocturia), dry mouth may indicate the development of renal failure and requires a mandatory study of plasma creatinine and urea.
Polyuria and polydipsia of renal origin must be differentiated from similar phenomena in patients with diabetes. With a normal concentration of glucose in the blood, severe polyuria and thirst, it is necessary to exclude the presence of non-sugar diabetes.
The presence of rezie when urinating in the lower abdomen and urethra is most often the result of urinary tract infection (cystitis, urethritis). However, these phenomena may be the result of the separation of small stones or necrotic masses in renal tuberculosis. You may experience painful urination in severe gross hematuria during the passage of blood clots in the urethra. Constantly recurring dysuric phenomena may be the only manifestations of urinary tract tuberculosis.
A change in the color of urine, the appearance of blood in the urine (hematuria) is most often observed in acute glomerulonephritis, exacerbation of chronic glomerulonephritis, and kidney infarction.
The appearance of visible blood in the urine after an episode of renal colic often indicates urolithiasis. Excretion of a small amount of scarlet blood in the urine, combined with frequent painful urination, is observed in hemorrhagic cystitis.
Sudden painless hematuria, which can often be the only manifestation of a urinary tract tumor, requires special attention.
The presence of blood in the urine does not always indicate the renal nature of the bleeding. Only urinary excretion of worm-like blood clots is likely to indicate the kidney as the source of blood in the urine.
Low back pain
This is one of the frequent complaints of kidney disease. With all the pain in the kidney area, a urinalysis study is necessary. Low back pain caused by kidney disease, are mostly dull, as a rule, depend little on the movement and position of the patient's body.
Most often, pain is observed in acute pyelonephritis or exacerbation of chronic pyelonephritis, as well as in tuberculosis and kidney tumors.
Chronic glomerulonephritis in most cases is not accompanied by low back pain, however, with its exacerbations (as well as with acute glomerulonephritis), occurring with hematuria, there may be short-term pain that disappears simultaneously with it.
Intense pain in the kidney area can occur with renal vein infarction, apostematic nephritis, and paranephritis.
The appearance of back pain at the time of urination can be observed with vesicoureteral reflux, when urine is thrown back from the bladder into the ureters.
Pain in the lower back, arising in the upright position of the body and disappearing in the prone position, requires the exclusion of the kidney prolapse
The presence of intense pain in the lower back and abdomen, forcing the patient to rush, not to find a place, often radiating to the inguinal region, lower abdomen, sometimes to the anus, is observed during the movement of the stone through the ureter. Similar pains can occur if the ureter is blocked with necrotic masses (kidney tuberculosis, necrotizing papillitis) or blood clots.
Fever is less common in kidney disease. With a distinct proteinuria (protein in the urine) or hematuria (blood in the urine), combined with temperature rises, it is necessary to exclude a systemic disease (most often nephritis in systemic lupus erythematosus.
Most often, an increase in body temperature in nephrological patients occurs in inflammatory diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract (acute and chronic pyelonephritis, apostematosis nephritis, etc.).
An acute rise in body temperature of up to 39–40 ° C, usually occurring on the background of taking any medications and initially accompanied by a short period of increased urination, followed by a lack of urine, may be the result of acute interstitial nephritis.
Sudden rises in temperature with chills, independent of the intake of antibacterial drugs, can be observed with metastasis and decay of kidney tumors.
A prolonged increase in temperature to 37–38 ° C, combined with changes in urine tests, requires the exclusion of urinary tract tuberculosis.
Changes in the patient's appearance
In the debut of acute glomerulonephritis, as well as in nephropathy of pregnant women, occurring with an increase in blood pressure, agitation can be observed with subsequent loss of consciousness, tongue bite, involuntary urination, followed by sudden inhibition, drowsiness.
Loss of consciousness can occur in cases of severe nephrotic syndrome, as well as in patients with the so-called soteriatric syndrome, if they are deprived of salt or as a result of extrarenal loss of sodium (with vomit).
Ganglioblockers and saluretics (for example, furosemide) are drugs that can cause sharp bouts of weakness, up to loss of consciousness in an upright position.
Pallor of the skin can often be seen in patients with normal hemoglobin in the blood. So, in patients with nephrotic syndrome, pale skin is caused by a spasm of small vessels. Anemic pallor, dry skin, its moderate yellowness are characteristic of chronic renal failure.
Hemorrhages can be observed in patients with glomerulonephritis.
Renal edema must be differentiated from edema in heart failure, impaired venous or lymphatic drainage, as well as edema of allergic origin.
Renal edema is soft, pasty, symmetrical, easily displaced. Therefore, in bed patient should be checked for the presence of edema in the sacrum.
More dense edema, usually localized on the legs and feet, more characteristic of heart disease, especially in combination with frequent heartbeat, shortness of breath, enlarged liver.
Isolated swelling of the upper extremities is characteristic of allergic reactions. Isolated swelling under the eyes may be of renal origin, but may be associated with the anatomical structure of the subcutaneous tissue.
Dyspnea and dyspnea at night are mainly observed in patients with heart failure. Perhaps a feeling of lack of air in severe nephrotic syndrome.
If it is impossible to inhale deeply due to pain, it is necessary to exclude the presence of dry pleurisy, which occurs in chronic renal failure.
Blood pressure increase
Arterial hypertension always requires the elimination of renal pathology. Hypertension in kidney diseases usually occurs with a higher diastolic (lower) pressure, does not cause significant headaches and dizziness in patients, rarely accompanied by hypertensive crises.
Persistent high arterial hypertension, which does not cause pronounced sensations in patients and does not respond well to antihypertensive therapy, makes suspicion of the renal arteries suspected. This assumption is confirmed by an ultrasound of the kidney vessels.
Patients with kidney disease often have complaints of a general nature. They are worried about weakness, fatigue. Patients often complain of lack of appetite and weight loss. Kidney disease may be accompanied by irritability, drowsiness, headache.
All of these complaints can be the first signs of serious kidney disease. When they appear, it is necessary to contact the therapist, who will prescribe a general urinalysis, as well as additional methods - urine analysis according to Nechiporenko, Zimnitsky, ultrasound of the kidneys. If necessary, the patient is sent for consultation to the nephrologist.
Kidney disease classification
Before proceeding to the study of major diseases, it is necessary to become familiar with the criteria for the classification of kidney diseases, as well as what pathological processes occur.
Unfortunately, there is no generally accepted classification. This is due to the fact that the range of possible kidney diseases is so wide that they cannot be united by common criteria.
In a simplified form, the list of kidney diseases is as follows:
- Glomerulopatii (diseases affecting the glomerular apparatus of one or both kidneys). They are congenital and acquired, as well as inflammatory and non-inflammatory origin. These include various forms of glomerulonephritis and amyloidosis, renal and diabetic glomerulosclerosis, membranous nephropathy, etc.
- Tubulopathies (diseases affecting tubular structures). They are divided into congenital and acquired, as well as obstructive and necrotizing (depending on the pathological processes that dominate the tubules of the kidneys). These include necrotic nephrosis, congenital fermentopathies (for example, Fanconi syndrome) and others.
- Diseases of the stromal component (interstitium). First of all, we are talking about different forms of pyelonephritis.
- Diseases affecting the large and small vessels of the kidneys (atherosclerosis, thrombosis or embolism, aneurysm, and others).
- Anomalies of organ development. Signs of kidney disease with their congenital defect, as a rule, appear at an early age. These include: accessory kidney, doubling, hypoplasia, dystopia, organ aplasia, and others.
- Injury organ. Impact on the kidney from the outside can cause diseases such as bruising, rupture of the renal capsule, and in severe cases, complete crushing of the organ.
- Oncological processes in the structures of the kidney. They may be of benign (fibroma, lipoma and others) or of malignant (for example, sarcoma) origin.
The main causes of kidney disease
Among the main reasons that can become an "impetus" for the onset of certain pathological processes in the tissues of one or both kidneys, the following should be highlighted:
- infectious agents (bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites) that invade the organ and cause inflammation there (often E. coli becomes the cause of inflammation),
- autoimmune processes, which result in the active production of antibodies against their own cells, form immune complexes (for example, antiphospholipid syndrome),
- metabolic disorders of different nature (urine acid diathesis, oxalaturia, and others),
- effects on the body of various poisons, toxins, heavy metal salts, etc.,
- violation of arterial or venous blood flow in the bloodstream,
- a sharp decrease in blood pressure indicators, which leads to disrupted filtering processes, and kidney cell death occurs,
- organ malformations
- traumatic impact on the kidneys from the outside, etc.
Symptoms of kidney disease depend on the underlying cause, which led to the disruption of their work. Below we consider the most common diseases, as well as the main methods of their diagnosis.
Inflammatory changes in the calyx-pelvis apparatus of one or both kidneys in medicine are called the term "pyelonephritis". The disease is associated with exposure to infectious agents and can occur at different ages, including kidney damage possible during pregnancy (gestational pyelonephritis).
The disease is characterized by the following main symptoms:
- pain sensations of varying severity on the side of the affected organ (due to stretching the renal capsule), which have the same intensity throughout the day, and do not decrease when taking a comfortable posture,
- body temperature rises, all symptoms of intoxication are observed (apathy, fatigue, malaise, loss of appetite, etc.),
- the color of the urinary sediment changes (it becomes turbid, traces of pus or flocculent sediment are visible).
Diagnosis of the disease is the study of blood and urine (clinical and sample according to Nechyporenko). Also, all patients are prescribed an X-ray examination (overview and intravenous urography), as well as an ultrasound scan of the kidneys.
When the inflammatory process in the kidney affects the glomerular apparatus, it is a question of glomerulonephritis, which can be of various morphological forms. The basis of the pathological process are autoimmune processes, and the formation of antibodies against the own tissues of both kidneys.
Signs of kidney disease with glomerulonephritis are as follows:
- the patient has aching or pulling pain in the lumbar region on one or both sides,
- patients begin to complain of constant and unreasonable swelling on the face and eyelids, which are most intense in the morning (immediately after waking up),
- a previously healthy person experienced sharp pressure jumps, sometimes to very high values,
- if the process is not treated on time, the liquid begins to accumulate in the body cavities (pleura, pericardium, and others),
- pathological components appear in the urine (leukocytes and protein in large quantities, cylinders and others).
Diagnosis of the disease is not always easy. In addition to general clinical examinations of blood and urine, X-ray and ultrasound examinations of the urinary organs and the abdominal cavity are performed, if necessary, CT and MRI are prescribed.
Based on the name of the disease, it becomes clear that the basis of the disease is the formation of stones (stones) in the kidneys or other urinary tract structures (most often we are talking about the bladder). More details about the types of kidney stones can be found in this article.
Urolithiasis occurs under the influence of several factors at once, such as external (unhealthy diet, medication from different groups, etc.) and internal origin (for example, kidney malformations, narrowing of the lumen of the urethra). Together, they become the cause of metabolic disorders in the patient's body.
ICD (Renal Colic Attack) is characterized by the following symptoms:
- acute and intolerable attack of pain, which occurs against the background of blockage of the lumen of the urinary tract by large calculus,
- violation of urination (it becomes more frequent and painful),
- at the peak of pain, severe nausea and vomiting attacks that do not bring relief,
- fever, severe weakness, malaise,
- discoloration of urinary sediment (the appearance of blood in it).
Diagnosis of the disease lies in the X-ray and ultrasound examination (the stones are well visualized by ultrasound, including “X-ray negative”). If necessary, perform CT or MRI of the urinary system.
Polycystic Kidney Disease
This pathological process is of innate nature of occurrence and is characterized by the degeneration of normal kidney tissue into multiple cavities (cysts). More on this disease is described in this article.
Symptoms of the disease can be observed already in childhood, or the first symptoms of the process appear a little later. In adults, the disease does not develop as rapidly as in children, and is characterized by the following symptoms:
- постоянные ноюще-тянущие боли в пояснице или животе, не имеющие четкой локализации (у пациента вначале может заболеть лишь одна почка, однако в скором времени в процесс вовлекается и другой орган),
- appetite decreases, fatigue and general weakness increase,
- with the development of signs of renal failure, dry mouth and edema appear, blood pressure rises, overall health worsens,
- in urine tests, persistent proteinuria, erythrocyturia, and cylindruria are observed (if secondary infection occurs, numerous white blood cells and bacteria appear).
Diagnosis of polycystic kidney disease is instrumental study (preference is given to modern methods, such as MRI or CT scan of the kidneys).
Do not forget that often the cause of kidney damage become tumor processes of benign or malignant origin. As a rule, the first symptoms of the disease appear when the size of the oncological focus reaches a rather large size.
- unmotivated loss of "vital" forces, constant feeling of tiredness and sweating at night,
- weight loss in a short period of time (without any restrictions in food),
- progressive deterioration of general well-being,
- periodic pulling pains in the lumbar region or abdomen on the one hand, which become permanent,
- urination disturbance (for example, an attack of renal colic at the exit of their tumor site of a blood clot), etc.
More information about the symptoms of kidney cancer can be found in this article.
Diagnosis of the pathological process is very extensive, so it is necessary to determine not only the main source of the disease, but also to trace possible metastases. To this end, patients undergo ultrasound of the kidneys, pelvic and abdominal organs, radiography of the urinary system, and kidney scintigraphy (a special drug is administered intravenously to a patient that is sensitive to tumor cells) and others.
Tactics management of patients with kidney disease
Treatment of kidney disease requires an individual approach in each case, because therapy is determined by the main cause of the disease. As a rule, in order to cure any kidney disease, it is necessary to simultaneously use drugs from different pharmacological groups that will be effective in combating the etiological factor, as well as be able to block the main links of pathogenesis.
Symptoms of kidney disease
Kidney disease in men and women is usually accompanied by the following characteristic signs:
- Increase in the total amount of urine excreted.
- Painful sensations.
- The appearance of blood in the urine.
- Temperature rise.
- Blood pressure jumps.
- General systemic deterioration in the patient's state of health.
Consider each of these symptoms in more detail.
An increase in the amount of excreted urine or polyuria usually indicates a violation of the functions of the kidneys and a pronounced damage to their tissues. At the same time, this symptom can indicate both acute and chronic diseases of this paired organ.
Important! With the development of polyuria in humans at night, such a state is capable of indicating the development of renal failure. At the same time, to confirm the diagnosis, the patient needs to diagnose creatinine, as well as urea in the blood plasma.
The appearance of pain in the kidneys, in the lower abdomen, and also during the urination, in most cases indicates the progression of the acute infectious process in the urinary system. These diseases can be cystitis or urethritis. Less commonly, a similar symptom indicates urolithiasis, kidney tuberculosis, or hypothermia of the body, which gave a complication to such organs.
By itself, the nature of pain can be different: stabbing, burning, aching, squeezing. It depends on the specific disease that hit the person.
Important! Soreness in the kidney area is a serious sign, and when it appears, it is recommended to consult a doctor as soon as possible. Especially not to delay a visit to a specialist is necessary when detecting blood in the urine.
Discoloration of urine
A change in urine color is usually observed in pyelonephritis, accompanied by acute inflammation. Also, such a sign can indicate an exacerbation of chronic renal failure or renal infarction.
In general, a change in urine color is a clear sign of a general dysfunction of the organ, which is capable of indicating the development of various diseases. That is why, when it appears, a person needs to pass an urinalysis to identify the root cause of the disease and find the right treatment.
Hematuria or the appearance of blood in the urine usually occurs with urolithiasis or the chronic form of glomerulonephritis. At the same time, even a small amount of blood in the urine indicates a possible renal bleeding, which requires immediate treatment with drugs.
Lower back pain
Painful sensations in the lumbar region can be a sign of a wide variety of renal pathologies. The nature of pain in this state will be dull, aggravated by movement and physical exertion.
In that case, if back pain occurs in the upright position of the body and decreases in the supine position, this may be a clear symptom of kidney prolapse.
Violation of urination can manifest itself in the frequent urge to this process, reducing the amount of urine, as well as interrupting the process of urination.
Important! This symptom may not always indicate kidney disease. It is also capable of testifying to the pathologies of the human urinogenital system, therefore, the diagnosis should be very careful.
General clinical impairment
In severe kidney disease, the general well-being of a person may worsen significantly. This is justified by a strong intoxication of the body, because of which the patient may experience the following symptoms:
- Sleep disturbance.
- Having appetite.
- Headache and muscle pain.
There are the following kidney diseases, which are observed most often and are accompanied by characteristic symptoms:
- Oncological pathology.
- Urolithiasis disease.
- Renal failure.
Consider these diseases, their signs and treatment in more detail.
Oncological diseases of the kidneys (tumor) and cyst. These serious illnesses can be accompanied by aching back pain, edema, fever and blood in the urine. At the same time, sometimes such pathologies for a long time may not manifest themselves at all, therefore they are already revealed in a rather neglected state.
Diagnosis of such diseases involves ultrasound, general blood and urine tests, and CT.
Treatment depends on the specifically identified disease and its neglect. In any case, therapy with this should take place exclusively in the hospital under the supervision of a physician.
Renal failure is a disease in which these organs partially lose their function. This, in turn, leads to an imbalance in the body, pain, swelling and inflammation of the kidneys themselves.
To be treated renal failure is a long-term medication therapy, which aims to restore the work of these organs.
One of the important factors contributing to the reduction of loads on the kidneys, is a sparing diet.
Work experience more than 7 years.
Professional skills: diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and biliary system.
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Help with advice and experience
In Chinese medicine, the kidneys are given particular priority. There is even a saying that a person with diseased kidneys will never become a long-liver, but if a person has healthy kidneys and there are diseases of other organs (systems), the chances of living a long life are more than great.
One of the effective methods of reflexology to improve the work of the kidneys is elementary teeth tapping. Must be performed at least three times a day, up to 180 repetitions (tapping) at a time
Symptoms of kidney disease
The disease begins with morning edema, which are complemented by periodic jumps in blood pressure. The patient complains of indisposition, but then realizes that he is not able to cope with the pain syndrome. At the initial stage, the seizure has a fuzzy, unexpressed nature, appears spontaneously, and is successfully eliminated by medicines. In the absence of timely therapy, the symptoms of kidney disease only increase, deprive sleep, become the cause of urgent hospitalization. Common signs of a characteristic illness are:
- frequent urination,
- lower back pain
- metabolic disease,
- high blood pressure
- urine turbidity
- blood impurities in the urine
- morning sickness, vomiting,
- irradiation of back pain down.
Signs of kidney disease in women
Such diseases of the urinary system often progress in women, mostly the older generation. Before taking antibacterial agents, diagnosis is necessary. The doctor examines the patient's complaints, makes a preliminary diagnosis, sends him for examination. In order not to delay the onset of intensive care, it is important to know the symptoms of kidney disease and their symptoms in women:
- pulling feeling in the stomach
- loss of appetite,
- dry mouth and thirst
- renal colic,
- discoloration of urine.
Symptoms of kidney disease in men
For members of the stronger sex is more characteristic of urolithiasis, which becomes the main cause of unbearable pain. The disease manifests itself with acute attacks, which are characterized by cutting in the genitals with frequent urination. For men, this is a serious test, and treatment at home is not always comfortable. Doctors do not exclude hospitalization to further reduce the concentration of uric acid, productive removal of urinary stones by conservative methods.
The main signs of kidney disease in men, which lead to disturbing thoughts, are as follows:
- acute pain syndrome
- painful urination
- damage to functional tissue
- increased blood pressure,
- nausea, vomiting,
- bloating in men
- pain in the area of concentration of stones
- severe discomfort during edema
- cramping attacks.
How to identify kidney disease
Since the disease is accompanied by an acute attack of pain of unexplained localization, there are often difficulties and difficulties in making a final diagnosis. If the focus of the pathology is the kidney - the symptoms of the disease and treatment are closely related. This is what representatives of modern medicine offer in order to correctly differentiate renal diseases:
- Seek advice from a nephrologist, who, after performing a complex of laboratory and clinical studies, will be able to determine the nature of kidney disease, an effective treatment.
- The decisive components of the diagnosis are ultrasound of the supposedly impaired system of the body, blood and urine tests, and radiography, in addition to the recommendation of the attending physician.
- Anamnesis data collection. If the attack of pain was preceded by increased physical exertion, degenerative diseases of the spine are not excluded. But with increased sweating, chills and fever, there are suspicions of kidney disease.
Symptoms of the disease
The pathology of the organs of the excretory system may be acute or chronic. The difference between them is that the acute phase of the disease manifests itself in a few days and suddenly disrupts the functioning of the whole organism. Chronic disease develops slowly and is characterized by the gradual destruction of the tissues of the affected part of the body. Often this form of the disease is found already when the body is completely destroyed and there is no way to restore its normal functioning. Treatment in this case is reduced exclusively to maintenance therapy.
Each kidney disease is cunning because it manifests symptoms similar to other diseases. It is important to know the warning signs of kidney disease, so as not to miss the moment when you need to see a doctor.
Symptoms of kidney disease are always associated with pain. A person suffering from pathology may experience discomfort from both sides at once or only from one side. Often the disease at the initial stage is not accompanied by a painful symptom, and it joins already at the acute stage. In some cases, the pain may be given to the pubis or lower abdomen. This most likely speaks of renal colic.
For those who are concerned about the kidneys, symptoms of the disease associated with the presence of blood in the urine are also not uncommon. Urine is usually painted pink, and the appearance of a scarlet shade is likely to indicate the presence of damage to the ureter stones. Those who have been bothered by stoned kidneys at least once, will not confuse the symptoms of the disease with anything.
Those who have problems with the kidneys, the symptoms may experience very different, but edema is almost always the visual manifestation by which you can notice the presence of pathology. Most often, swelling is noticeable under the eyes in the morning, a little less excess fluid is visible in the lower extremities, and sometimes on the hands.
Kidney disease is almost always accompanied by problems with urination. Usually there is fluid retention, and with particularly severe stages of the disease, the reverse process develops: urine begins to stand out in large quantities, sometimes around 10 liters per knock.
Symptoms of diseased organs of the excretory system are usually associated with a general deterioration of well-being. When the kidneys are not functioning correctly, toxins accumulate in the body. The patient may experience weakness, dizziness, nausea, often there is also a fever. Not everyone knows that fever and symptoms like poisoning are actually signs of a disease of the excretory system.
Important: each person's body perceives the disease in its own way. Do not wait for the same symptoms in patients, even if it is known that their diagnosis is the same.
Signs of kidney disease in various disorders
The problems of the excretory system, the symptoms of which will be described below, are popularly called kidney stones or scientifically nephrolitasis. The disease takes place in two main forms:
- The light stage of the disease is characterized by constant dull back pain, which is aggravated by walking, shaking or physical exertion.
- With a complicated course of pain increases, it becomes unbearable. The patient tries to take a comfortable position in order to alleviate his own sufferings, but more often it does not help to reduce the pain symptom. At the height of the attack can be observed heart palpitations, cold sweat and chills.
When the stone begins to move down the ureter, it can cause a deterioration of health and, due to damage to the mucous tissues of the organs, blood often appears in the urine.
Glomeurolonephritis also affects the kidneys, the symptoms of the disease are usually diagnosed in children and is associated with impaired immune systems. The disease begins with a general deterioration of well-being: there is a headache, weakness, if the immunity is still functioning, a slight fever may also join. A characteristic indicator of pathology can be considered the appearance of puffiness of the eyelids, which increases in the morning. On the third or fourth day, one of the most characteristic signs of the disease appears: a decrease in the amount of urine released. Often the problem is aggravated by the appearance of blood in the urine or the release of large amounts of protein.
Pyelonephritis can be called one of the most common kidney diseases. Its acute form is rather hard tolerated by patients and is characterized by a number of signs:
- a sharp rise in temperature to 39 degrees or more
- chills and sweating,
- the appearance of turbid urine, sometimes with signs of blood,
- common symptoms of poisoning: headache, nausea and intoxication,
- lower back pain usually arising from the side of the affected organ
As the malady develops, the pains become nocturnal and become especially aggravated when lying down. Often this pathology is accompanied by urolithiasis. In this case, patients may also suffer from recurrent renal colic.
Chronic pyelonephritis is much more difficult to diagnose. It can develop without visible manifestations, and sometimes patients note fatigue, night pain and sweating at night. Due to the similarity of symptoms, there are cases when the disease is mistaken for osteochondrosis.
The started kidney diseases can be fatal, so it is very important to take timely measures to eliminate their symptoms. Effectively get rid of the symptoms of the disease folk remedies is not possible, therefore, it is strongly recommended that when the first disturbing symptoms appear, it is recommended to immediately begin drug therapy.
Кроме того, обязательно изменить режим питания, без этого даже самые качественные препараты не дадут должного эффекта. Необходимо придерживаться следующей диеты:
- eliminate salty foods and smoked meats,
- use dairy products to restore kidney function,
- those who swelling strongly, it is recommended to limit the amount of fluid consumed,
- It is useful to take drugs with a diuretic action: watermelon, melon and pumpkin.
For the rest, drug treatment directly depends on what makes you feel unwell. It is worth noting that renal failure is usually accompanied by the accumulation in the body of a large number of toxins. In this case, for the purpose of therapy, the procedure of hemosorption or cleansing the body of toxins is prescribed. Traditionally effective, it happens and antibiotics in the form of intravenous injections. These drugs help fight infection, and some time after the start of treatment, patients feel much better.
Folk remedies for treating kidney disease
Those who do not want to take medicine can be advised to recall the folk remedies for treatment. For example, our ancestors often used herbal baths for problems with the excretory system. Those who decide to be treated in this way should remember that doing it better at night, and the water temperature should not exceed 40 degrees.
With a cold of the kidneys, treatment with hot brick or stone was quite common. Now, instead, you can use an ordinary heating pad. To use this tool is necessary until the complete disappearance of unpleasant symptoms.
In case of problems with the kidneys, such a popular method of treatment as warming up the legs is also useful. To do this, pour hot water of about 45-50 degrees into the basin. In the solution it is useful to add a few tablespoons of salt. 2This procedure is repeated daily until the complete disappearance of the manifestations of the disease.
It is also useful to take decoctions of herbs that have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects. In particular, when omitting the kidneys, a decoction of knotweed grass is recommended. Its single dose is 100 grams. At the same time, to achieve the best effect, doctors advise to use this infusion 3 times a day 40 minutes before meals.
A good effect in the treatment of such ills give flax seeds. You need to take a handful of the substance, slightly moisten it with water and then fry it in the pan without oil. The resulting mixture is chewed throughout the day.
For the general strengthening of the body, those who suffer from kidney problems are advised to regularly exercise. When lowering the kidneys, the following exercise is usually recommended: you must lie on your back, preferably on a hard surface and bend your legs, trying to touch the floor surface with your foot. This exercise can be repeated every day until the onset of improvement, but the interval between food intake and its implementation should be at least 2-3 hours.
Our grandfathers, those who had paired organs, also offered the following folk remedies for their treatment: 1 liter of milk or water (if the milk does not take the organism) to boil and pour 20 grams of oatmeal. The resulting mixture is taken three times a day, 50 grams.
It should be remembered that treatment with folk remedies is permissible only in case of uncomplicated course of the disease. If during an attempt to cope with the ailment of folk remedies, you notice a deterioration of health or the appearance of unexpected symptoms of the disease, it is recommended to immediately stop self-treatment and consult a doctor for a correct diagnosis and treatment, which will help improve the condition of the body.
In the extreme case, if medical treatment does not bring results, it is necessary to resort to eliminate renal failure to surgery. The most common surgical procedure is nephrotomy, which can be prescribed if foreign objects are found in the kidneys. A similar treatment regimen is assumed for urolithiasis. Acute pyelonephritis is usually treated using kidney decapsulation. This procedure helps to reduce intrarenal pressure. When pathological mobility of the kidneys, doctors advise nephropexy, that is, fixing the problem organ in a stable position.
Prevention of kidney disease
As you know, any disease is much easier to prevent than to cure. Prevention of each of the kidney diseases described should be individual, but there are a number of general recommendations that will help strengthen the immune system and, therefore, reduce the likelihood of kidney problems.
First, it is necessary to dress according to the weather and not allow hypothermia of the body. Most of the troubles begin with the fact that a person sat on a cold or walked in wet or not suitable weather clothing. It is the careless attitude to their own health that most often causes kidney disease. Symptoms and signs of the disease are different, so not all patients can determine the causes of poor health.
Physical loads play a significant role in the prevention of kidney disease. It is very important to feel the measure. Excessive loads, especially those associated with weight lifting, can have the opposite effect to the one you are counting on. There are cases when completely healthy weightlifters, after several years of training, had kidney prolapse.
The preventive measures cited in this article are usually effective, but in some situations it is not possible to prevent the disease. In this case, it should be remembered that in the advanced stages of the disease, surgery is the only way of treatment.
Any surgical intervention can lead to unpredictable consequences, so it is better not to start the disease and treat it in a timely manner. The first symptoms of sick kidneys should be a reason for immediate treatment to the doctor. In this case, the likelihood that the problem can be managed without special health effects is much higher. Let those who are worried about the signs of kidney disease get lucky with a specialist. Take care and be healthy.
The principle of nutrition of the patient
This item plays a significant role, because without it, any treatment will not be as effective. First of all, all patients with kidney diseases need to limit the consumption of protein foods, but in no case completely do not refuse it, because protein is an important component of all cellular structures of the body. Details on nutrition for kidney disease can be found here.
Fatty and fried foods, smoked foods, ready-to-cook foods, sodas, alcohol, coffee, etc. are excluded from the daily diet. All food should be steamed, baked without oil, or cooked. You need to eat fractional and often (in small portions, 4-5 times a day).
You can not abandon the use of fluid, as it contributes to the removal of pathogenic microorganisms from the urinary tract. You must drink at least 2 liters of water (except for patients suffering from renal failure).
In case of kidney disease, it is possible to use the following groups of medicines, which are prescribed in the form of tablets or injections:
- broad-spectrum antibiotics,
- uroantiseptics and antimicrobials,
- agents with analgesic and antispasmodic effect,
- diuretic drugs,
- drugs that can dissolve calculi and normalize metabolic processes,
- herbal medicines (containing only natural ingredients) and others.
Herbal and physiotherapy
Herbal medicine has received its wide distribution in a variety of diseases of the urinary system, due to its proven efficacy and absolute safety. In the treatment of patients used kidney tea, fees based on leaves and berries of bilberry, dog rose, chamomile flowers, motherwort, flax seeds and others. More details about herbs with a diuretic effect are described here.
When the patient is stable, it is possible to conduct microwave, magnetic therapy, ultrasound therapy, etc.
If your kidneys suddenly fall ill, or if you experience unpleasant symptoms for a certain period of time, contact a specialist immediately. After all, only a qualified doctor knows how to determine the symptoms of a disease, as well as what needs to be done to cure this disease. You can find out which doctor is treating your kidneys from this article.
Any self-treatment at home can not only not have the desired effect, but also worsen your health and make it difficult to predict the disease further.
Causes of kidney disease
Speaking of kidney diseases, we mean a fairly large group of pathologies, with the development of which kidney tissue is gradually damaged. The causes of such diseases can be a variety of effects. A number of diseases develop as a consequence of the impact of the infection on the human body, and this can be either bacterialso and viral defeat. Impaired urine outflow has a negative effect on kidney function. To provoke a dysfunction of the kidneys can education - tumors, cysts. In addition, the causes of kidney disease can be metabolic disorders, autoimmune damage to the body, abnormal development of congenital nature, a decrease in the functional activity of the parenchyma. Also, the stones that sometimes form in them break down the normal functioning of the kidneys.
Symptoms of kidney disease
All symptoms of kidney disease are divided into are common and characteristic. Common symptoms are hard to attribute specifically to the pathologies of the kidneys. If a person believes that he has pain in his kidneys, then this and other signs should be paid particularly careful attention. If the kidneys are sore, the symptoms may indicate other diseases. Information about the nature of all the disturbing signs, as well as a detailed description of how the kidneys hurt, must be submitted to the doctor.
As a rule, kidney disease manifests itself with some common symptoms. When the disease only develops, the patient feels a small chill and a certain degree of general discomfort, which makes him feel overwhelmed. But the problem often lies in the fact that such symptoms are characteristic of the onset of a cold, and pronounced pain in the kidneys does not appear immediately. Sometimes at this stage of the disease, it is enough to take the simplest measures to prevent further progress of the disease: warm up the legs, take a hot drink.
But if a person ignores the first signs of the disease, the symptoms continue to grow. The patient begins to fever, his temperature rises. Gradually begins to hurt the back and back. Depending on which particular kidney is affected - right or left - pain in a certain lumbar region worries. Less commonly, back pain occurs on both sides. In addition, the general symptoms include an increase in pressure.
Thinking about what to do in such a situation, the patient should be aware that at this stage in the development of the disease, the doctor should prescribe the treatment.
Symptoms characteristic include swellingthat occur both on the face, around the eyes, and throughout the body. The latter phenomenon is more characteristic of obese people. Also, swelling in women with kidney problems often occurs when of pregnancy. In this case, it is important for the woman to clearly know why the swelling appears, and what to do if they do not go away for a long time.
In case of kidney diseases, urination problems also occur. With the development of a certain disease, pain or burning in the process of urination may be troubling. polyuria (very frequent urination) oliguria (very rare urination). Sometimes it is missing altogether.
Another characteristic symptom is change in urine composition and color - it is turbid, the hue changes significantly. Often it contains particles of blood.
If you have any of the above symptoms of kidney ailments, you should immediately contact the specialists who will help determine the cause of the disease and the diagnosis. Self-medication, especially with the use of drugs can lead to a serious deterioration of the condition.
Hereditary and Chronic Kidney Disease
It happens that the symptoms of kidney disease in children appear almost after birth. In this case, the presence of hereditary diseases. In this case, over the course of a person’s life, it is important to avoid recurrence of the disease, which is facilitated by the correct approach to prevention. What is important is an active lifestyle, the use of a sufficient amount of vitamins. But with the development of a severe form of any of the diseases, there is a need for periodic prescription of medical drugs.
Chronic kidney disease in children and adults manifests itself as a consequence of the wrong approach to the treatment of the acute form of the disease. If after a person has symptoms of kidney disease, he does not seek help, after a while he develops a chronic form of the disease. In order for any kidney disease, urolithiasis disease or urinary tract infection not transferred to the chronic form requires, first of all, adequate treatment and proper diet immediately after the first signs of kidney disease appeared.
Consider the most common diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract.
With hydronephrosis the patient has a persistent expansion of the cavities of the kidney, which occurs as a result of violation of urine outflow. The disease can be both congenital and acquired. Congenital hydronephrosis is manifested due to some anatomical anomalies. Acquired form of the disease occurs on the background of urolithiasis, tumors that violate the flow of urine.
A relatively long period of hydronephrosis develops without the manifestation of visible symptoms. Symptoms of the disease become pronounced when kidney stones appear, or an infectious lesion develops. The patient may have pain in the lower back, which can be very intense. Often the only symptom of the disease is the presence blood in urine.
Features of the treatment of other kidney diseases
There are also a number of other kidney diseases that require an adequate approach to treatment. But in all cases, kidney treatment should be done in a timely manner, as there is a possibility of complications, such as kidney cancer, etc. Therefore, it is absolutely impossible to practice only the treatment of kidneys with folk remedies or herbs at home.
For any disease, medical consultation is important. For example, if a person has a single kidney cyst diagnosed, in this case it is enough to conduct an annual study. Treatment of a kidney cyst is required if complications or polycystic is manifested. In this case, the person is primarily assigned a laparaskopichesky operation.
Sand in the kidneys as a sign of urolithiasis occurs due to metabolic disorders. In this case, in parallel with the medication is practiced treatment with traditional methods. However, it, as well as the treatment of kidney stones, should be carried out under the supervision of the attending physician.
Drug treatment of kidney disease is practiced for most ailments. However, if a person is diagnosed with hydronephrosis, inflammation, kidney prolapse, or other ailments, then antibiotics and medicines belonging to other groups are selected exclusively individually. It is important to take into account the fact that the treatment of such diseases during pregnancy should be as gentle as possible. Women who are prone to kidney ailments, during the period of carrying a baby, are advised to stick to a diet, eat as little spicy foods and salt as possible.
Urinary Tract Infection
Urinary Tract Infection has a bacterial nature. In the course of its development, an infection of the urinary system occurs. In most cases, the disease occurs due to ingestion. E. coli. Once in the urine, the bacteria multiply and cause urinary tract infection.
Infection of the urinary tract in children and adults is manifested by a number of characteristic symptoms. First of all, it is turbidity of the urine and the appearance of an unpleasant smell. Blood can be detected in the urine. A person feels a very frequent need to urinate, and in the process feels pain and severe discomfort. Also, symptoms of the disease can be expressed in general malaise, pain in the abdomen and in the pelvic region. When infected with the upper urinary tract, a person may suffer from fevernausea and vomiting, diarrhea. In this case, it is important to provide treatment not for the symptoms, but for the disease itself.
More often women suffer from urinary tract infections, as their urethra is shorter than that of the stronger sex. In addition, it is closer to the anus, so the risk of infection increases.
The infection more often affects women who actively live sex lives, as well as women during menopause. In addition, the infection affects people with kidney disease and some chronic illnesses that weaken the body's defenses.
A variety of urinary tract infections is cystitis (bladder infection), urethritis (infection of the urethra).
Чтобы диагностировать инфекции мочевыводящих путей, необходимо провести анализ мочи, цитоскопию, а также некоторые другие методы исследования.
The choice of treatment method depends on what kind of infection - the upper or lower urinary tract - was diagnosed in the patient.
If a patient has an infection of the lower urinary tract, the treatment can be carried out at home. In a severe form of infection, the upper pathways of the patient are hospitalized. The treatment process uses antibiotics, analgesics, other means and methods as recommended by the doctor. Recurrences of the disease are often noted as complications of the disease.
The main causes and types of diseases
Chronic and acute renal pathologies arise for various reasons that are acquired or congenital. Acquired causes of organ disease are:
- an injury that damaged the integrity of the organs,
- incorrect exchange process
- excess of the established level of toxins in the blood,
- an infectious disease caused by bacteria that have entered the bladder into the kidneys,
- autoimmune diseases in which the immune system weakens and inflammation occurs.
Each of the above reasons can affect the body of a woman, a man, and a child. It is important to know the signs of the disease and notice them in time to take timely drug measures.
Congenital and hereditary diseases
Kidney problems are often associated with abnormalities that are congenital or hereditary. This kind of disease is observed in a quarter of patients with chronic pathologies of the kidneys. Hereditary and congenital diseases are classified as follows:
- Anatomical pathologies of the kidneys, which in turn are divided into quantitative pathologies and deviations of the form of organs.
- During histological dysmbriogenesis of an organ, the formation of cystic formation or other abnormalities of the kidneys is possible already in the process of intrauterine development.
- The presence of hereditary jade.
- Tubulopathy primary, secondary or dysmetabolic type.
- Uropathy or nephropathy develops when chromosomal or monogenic syndromes are present in the structure.
- In children, Wilms' tumor is often observed, which occurs even during the period of intrauterine development.
Symptoms of kidney disease
At first, the symptoms of kidney disease may be absent and the person is not even aware of the presence of pathology in the organ. As the disease progresses, the first common signs of kidney disease appear:
- Pain in the kidneys, which gives to the lumbar. Given the disease and its degree, pain can have a different nature and intensity. Sometimes they radiate to the pubic area, the femoral, the abdominal cavity. Such pains often indicate seizures of renal colic.
- Blood impurities in urine are characteristic of the formation of stones, chronic pyelonephritis, inflammation, and tumors. Urine can get slightly pinkish color, and sometimes becomes scarlet.
- The occurrence of edema, which at first bothers exclusively in the morning and swelling appear only under the eyes. Over time, the patient's lower limbs and arms swell.
- Impaired excretion of urine, in which a person experiences pain. Common signs of renal disease is anuria or oliguria, in the first case, urine is absent, in the second, its daily amount is significantly reduced.
- In case of kidney disease, the patient complains of feeling unwell, which is associated with impaired organ function. The kidneys become difficult to remove toxic substances and slags from the body. This affects the condition of a person, he experiences constant fatigue, his ability to work decreases, there are pains in his head and no appetite. Over time, there are inflammatory diseases of the kidneys and intoxication of the body.
Prolonged kidney disease often causes the patient to develop arterial hypotension, the skin turns pale, their structure changes.
General signs of kidney disease can be supplemented, depending on the pathology that struck the organ. So, when nephrolithiasis concrements form in the body, in which there are such additional symptoms:
- sharp, unbearable pain,
- shock signs - a person is thrown into a cold sweat,
- pale skin
- the heart beats faster.
With a mild course of a person, only mild pain occurs. It should be noted that nephrolithiasis affects only the kidneys, stones are not formed in other organs of the urogenital system. When the calculus enters the ureter and bladder, the mucous membrane is injured, leading to hematuria.
Polycystic kidney disease
With the disease of this type of organ, cysts are formed in the tissues that contain fluid inside. First, polycystosis is not marked by any signs and it is detected randomly at the examination. As the cyst grows, the following signs of pathology appear:
- pains of whining character in the lower back and abdomen,
- periodic blood in urine,
- weight loss, lack of appetite,
- clarification of the urine and increase its quantity
- diarrhea or constipation
- itchy skin.
If polycystic is not treated, then kidney failure occurs over time.
Nephroptosis is not a congenital pathology, specific causes are necessary for the development of the disease. There are such risk factors for the development of nephroptosis:
- a sharp increase or decrease in weight,
- external organ injury
- pregnancy and childbirth,
- intense exercise.
The disease is characterized by aching and pulling pain in the lumbar spine, which disappears when taking a prone position. Over time, the painful sensations become stronger and do not disappear when the position of the body changes. Over time, pain in the head increases, the person becomes sick, vomiting occurs. If time does not reveal a deviation, then you have to do the operation.
Both benign and malignant tumors can occur in the kidneys. Deviation is characterized by the proliferation of organ tissue, which consists of altered cells. Tumors cause these symptoms:
- disrupted general health, weakness and fatigue are felt,
- dry mouth, dry mucous membranes,
- soreness in the back, abdomen,
- weight loss, loss of appetite,
Benign lesions are less common. In diseases of the kidney of a malignant character, brighter symptoms are felt. In the latter stages, the patient is most often disturbed by metastases, which are given to neighboring internal organs. As a result, not only the kidneys, but also all organs are disrupted.
Modern medicine has many ways in which any kidney disease can be identified. Comprehensive diagnosis is extremely important, which includes:
- lab tests,
- vascular Doppler,
- CT and MRI.
It is possible to treat the kidneys after an accurate diagnosis is made. Therapy is prescribed by the attending physician, given the accompanying symptoms and contraindications.
Treatment of kidney disease depends on the severity of the pathology and the complications present. There are such basic medical procedures:
- surgical intervention,
If there is inflammation in the kidneys, then a drug treatment is indicated, which improves the process of removing urine and eliminates unpleasant symptoms. As a rule, doctors offer this drug list:
- "Canephron" and "Cyston", if the formation of stones has joined.
If abnormalities associated with the kidneys cannot be eliminated with the drug method, then surgical treatment is indicated. The operation is required for the formation of a tumor, large stones, and in those cases when complications of kidney disease have occurred. Surgical diseases require adherence to a postoperative diet and sometimes require more medical treatment. Hemodialysis is used in case of renal failure. Such treatment consists in cleansing the blood and the body of toxins through the “artificial kidney” apparatus.
Treatment of folk remedies
If the kidneys are sick, then you can try to get rid of the problem of folk remedies. Traditional medicine helps in cases where there is a slight inflammation or the disease remains at an early stage. The following are the names of herbs that are effective in treating kidney disease:
- birch leaves,
- St. John's wort
- dog rose
Of the above components prepare decoctions, infusions and other therapeutic agents. Medicinal herb can have a diuretic effect and remove toxins from the body. Broths from natural ingredients eliminate unpleasant symptoms, have antispasmodic effects. Sometimes folk remedies are used in the postoperative period or as prevention of renal diseases.