Sensory development in young children


Summary: Sensory development of young children. The development of tactile sensitivity. The development of tactile sensations. Sensory development of a child preschooler. The development of perception in children

The sensory development of a child is the development of his perception and the formation of ideas about the external properties of objects: their shape, color, size, position in space, as well as smell, taste, etc.

The value of sensory development in early and preschool childhood is difficult to overestimate. It is this age that is most favorable for the improvement of the activity of the senses, the accumulation of ideas about the surrounding world.

The child's readiness for schooling largely depends on his sensory development. Studies conducted by child psychologists have shown that a significant part of the difficulties encountered by children during primary education (especially in grade 1) is associated with a lack of accuracy and flexibility of perception.

There are five sensory systems through which a person knows the world: sight, hearing, touch, smell, taste.

The development of sensory abilities plays an important role in the development of sensory standards - the generally accepted patterns of properties of objects. For example, 7 colors of the rainbow and their shades, geometric shapes, a metric system of measures, etc.

For the development of sensory abilities there are various games and exercises. In this article, we will consistently review the games for the development of each of the five sensory systems.

Games for the development of touch (tactile perception)

Tactile (superficial) sensitivity (feeling of touch, pressure, pain, heat, cold, etc.) is attributed to touch.

To develop a tactile perception of the child, play with a variety of natural materials and objects that differ in surface structure. Let's give the kid different toys: plastic, rubber, wooden, soft, fluffy. While bathing you can use washcloths and sponges of varying hardness. Lubricate the body of the child with cream, do various types of massage. Let your baby play with a brush, a pompon from a knitted hat, a ribbed ball from a pet store. Also of great interest are colored washcloths for dishes! You can make an interesting tactile album from the patches of fabric of different textures: burlap, wool, silk, fur. There you can also add a sheet of polyethylene, wrapping paper from flowers, mosquito nets, velvet, corrugated and sandpaper and much more.

Interesting baby games with foil. You can crumple it first by making a ball of it, then smooth it again.

Play with pine cones, prickly chestnuts, ribbed walnuts and smooth acorns. It is also useful to play with various cereals: lower the handles into the box and look for the hidden little toy. It may be advisable to play with pebbles, dry and wet sand, with clay, potions, clay, dough made from flour and salt.

More information about the games with sand and earth can be found at the links:

Pay attention of the child to cold snow or juice from the refrigerator and hot tea, hot batteries, fire on the stove. When bathing, attract the baby’s attention to the temperature of the water in the faucet and bath, you can pour warm water in one basin, cool water in another basin and lower the handles or legs alternately.

Read more about water games here:

Since the overall sensitivity of the skin is reduced, it is helpful for the child to get interesting sensations with the whole body. It is good to wrap it entirely in a woolen blanket, you can wrap your baby with a towel, put a fur coat right on the panties and a T-shirt, knit a back and belly with a knitted handkerchief.

The feelings of gouache paint on pens, stomach, back will be very interesting for a child. Especially great if the bathroom has a mirror, and you can look at yourself from all sides.

It is necessary to develop sensitivity not only small handles, but also legs. Allow children to run barefoot on the grass, sand, wet clay, river or sea pebbles as often as possible. At home you can walk around peas, beans, roll rubber ribbed balls.

Self-massage and mutual massage of hands, legs, backs with the help of massage brushes, terry mittens, wheeled massager, massage roller for legs, etc. are useful.

Additional educational games:

The teacher relates a soft toy (pussy) to different parts of the child’s body, and the child with his eyes closed determines where the pussy is. By analogy, you can use other items for touching: a wet fish, a spiny hedgehog, etc.

Objects of various shapes, sizes, textures (toys, geometric shapes and bodies, plastic letters and numbers, etc.) are placed in an opaque bag. The child is offered to touch, without looking in the bag, to find the desired item.

"Handkerchief for a doll" (the definition of objects on the texture of the material, in this case, the definition of the type of fabric)

Children are offered three dolls in different kerchiefs (silk, wool, knitted). Children in turn examine and feel all handkerchiefs. Then the handkerchiefs are removed and folded into the bag. To the touch, children find in the pouch the necessary handkerchief for each doll.

"Guess by touch what this item is made of"

The child is offered to the touch to determine what various objects are made of: a glass cup, a wooden bar, an iron shovel, a plastic bottle, a fluffy toy, leather gloves, a rubber ball, a clay vase, etc.

By analogy, you can use objects and materials of different textures and determine what they are: viscous, sticky, rough, velvety, smooth, fluffy, etc.

On the table laid out geometric shapes, the same with those that lie in the bag. The teacher shows any figure and asks the child to get the same out of the bag.

"Get to know the object on the contour"

The child is blindfolded and a cardboard-cut figure is placed in his hands (this could be a bunny, a Christmas tree, a pyramid, a house, a fish, a bird). Ask what kind of subject. They remove the figure, untie the eyes and ask to draw it from memory, compare the pattern with the outline, circle the figure.

"Guess what the subject"

Various volumetric toys or small objects (rattle, ball, cube, comb, toothbrush, etc.) are laid out on the table, which are covered on top with a thin, but dense and opaque napkin. The child is offered to identify objects through a napkin to the touch and name them.

Material: plates covered with velvet, emery paper, foil, velveteen, flannel.

Blindfolded to the touch, the child is asked to find a pair of identical plates.

The child is offered balloons containing various fillers inside: water, sand, flour with water, peas, beans, various cereals: semolina, rice, buckwheat, etc. You can use a funnel to fill the balls. Balls with each filler must be paired. The child must feel to find a pair with the same fillers.

Additionally, a small amount of each filler can be placed in the plates. In this case, it will be necessary to correlate each pair with the corresponding filler, i.e. determine what is inside the balls.

"Guess the number" (letter)

On the back of the child with the back of a pencil (or finger) write a number (letter). The child must determine what character it is. For a more detailed description of this exercise, see link >>>>

Very useful also for preschoolers and elementary school students (especially first-class) games with letters of rough (velvet, emery, etc.) paper: "Identify by touch", "Find the right letter", "Show the letter" The child repeatedly holds his hand over the letter, feels it and calls it. At the same time, not only the form is remembered, but also the way of writing this letter, which are associated with its name. Children who wish to immediately write this letter, you need to provide this opportunity.

Games of this type are recommended to be carried out with a gradual complication: from learning to groping actions under the guidance of an adult to self-fulfillment of the task by the student, and with his eyes closed. By analogy, it is possible to use different numbers.

The child closes his eyes. He is offered five fingers to touch the object, but not to move them. According to the texture you need to determine the material (you can use cotton wool, fur, cloth, paper, leather, wood, plastic, metal).

Two playing fit to the table. Close your eyes. Before them are two disassembled dolls. On command, both begin to assemble each their own matryoshka - who is faster.

Children (2-5 people) sit at the table. They are blindfolded. Before each bunch of seeds (peas, seeds, etc.). For limited time it is necessary to sort the seeds into piles.

"Guess what's inside"

Play two. Each child playing in his hands has an opaque bag filled with small objects: checkers, pen caps, buttons, erasers, coins, nuts, etc. Who will do it faster?

Read more about children's sensory development.

If we translate the word “sensus” from the Latin language, it will mean “perception”, which is carried out by the organs of all five human senses. And if you take the translation of the word in terms of psychology and physiology, the "sensory" means "given in sensations."

That is how from a very early age the crumb begins to know this world. His first contact at the level of touch, smell and taste happens to his mother. The first feeding and glance at the man, who previously felt only from the inside. Everything is different, and only the voice of the mother is the same, and the baby, listening to him for several days, begins to understand this.

The variety of shapes and colors, new unpleasant and pleasant touches, an abundance of smells and sounds - all this little person needs help to get started. For the first time, the Karapuz dips into a sea of ​​human speech, sounding from everywhere. He begins to comprehend the features of the language in which he himself will speak some time later.

Adults should help him in this process. The more the mother communicates with the baby, bending over him, gives him to see the movements of her lips during the pronunciation of words, the faster and more correctly the child will speak. And so in everything! Mom is the first teacher my child Children as a clean sheet, which is given to parents. And only depends on them what will be written on it.

It is precisely the comprehension by the child of this world by means of sensorics that is the basis for the development of his mental abilities and education. Therefore, from an early age it is necessary to ensure that the child’s knowledge of the world through his feelings is correct, and not false. The foundations of moral education are also laid in the period of sensory comprehension of this world with an toddler.

Types of sensory perception and his work

There are as many types of sensory sensations as the sensory organs, i.e. five, and they are called respectively:
• visual,
• organs of hearing
• taste,
• tactile skills
• scent or smell.
Now about their work. They contribute to the fact that babies are beginning to develop in this world and get acquainted with the concepts of size and shape, colors and sounds, a wide variety of tastes and smells.

The value of sensory parenting

What tasks solves the sensory development of children? Sensory perception of the surrounding reality from an early age is the only way to know the world, in which a new little inhabitant has come. And how well in the first year of life your baby will be helped to get the first knowledge of him, depends on all his further journey in this world.

The task of parents is to develop the sensory potential of their children as fully as possible, since sensual experience is the basis of mental, moral, aesthetic, physical personality development. If it is more complete to display the tasks that the sensory education and development of children performs, then the following sequence will be obtained.

The value of sensory education is that it:
• lays the foundation for intellectual development,
• organizes the jumble of the child's ideas, which appeared as a result of his interaction with the surrounding reality,
• contributes to the development of good observation,
• facilitates his entry into real life,
• from an early age develops aesthetic sense in children,
• lays the foundation for a developed, rich imagination,
• sharpens attention
• allows the child to get acquainted with new types of object-cognitive activity,
• introduces and allows to learn sensory standards,
• lays the foundation for learning skills,
• contributes to the expansion of the vocabulary of children,
• creates the basis of all types of memory.

Features of the development of sensory in children of different age categories

With the development of sensory perception of the surrounding world, it is important to take into account the characteristics of each age period of children. Firstly, the methods and ways of working with children of different ages should differ from each other, and secondly, each new period of life the sensory education of the previous period will be the basis for the formation of the next.

So, the development of sensory children to gThe ode is to observe the movement of objects, acquaintance with the properties of your own hands, who begin to explore the world through touch, listen to music or individual sounds and their combinations. The study of smells and tastes already belongs to an older age.
From year to four years there is a particularly active sensory perception of reality by the kid. At this age stage, it undergoes a complication of methods, because the possibilities of the child expand.

With the help of all the senses, children receive a more complete acquaintance with various forms and color spectrum, an abundance of tastes and smells. In the period of four years, the previously formed sensory standards are fixed and the foundations are laid for the analytical thinking of children.

When to start developing a child’s sensory culture

Scientists conducted a series of research experiments with children and determined that the development of sensorics at an early age affects the formation of intelligence. That is why it is necessary to teach a child to sensory culture from the age of one. It is at this age that the child begins to take a lively interest in the world, to find out how it tastes, touches, looks. Curiosity in children of this age becomes an integral part of the whole being. And parents definitely need to use this quality!

But the best thing is for the baby to take in information about the world through the games, which should last exactly as long as the baby is interested. Usually this time is limited to an interval from five minutes to fifteen. Since the perception at this age is very tenacious, then such a short period of time is enough for the child to take the maximum benefit out of his studies.

There is no need to force the kid to play: because of this, children simply stop perceiving the supplied material even in the form of a game. The development of sensory should be unobtrusive.

Some examples of sensory education for young children

  • Children from one to two years.

With them you can conduct classes of the following type. To develop the concepts of form and color - to arrange a game with multi-colored cubes, balls, pyramid parts or other forms, showing and calling them by color and form.

Classes can be conducted on the development of observation and logic. First, show the folded pyramid, then disassemble it, fold it again before the eyes of the child. Give the kid the opportunity to put the disassembled pyramid himself.

For the development of knowledge about According to the tactile sensations, to show the properties of various objects to the child, several objects that are different in structure and form: toy, mitten, feather, brush, stone, etc. Allow the child to touch all the objects, and then ask the child to close their eyes and touch the objects again. Let him guess them by touch.

Acquaintance with emotions can be started by cramping faces and explaining grimaces under various names. So, smiling, utter the words “joyful”, “kind”, “cheerful” to the baby. And depicting on the face of anger or sadness, mark them with appropriate words. You can then ask the child to repeat the movements of the face in response to the words.

The game "Mysterious Bag" will allow the baby to quickly develop an understanding of forms and object-shaped memory. In the opaque package should be put a few objects familiar to the child and ask to touch what is inside. If the child correctly names the item, let him first tell you about it and then pull it out.

  • Two to four years.

At this age, in parallel with the development of sensory education, it is already possible to carry out educational development goals. For example, to teach the alphabet and numbers with the child, while writing down the signs on a piece of paper, then showing them to the child on cubes or offering to put them on a magnetic board.

Собирая пазлы, сначала вместе с ребенком, а потом побуждая его делать это самостоятельно, вы сможете поработать не только над формированием правильных сенсорных эталонов малыша, но и над зарождением логического мышления, наблюдательности и внимательности.

Игра со словами позволит ребенку развивать слух и внимательность, память и способность подбирать ассоциации. Having named some notion, for example, “summer”, you need to ask the child to come up with a few words that are characteristic of this season. You can also do with any fruit, time of day, etc.

Sensory development of children opens up many opportunities for them, and your lessons will help them understand how to use these opportunities.

Parents are the guides of children in this world. Lead your toddler along the correct paths, and he will surely reach the heights of the universe. But only with your direct participation!

Why you need to deal with young children

Sensory education is the key to the mental development of the baby. This foundation will be necessary for him in the future for successful adaptation in a comprehensive school. If the child does not perceive objects sufficiently, he may have difficulty writing and performing various products in the classroom.

The main objectives of the sensory development of children in preschool age are:

  • the formation of good conditions for the overall development of the child,
  • promoting the development of the sensory and psychomotor environment in children through the knowledge of the world, colors and shades, as well as the values ​​of various objects,
  • selection of effective games, exercises, general development classes,
  • involvement of fathers and mothers in the development process,
  • use of illustrated textbooks,
  • creating a sensorimotor corner in a preschool educational group,
  • drawing up a card file of games for general education.

Preparatory activities

The development of the baby is directly dependent on how the game room is equipped, in which the child lives. The task of mom and dad is to provide a comfortable, comfortable and safe place in the house where the little man will feel calm and secure. The baby should have its own indoor corner, fully equipped for outdoor games and good rest. With the help of parents in preschool institutions such events are held as:

  • replenishment of the group with gaming and touch materials,
  • the purchase of additional kits for conducting experiments in water and sand, containers of various forms, objects, tools for carrying out transfusions of liquids,
  • acquisition of insert boards with forms, sets of volumetric bodies, educational games,
  • update the music corner with toys that emit various sounds
  • purchase of a safe plastic constructor,
  • manufacture of board and didactic games.

How does sensory development begin

During the familiarization of children with various subjects, classes were used both in a group and individually, games were conducted to learn about the surrounding objects, which give impetus to the study of the surrounding world. For the development of sensory motility, it is necessary to acquaint babies with such properties of objects and phenomena as:

  • color spectrum,
  • configuration,
  • the size,
  • quantity,
  • location in the environment.

It is necessary to carry out work aimed at teaching children the perception of objects in general, their assimilation of sensory standards, such as the system of geometric shape, scale of size, color spectrum, spatial and temporal orientations, phonetic system of the language, which is a rather complicated and long process. In order to familiarize yourself with any object, the child must touch, squeeze, stroke, roll his hand.

Acquaintance of children with objects

At the time of familiarization of children with the values ​​and consolidation of knowledge about them, the following methods and techniques are used:

  • comparison of several objects during the game by applying them to each other,
  • the use of specially designed toys in the form of pyramids, dolls, liners, and so on.

In the course of such games, which are aimed at developing a tactile function, kids learn to grab, pinch and feel. The use of balls for massage gives a pretty good result.

Classes on the development of tactile functions

The organs of touch are the fingers, and the most important forces are thrown on improving the receptivity of their receptors. To do this, use a variety of types of activities that contribute to the improvement of tactile and motor functions. These activities are:

  • modeling,
  • application,
  • application molding,
  • formation of paper and designer,
  • drawing,
  • sorting small items
  • the formation of figures from objects of various kinds.

Once a week you can conduct classes aimed at mastering the exercises for the development of tactile sensitivity and complex coordinated hand movements. Improved sensory perception is currently the basis for the improvement of all fields of activity of modern man.

Tasks for improving the child's sensory motility

In order to achieve the maximum result, specialists have done a great job. To improve sensory perception, the following tasks were set:

  • selection of materials for the development of preschool children,
  • diagnostics of the degree of development of sensory in babies.

Sensory education is the ability in practice to navigate in various parameters, such as configuration and size, to absorb the tint of an object, to form a holistic object. All this is mastered gradually. A big obstacle to achieving this goal is an early age. Sensory education needs to be planned and coordinated with the basic training so that this type of work does not turn into an additional occupation. That is, a successful unification of the activity in cognition of the size, shape and color of a particular object is possible only if a certain physical level of the child’s development is present.

In the development of sensorics, an important role is played by the mobility of hands during the implementation of actions on placing objects. Teachers should pay attention to how the child plays with a mosaic, draws paints, sculpts from plasticine. Comparison of sensory and motor skills is considered the most important condition for the mental development of a child. Separate attention requires a thorough analysis of learning.

Sensory education is the holding of games and exercises, taking into account the specific characteristics of each baby. Classes need to begin to perform with tasks that involve joint actions of parents and children. In the future, an adult can change his location: be close to the baby, sit opposite him. Any movement of the child with the need to comment and voice.

Sensory education of young children is an important stage in the life of a small person, which affects:

  • normal functioning of vision, touch, hearing, smell,
  • the functionality of motor functions and the stimulation of mobility of activity,
  • the elimination of muscle tone and mental emotional stress, which is achieved in a relaxed state and comfortable well-being,
  • formation of a positive psycho-emotional background and increase in the child's ability to work,
  • activation of such processes as thinking, attention, perception and memory,
  • motivation for autonomous and experimental activity.

Sensory at the smallest

Sensory education of young children is a technique designed to arouse interest in a toy, any educational tool that is made of wooden material. These can be dolls of large and small sizes, pyramids, cubes, liners, boards with openings of various sizes or shapes, with a set of tabs, tables with a mosaic, and so on. Specifically, toys made of wood are very important for the development of sensorics in a child, because they are distinguished by good texture, stable during the manipulation and execution of the most simple movements with them.

How to carry out sensory education? The development of young children depends on their environment. Everything around the baby has an effect on:

  • normal functioning of vision, touch, hearing,
  • the functionality of motor functions and the stimulation of mobility of activity,
  • the elimination of muscle tone and mental emotional stress, which is achieved with a relaxed state and comfortable well-being of children,
  • formation of a positive psycho-emotional background and increase in the child's ability to work,
  • activation of such processes as thinking, attention, perception and memory,
  • increase in motivation for autonomous and experimental activity of children.

Proper infant development

Why is sensory nurturing so important? Preschool children from the very first months of life perceive the environment through smell and touch. For this reason, from birth to the fourth month, it is necessary to focus specifically on these sensory systems.

The beginning of the formation of the visual system of infants is an early age. Sensory education by the age of six months includes exercises that train the motor activity of the child. For this purpose there are the simplest, but rather important methods:

  • Touch - constant physical contact with the mother, joint sleep with her, putting the crumbs on different surfaces, not causing allergies, finger exercises, which can be started already from three months, carrying the baby in her arms, joint bathing of mother and child.
  • Smell - the child should perceive the smell of the body of her mother, for this reason the woman does not need to use perfume during close physical contact with the child. At the end of six months, it is necessary to give the children to smell unsharp and pleasant smells.
  • Vision - do not bring your own face too close to the baby so that he does not develop a squint. It is necessary to show white, black and monotonous objects already from two months of life, to demonstrate multi-color and bright toys, to help study your own reflection in the mirror, watch the scenery outside the window, talk, listen to pleasant music and much more.
  • Taste - after the introduction of the first feeding it is necessary to diversify the menu.

At this stage, there is no sensory development of children through gaming activities. This is more like a demonstration, study and observation. The perception of the world through games begins with one year of life.

Development from year to three years

Sensory education of children of preschool age is purposeful improvement of all perception channels. In this case, everything happens at a very fast and saturated pace. The main activity at this stage of development is considered to be the subject. It aims to attract a variety of colorful objects. At such an age, sensory education is a very important point. The development of children through the game is considered to be only an additional action, although one cannot do without it. A distinctive feature of this period is that the sensory system of the child develops quickly. It is necessary to give the children the following items: pyramid, sorter, frame-liner, magic bags for memorizing text.

The child must during this time:

  • learn how to remove and put on rings of different sizes on the rod,
  • get out of pockets and fold back items of various sizes,
  • be able to identify shaggy, soft, smooth and rough surface,
  • know geometric shapes such as square, circle, cube and ball
  • by the age of three, distinguish the taste of the main products and give their preference to the individual,
  • dance to the music.

The orientation on objects at this stage of life is considered to be the main one, because it has a great influence on the improvement of the personality and mental state of the child.

Children from 4 to 6 years

The most important role is given by the sensory development of children of preschool age, because during this period assistance is needed in preparing for the newest stage of life - learning. Now come to the fore games, which are considered the most entertaining and very effective. In this case, the child does not just take possession of the simplest toys, but takes part in role-playing games. It should be noted that such activities are very interesting for kids. The didactic games on sensory education are aimed directly at the fact that children can easily adapt to the proposed conditions.

The value of the sensory development of the child in preschool age

So, we continue to consider sensory education by age. Preschoolers should be able to form an idea of ​​the external property of an object, to distinguish its shape, color, size, position in space, smell, taste and much more. The meaning of the development of sensorics in this period is difficult to underestimate. These skills form the foundation of the child’s general mental development. From the moment of perception of objects and phenomena around the knowledge begins. All its other forms, such as memory, thinking and imagination, are formed on the basis of perception. For this reason, the normal development of intelligence is impossible without full perception.

In kindergartens, children are taught to draw, to model, to design, to get familiar with natural phenomena, to play games on sensory education. Future students begin to learn the basics of mathematics and grammar. Obtaining knowledge and skills in these areas will require close attention to the various properties of objects. Sensory education is a long and difficult process. He is not limited to a certain age and has its own history. Sensory education of children from an early age is a technique that helps to correctly perceive certain objects in space.

Let's summarize

  • In the first year of life, the child is enriched with impressions, namely, he watches moving beautiful toys that are chosen precisely for such an early age. Touch education is that the kid, grabbing objects of various shapes and sizes, learns to perceive them correctly.
  • At 2-3 years old, children are already trying to isolate the color, shape and size of objects on their own, saving ideas about the main types of colors and configurations. Also at this age are conducted didactic games of children on sensory education.
  • From 4 to 6 years old, the children develop specific sensory standards. They already have a certain idea about the colors, geometric shapes and the ratio of objects among themselves in size.

Deal with your children, and they will surely delight you with their success in the future!

When to start developing child sensory skills?

The development of the child’s sensory skills begins at birth. It is recommended to help the baby get accustomed in this world, to learn how to use the reflexes and feelings laid by nature from the first days of life. Simple and understandable for every mother in ways - massage, games, singing and speech - to promote the development of the data inherent, the development of new opportunities.

The path to the peak of knowledge consists of many small steps, each of which is important and necessary, as the basis for subsequent achievements. Let's take a look at how a child develops sensory skills from birth to school, and find out how at each stage to help get the maximum amount of necessary knowledge.

Sensory development of a child from birth to school

The development of sensory knowledge in preschool children can be divided into several stages:

  • Sensomotor stage (development of motor skills and sense organs, primary coordination):
    • 1-4 months of life - the use of innate reflexes (grabbing, sucking), improving as you use and complemented by new motor skills from 1 month. Grip bottles, toys are becoming more sophisticated and effective, laid in the brain as a conditioned reflex,
    • Circular reactions appear from 4 to 8 months - using vision and motor skills to achieve an already familiar effect (a blow to a hanging rattle causes sound),
    • 8-12 months. Deliberate coordination to achieve the goal,
    • 1 - 1.5 years. Getting new opportunities through experience. Scarce aims to use the previously acquired skills to perform actions without a specific goal. Move, knock, shove, to understand what will happen. The results obtained are remembered and applied in a particular situation.
    • 1.5 - 2 years. Search for original ways to solve the problem. The invention of new versions of the game and knowledge.
  • Productive stage (analysis, comparison, classification, etc.):
    • 2-5 years. Formation of database operations. The development of figurative thinking through the knowledge of objects, their signs and symbols. The transition from the subject to the activity of the game, role-playing, creative.
    • 5-8 years. The initial level of specific operations. On the basis of the knowledge gained, the child learns to make calculations, isolations, construction and analysis of objects according to various criteria.

Understanding the order of development of sensory skills in the crumbs, you can figure out how at each stage parents can help their child.

I was born. First sensations and perceptions

From the first minutes of life and up to 2 years, the child will be in the sensory-motor stage, implying mastering the basic skills of movement and skills associated with sensory experience.

Рождаясь, человек не умеет и не знает ничего, чтобы выжить. Необходимо быстро учиться многим важным вещам: кушать, смотреть, слышать, двигаться и т.д. Природа закладывает в каждого кроху инстинкты, позволяющие ему осваивать все необходимое для выживания, но скорость и качество полученных данных зависят от условий, в которые попадает малыш.

Первым шагом познания являются ощущения.

Getting acquainted with them, the baby learns that everything around has color, taste, smell. The reaction to the new feelings of a newborn is a cry. While he does not know how to react differently. Every day the intensity and coloring of the sounds emitted by the child will vary. Well at the first stage to learn to distinguish between the different requirements of the crumbs. The creation of comfortable conditions necessary for an even and quiet development is the basis for the desire of the crumbs to learn about the world around them.

Already in the first days of life, a new skill appears - perception. It reflects the many signs of a single object with which the baby meets. The form, color, smell, taste, now merge into a single whole, are remembered and cause associations. So, the smell of mother's milk, the warmth of her hands, smiling face causes positive emotions in the crumbs. The sensation of a wet, cold diaper is an unpleasant sensation.

Listening, examining, grabbing, the crumb slowly moves to a new stage of development, gets the opportunity to use new means of studying the surrounding space.

How to help the sensory development of the baby

At the first stage of exploring the capabilities of your body, sensory sensations need to be helped by the little one to learn more quickly:

  • focus your gaze on the subject (suggest the crumbs to look at the bright toy),
  • perceive his image (shake, roll the object at a distance of 70 cm from the eyes),
  • learn to follow the movement of the object (move the object closer - further, to the left - to the right, trying not to lose the look of the crumbs),
  • to feel the possibilities of your body (massage and move the limbs, lay out on the tummy, attracting the attention with rattles, stimulate interest and the desire to raise the head).
  • start to distinguish the first sounds. When a baby is born, the sounds around it merge into a single cacophony, only by matching the subject and the sound, the baby learns to extract individual elements from the whole spectrum.
    • Sing the kid looking at him
    • Show what sounds are obtained if you hit objects together,
    • for 5-10 minutes turn on classical music,
    • talk to your baby, calling different things, states, actions.

The word addressed to the child from the first days is the main motivator of mental development, understanding and coordination of all sensory sensations.

  • understand that the world around is different to the touch. Give the crumbs in the handle a light rattle, let me play with my own hair, touch the breasts and clothes. With the development of crawling skills, ensure a safe space and the availability of a variety of subjects for study.

Gradually mastering these simple for an adult, but incredibly interesting and difficult for the newborn objects, the baby will try to see, hear and touch as much as possible. Gaining experience, will gradually coordinate their feelings with each other, memorize combinations of different signs, respond to familiar things.

The basis for further exploration of the world will be an attempt to coordinate vision and sensations. Visual-motor activity is the main method of cognition.

Grasping the handles all the objects of interest, spatial orientation is formed, trying to taste - sensations, knocking on the table - the knowledge of sound capabilities. Each movement of the crumbs - a step towards the development of the surrounding space. The task of the parents is to give safe freedom and interest the baby.

Transition to a new plane. Give, show, help me go

Having mastered the basic skills, the crumb will definitely want to look at the world around us in a different way. The transition from a prone position to a sitting position is a new stage leading to great discoveries. The meaning of the word, new types of actions, the first games at this stage cannot be estimated. Interest in the proposed training options stimulates physical activity, the desire to sit, stand, go. At this stage, it is important to bring to automatism the previously acquired motor skills, to help coordinate vision, hearing, and movement.

How to develop sensory?

  • A variety of impressions. Give a little freedom of action. It is preferable not to prohibit playing with objects, but to remove all unwanted objects from the view. The curiosity arising at this stage should be satisfied with new impressions. Offer your kid bright toys of different sizes, shapes, textures. Let them touch, see, knock them on different surfaces,
  • New products. From 6 months in the life of a child, lure begins to appear. It is good to complement the study of the taste diversity of the world, visual and motor development. Show the crumbs fruits and vegetables offered in the food, tell us about sweet and sour, warm and hot. Try to tell the kid about all his feelings
  • Sounds and ways to extract them. Already during this period it is advisable to offer the crumbs to play with musical instruments. Show how to extract sound from the drum, pipe, etc.
  • Safe freedom of action. Motivation for the development of motor skills - the ability to touch, examine, try new items. Give your baby the opportunity to crawl, stand up, explore the space around you. Take care of safety by removing fragile, dangerous, sharp objects.
  • Sensory toys. A variety of bags, rugs, panels filled with cereals, with moving parts of different textures and shapes have a positive effect on visual-motor skills, and if some of the objects make sounds, then on the organs of hearing,
  • New activities. Teach your baby to put a pyramid, throw balls into the box, paint with finger paints, sculpt from plasticine,
  • A game. Introduce the baby with the ball, show how to carry the machine on the floor, rock the doll, introduce water games, sand lessons,
  • Exercise, promoting new knowledge. Massage, gymnastics, swimming - everything that allows the child to develop physically, has a direct impact on his sensory sensations.

Bright emotions, new items, mastered skills and abilities in the first year of life, will become the base, go to the automatic level. By the year, the baby will begin to perform most operations reflexively, will be able to begin a new stage: mastering verbal notation, gaining new experience and inventing his own methods of studying the environment.

1-2 years. Color, shape, size

With the acquisition of walking skills, sensory development follows the path of coordinating skills already acquired and gaining new experience in using perceived information. Perception gradually disappears into the background, fulfilling a serving function, the basis for obtaining new information becomes thinking, the formation of logical connections.

Up to 1.5 years, children go through destruction. Understanding their ability to move objects, change their shape, watch the result of their actions. Having saturated the desire to destroy, by 18 months the desire to create begins.

Having acquired the skills to create new items from simple elements, the baby will move from the subject stage to the game. At 2 years old, the kid will want to use the maximum amount of various game skills to saturate his sensory experience, develop new skills, and cognize the world around.

This age is the most favorable for exploring such important knowledge:

  • Colour,
  • The form,
  • The size,
  • Location in space
  • Weight,
  • Taste,
  • Body parts, etc.

A separate role in the success of mastering this knowledge is the word. Seeing the object, touching it, hearing the name from the parents, the child forms important neural connections. The fixed image creates an idea of ​​the signs of the subject. On this basis, a little later it will be possible to analyze new objects, isolating familiar features. So, knowing that the ball is round, by three years the baby will be able to compare with it the sun, the watermelon, say that the cucumber is green as grass, etc.

How to help develop further

  • Diversity. Strive to show your child the maximum possible number of different items, actions with them, call them a word.
  • Clarification and training. Seeing the interest of the crumbs, tell him about the signs of the object, compare it with other familiar toys. Offer to look at objects of different color, shape, name and indicate how they differ, let them touch and even taste. Every object that falls into the hands of a baby should be studied in all possible ways (examine, touch, bite, knock on the floor or other objects, hear the name),
  • Games with water and different textures. Show how different tactile sensations can be. Offer to touch different fabrics, natural materials, household items.
  • Tell and show what is cold, warm, hot.
  • Focus on the location of objects in space (above - below, right - left, far - close),
  • When eating, call the taste of food,
  • Teach the baby to draw with pencils, paints, sculpt from plasticine and dough, string beads, play with lacing. The fine motor skills developed by these exercises stimulate the development of speech centers. With the development of speech, the child will be able to get sensory experience faster due to the active use of the names of grouping objects,
  • Classes for the development of logic. Whatever your child does, try to explain his actions, talk about the surrounding objects, their purpose. Use imaginative, rich speech, talking about the different signs of toys and other objects. Try to maintain contact with simple questions that require an affirmative or negative form. As the words appear, try to motivate the baby to pronounce various actions, information received.

In the period from 1 to 3 years, the baby must master the basic generally accepted concepts:

  • Know and be able to name the primary colors and some shades,
  • To distinguish between big and small, high and low, light and heavy,
  • Orient in space,
  • Have an understanding of basic geometric shapes, etc.

All this knowledge is formed and consolidated through the activation of the sensory system. The peculiarity of this age lies in the memorization of logical chains and characteristics that are associated with a specific word. Touching, listening, considering, trying to taste, the kid remembers his feelings, and the word allows you to express the information received. During this period, you should not focus on memorizing words, it is better to give the opportunity to study more with the help of the senses, naming objects.

3-4 years. We summarize, compare, look for new options

Age 3 years - a turning point. The kid leaves the preschool age, going through the first serious crisis.

There comes a time for new discoveries and the development of previously unknown forms of knowledge. The kid learns role-playing games, but still does not separate a separate sign from the subject. Color, shape and other signs are perceived as an inseparable part of the object of study. At the age of three it is worthwhile to show the crumbs that the objects not only differ between themselves in one or several signs, but may also be similar.

Having made this discovery, the little horny can understand that different kinds of toys can be combined into one row.

Sensory development in this period is fast. The perception of the subject by different senses using already learned methods of cognition allows one to obtain complex information, to seek out new unexplored edges of the surrounding world. The ability to call sensations, combine them into groups, analyze allows the baby to create a whole base of possible operations with each object. Based on the expanding choice of possible actions, the mindset of the researcher is formed, using complex methods of obtaining new information.

How to develop sensory perception

  • Introduce the crumb to the basics of mathematics. Counting up to 5-10, geometric forms and their measurement with the help of other objects, comparison, analysis and synthesis, synthesis,
  • Expand his knowledge of colors and shades through creative activities,
  • Show and tell about the various signs of objects, giving the opportunity to practically examine each of these properties (see, touch, try),
  • Systematize the knowledge of the child, summarizing the subjects in the groups on the distinguished,
  • Offer classes on the development of attention and observation (puzzles, didactic games by age),
  • Familiarize yourself with commonly accepted feature names. Tell us about the measures of length, weight, time and seasons, directions, etc.,
  • Tell the baby about the musical pitch, introduce the notes and different timbres. Let every day enjoy beautiful classical music
  • Familiarize and achieve the purity of the sound of the native language.

Offer each type of research to your child as a game. Try every day to maximize each of the senses, contributing to their development. All information comes to us through the senses. Each of the sensory organs should be trained so that the data obtained is complete and of high quality.

5-6 years. Getting ready for school

By the age of five, babies are beginning to actively use well-known signs to gain new experience. Overlaying and applying different objects to each other, get new ones, measuring large toys with smaller ones. There is an active study of concepts difficult for a literal perception: time, space. Developing their own speech with the help of accumulated experience, the crumbs learn to invent names for new signs. Knowledge of the basic geometric shapes, size, taste, smell, temperature becomes clear, structured.

How to help a child

  • Enter into your daily lesson plan for the development of logic and thinking,
  • Didactic games by age,
  • Get acquainted with complex phenomena and try to answer all the questions of your little one,
  • Read and study literature telling about the properties of surrounding objects,
  • Engage your baby in all available activities for him. Learning through work is one of the forms of perception of the world,
  • Promote the knowledge of the world through a variety of trips, visits to circles and sections,
  • Maintain communication with peers, game pastime.
  • Check your knowledge of crumbs, focusing on age estimates.

Having passed a difficult way of knowing their capabilities, exploring various ways of obtaining information, developing their senses, by 6-7 years old, the child will be ready to enter a new phase of his life - schooling. Attentive attitude, targeted training of the crumbs in the preschool period will allow to move to a new level with minimal disruption. Knowing how to receive information, analyze feelings and systematize them, look for the right word, the kid will easily master the school curriculum.

In the development of the child’s sensory capabilities, one should not rely on nature or genetics, the quality of the knowledge gained, the ability to use them - the result of daily targeted study with the support of parents. It should be remembered that it is easier to teach correctly from an early age than to correct later spontaneously embedded knowledge.

It is easy to promote sensory development, you just need to want. Fun, exciting games with a child, aimed at the study of objects of interest to him, with explanations selected by age, provide an incentive for full development. Are you afraid of missing something? Make a schedule of classes where each day will be devoted to specific skills.

A child with developed sensory abilities is happy. Every day is a discovery for him, a new subject is an exciting journey. Give your child the opportunity to admire this world, to know it and develop your mind and body.

Why is the sensory development of children in early and preschool years so important?

  • 0–1 year - with the help of bright and musical toys, we develop attention and hearing, learn to grab and feel objects with different textures. Gymnastics and massage are excellent assistants in the development of general and fine motor skills. Tactile sensations of the baby develop through physical contact with the mother.
  • 2-3 years - we study colors (the whole spectrum), shapes (triangle, circle, square, rectangle, oval) and values ​​(large-small, high-low).
  • 3-4 years - we fix the knowledge already gained, learn to understand shades and group objects by color (select all red balls), size (find all large cars) and form (collect all triangular shapes).
  • 5–6 years old - we continue to consolidate the familiar material, we study the variants of the familiar geometric shapes, we turn to the concepts of height and width, we get acquainted with the ratio “short-long”.

For the development of tactile sensations:

  • Offer your child to stomp and feel different materials in structure: wool, silk, fur, grass, bandage, cool smooth tiles, etc.
  • Put different groats, peas, beans or buttons in linen bags and let's examine them by touch, eventually guessing what's inside.
  • Paint with finger paints or create different lines, running your fingers over the sand, buckwheat layer, rice or semolina.
  • Water treatments - splash with your favorite toys in an inflatable pool, basin or bath - what could be better!

Games for the development of general and fine motor skills:

  • Finger puppet theater - useful and interesting. When favorite characters come to life in the hands of the mother, the baby also wants to control them.
  • Лепка из пластилина или соленого теста — главное выбрать безопасный материал на основе натурального теста, на случай, если ребенок решит попробовать полученное изделие на вкус.
  • Пирамидки, погремушки, развивающие коврики, шнуровки, застежки и пуговицы на одежде, различные коробочки и баночки, которые можно складывать друг в друга или наполнять различными предметами.

For the development of vision

  • Activate the visual experience will help the game with light. Turn on the flashlight in a dark room and illuminate various familiar objects with it - with such lighting they will look very different. Want to add color? Cover the night light with a colorful scarf, and the room will sparkle with new colors.

For the development of smell

  • You can make the sense of smell more subtle by using aromatherapy, and even, for example, when you cook dinner at home, let your child smell various dishes, drinks, fruits and vegetables. Citrus fruits, coffee, pastry are distinguished by bright smells.

What are sensory rooms and why are they needed?

Also, staying in the sensory room reduces children's anxiety and excitability, improves sleep, activates the child's brain activity and gives him positive emotions.

If you are imbued with the idea of ​​child sensory development, you will probably be interested in visiting the Multisensory children's sensory development space, which is located at: M. Maksimovich, 3g (tel + 38-067-329-12-82)

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