Little kids

Pollinosis: causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention


Pollinosis is an allergic reaction of a sick person to the effects of pollen during the flowering period, which has clearly repeated seasonality and manifests itself mainly in inflammation of the mucous eyes and respiratory tract.

In addition to this term, this disease is also called:

  • hay fever,
  • pollen rhinopathy,
  • Spring Qatar,
  • pollen bronchial asthma,
  • allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

The most correct term characterizing this disease is the term “pollinosis”, since this type of allergy can have, in addition to more common symptoms, polyvisceral manifestations (symptoms of skin lesions, internal organs, angioedema).

Causes of

Since this disease is an allergic reaction that pollen of wind-pollinated plants provokes, it is the main cause of the disease.

When breathing pollen enters the mouth and nasal cavities, settling on mucous membranes.

In a healthy person, such penetration will not cause any manifestations, and in a person who has an increased sensitivity to allergens of this kind, the symptoms of pollinosis appear.

Plants, on the pollen of which are most often manifestations of this disease:

  1. trees during flowering (poplar, birch, maple, hazel, alder, willow, elm, lilac, etc.),
  2. trees in the period of leaf fall (as the pollen is found not only in the inflorescences, but also in the stems and leaves),
  3. cereal, meadow grasses (wheatgrass, fescue, hedgehog, timothy, etc.)
  4. Flowers (lilies, chrysanthemums, marigolds, buttercups, asters, cornflowers, etc.)
  5. weeds (wormwood, quinoa, ambrosia).

The manifestation of this disease can be associated with the ingestion of plant products, which include antigens with plant pollen (honey, sunflower oil, apples, watermelons, melons, nuts, etc.).

Herbal therapy can also exacerbate the disease.

As a rule, the first manifestations of the disease occur before the age of 20 years. In childhood, this disease is more common in boys, and in more adult women are more often ill.

The aggravation of pollinosis is manifested by the following symptoms:

  1. nasal:
    1. nasal discharge (rhinorrhea),
    2. difficulty breathing
    3. itching of the nasal mucosa, pharynx,
    4. sneezing
    5. feeling short of breath.
  2. conjunctival:
    1. redness and swelling of the eyelids,
    2. lacrimation
    3. photophobia,
    4. itch
    5. feeling of "sand in the eyes."
  3. polyvisceral:
    1. skin lesions (occurrence in open areas of the body of contact dermatitis, urticaria),
    2. lesions of the genitourinary system (vulvitis, cystitis, nephritis),
    3. damage to the cardiovascular system (arterial hypertension, myocarditis),
    4. damage to the central nervous system (encephalitis, damage to the optic and auditory nerves, epilepsy),
    5. defeat of the digestive tract (nausea, vomiting, loose stools),
    6. joint damage (allergic arthritis).
  4. common symptoms (symptoms of intoxication):
    1. fatigue
    2. irritability,
    3. weakness,
    4. anorexia,
    5. fatigue,
    6. sleep disturbance,
    7. fever,
    8. weight loss.

The appearance of a patient with polyvisceral symptoms in the form of damage to the internal organs and systems indicates a more severe severity of the disease.

Basically, in most patients, pollinosis is manifested by rhinoconjunctival symptoms with impaired general condition.

The manifestation and severity of the disease is influenced by factors such as:

  • the amount of allergen entering the body (the more, the harder will be the process),
  • type of contact (nasal and conjunctival symptoms appear on contact with mucous membranes, digestion of the digestive system occurs when consumed with food and drugs),
  • individual characteristics of the body (different people have an unequal number of cells and receptors responsible for the allergic reaction in the body, therefore, the degree of symptoms varies).

Symptoms of this disease, occurring every year and acting for quite some time, exhaust a person.

He becomes emotionally depressed, his physical activity falls, sleep is disturbed.

Also, a person is forced to buy expensive medicines that have undesirable effects for the body. All this leads to a deterioration in the quality of life.

In severe illness, allergies can take dangerous forms that threaten life.:

  • bronchial asthma (after contact with the allergen in the lungs, the small bronchi are narrowed, as a result of which breathing is disturbed and the person may suffocate)
  • Quincke's edema (manifested by edema of subcutaneous fat, the most dangerous localization of which is near the respiratory tract),
  • anaphylactic shock (the most dangerous form of an allergic reaction, which is manifested by the expansion of small vessels, as a result of which blood pressure drops sharply, breathing is disturbed, loss of consciousness occurs, and can also lead to the death of the patient).

Risk groups

People who have the greatest susceptibility to the development of the disease:

  1. children whose parents have this disease in their history (i.e., an allergic reaction to pollen is inherited in most cases),
  2. the population of large cities (because urban air pollution leads to a decrease in immunity and increased sensitivity of the respiratory tract to irritants),
  3. people with bad habits (also increases sensitivity to allergens),
  4. living in the areas of growth of plants that cause pollinosis,
  5. people born in the flowering season.


The most characteristic feature of pollinosis is the seasonal manifestation of symptoms (only during the flowering period of the plants).

In spring, trees (birch, hazel, poplar, willow, maple, etc.) bloom, in June-July - grass (couch grass, fescue, timothy grass), and weeds (wormwood, ambrosia) bloom from August to September.

When the season ends, the symptoms of the disease go away.

The amount of pollen in the air affects:

  • weather (during rainy and dry arid summer unfavorable conditions are created for pollen ripening),
  • presence of wind
  • time of the day (in the morning and in the afternoon the highest pollen release occurs).


The diagnosis of "pollinosis" does not cause much difficulty.

If a person every year, at a certain season, there are symptoms of this disease, listed above, he needs to contact a specialist for diagnosis, allergen detection and treatment prescription.

The doctor establishes the diagnosis based on the following:

  1. interview (collection of anamnesis) - the doctor asks the patient about the disturbing symptoms, time and circumstances of their appearance,
  2. examination of the patient
  3. collection, necessary analyzes (blood test for detection of antibodies to the allergen, a sample of nasal secretions),
  4. allergy tests:
  • skin tests - help identify the allergen that caused the manifestation of the disease,
  • provocative test (the patient specifically causes an allergic reaction to the allergen that caused the disease) - allows 100% to detect the allergen.

Examination allows the doctor to accurately determine the diagnosis and prescribe the correct treatment. Self-medication in the presence of an allergic reaction is unacceptable.

What is pollinosis of the nose

Pollinosis of the nose is the most common form of the reaction and is otherwise called "allergic rhinitis." Manifested by nasal symptoms and a violation of the general condition.

The nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis include:

  • itching of the nasal mucosa, pharynx,
  • rhinorrhea,
  • difficulty breathing
  • bouts of sneezing.

Conditionally, patients with pollinosis of the nose can be divided into 2 groups:

  1. patients whose main symptoms are itchy nose and sneezing. They are characterized by abundant nasal discharge, sneezing attacks, deterioration of the general condition during the day. Usually, this group of patients also has conjunctive symptoms (lacrimation, photophobia, discomfort in the eyes),
  2. patients who have mostly nasal congestion. They are characterized by breathing through the mouth, discomfort in the sinus area, the absence or minor episodes of sneezing, reduced perception of taste and smell, worsening of symptoms at night.

This conditional division of patients into groups helps the doctor to prescribe a treatment that is more appropriate for this patient.

In addition to nasal and conjunctive symptoms, the patient may have symptoms of general intoxication:

  • fast fatiguability,
  • weakness,
  • reduced performance
  • disturbance of appetite, etc.

In the absence of adequate treatment, the form of allergic rhinitis will become heavier, new symptoms will appear, the sensitivity of the immune system to other allergens that have not previously caused a reaction will increase.

With the progression of nasal pollinosis, the following symptoms may occur:

  • irritation of the skin of the nose and under the nose,
  • nosebleeds,
  • sore throat,
  • coughing
  • increase in the intensity of headaches.

In addition, pollinosis can provoke complications such as sinusitis (inflammation of the sinuses), otitis media (inflammation of different parts of the ear), and the appearance of polyps.

What to do with cross allergy with pollinosis? Details here.

Treatment methods

Treatment of patients with hay fever is as follows:

  1. termination or reduction of contact with the allergen. Patients are advised that during the flowering season of the plant causing the disease, go to areas where these species do not grow. If this is not possible, then you should limit contact with the allergen as much as possible (do not leave the country, open windows as little as possible, etc.)
  2. medication use:
    1. antihistamines (used to reduce and eliminate the symptoms of the disease),
    2. vasoconstrictor (with nasal congestion),
    3. glucocorticosteroids (to reduce inflammation),
  3. relieve the symptoms of pollinosis and diet. Seasonal fruits, berries, honey, foods that contain food coloring are excluded from the diet.

What does the allergic form mean

When the allergen gets on the mucous membranes, the body in response produces antibodies that detect pollen antigens and form antigen-antibody complexes with them.

Then these complexes with blood flow into the nose, skin, internal organs.

When the allergen enters the body, the complexes release histamine, which fights the allergen, causing the symptoms of the disease to appear.

So, when pollinosis is an allergic reaction.

Photo: Cross Reactions

Preventive measures

For the prevention of allergic pollinosis should:

  1. eliminate contact with the pollen allergen (change the area of ​​residence, exclude plant species that cause an allergic reaction from urban greening, reduce the number of trips in the countryside, nature, remove flowering plants in the house, install air conditioning),
  2. Do not abuse cosmetics, perfumes, before applying tests for the presence of an allergic reaction,
  3. Do not take drugs containing an allergen,
  4. follow a diet (exclude seasonal vegetables, fruits, honey, citrus fruits, chocolate, jam).
  5. specific prophylaxis - immunotherapy (gradual introduction of an allergen into the body over a long period of time, as a result of which sensitivity to it decreases).

How is the technique of breathing exercises on Strelnikova asthma? Read on.

To learn about the diet of pollinosis in children, go here.

Useful tips

To relieve allergic rhinitis, it is possible to use a method such as washing the nose. To do this, you can use pharmaceuticals, and you can independently prepare a saline solution of boiled water.

In the flowering season at work it is recommended to take a vacation, go to a mountain or seaside resort. It is believed that the air of these places contains the minimum amount of pollen.

When treating a disease, you should not rely on popular methods. Adequate therapy can only be prescribed by a doctor, while traditional medicine can lead to further exacerbation of the disease.

If you comply with all the conditions of prevention, follow the prescription of the doctor, follow all the recommendations, then you can greatly alleviate the course of allergic pollinosis.

Types of pollinosis and their symptoms

Very often, pollinosis is taken for the ARD, especially at the very beginning. After all, the symptoms of these diseases are almost identical to each other: lacrimation, headache, fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite, nasal congestion, runny nose, sneezing and coughing. But at the same time, it is still possible to distinguish a number of differences, on the basis of which one can suspect the development of pollen allergy, i.e. pollinosis.

Most often, pollinosis manifests itself in the form of rhinitis and conjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis and seasonal bronchial asthma occur a little less frequently:

- Seasonal rhinitis is characterized by abundant watery nasal discharge, accompanied by tickling and itching in the nose, nasal congestion, paroxysmal cough. In children, pollinosis of this species can occur in combination with noise and pain in the ears.

- With seasonal conjunctivitis, swelling and redness of the mucous membrane of the eyes, tearing, itching and "sand" are noted. As a rule, with true seasonal conjunctivitis, discharge from the eyes of a slimy character, purulent discharges appear only when an infection is introduced.

- Atopic dermatitis with pollinosis is manifested by rashes on open areas of the body. The disease occurs with varying degrees of severity, from minor urticaria to severe angioedema angioedema.

- asthma attacks are characteristic of seasonal asthma.

With damage to the nervous system and internal organs, pollinosis may be accompanied by such diseases as vulvitis, epileptic seizures, arachnoencephalitis.

All signs of pollinosis disappear as the plants, shrubs and trees fade. In total, the disease continues for 4-6 weeks, in severe cases - the entire spring - summer period.

Pollinosis treatment

In pollinosis, treatment is aimed at reducing the sensitization of the body. For this purpose, antihistamines are used, in case of their ineffectiveness or in case of severe course, glucocorticosteroids are prescribed. At the same time, means are used to eliminate the symptoms of the disease, both local and general. It is not recommended to use drugs that include leaves, buds, flowers, bark and roots of various plants, shrubs and trees for the treatment of children with hay fever.

In the acute period with pollinosis should strictly follow a diet. It is mandatory to exclude honey and cross-reacting products from the diet. For example, if you are allergic to cereals, cereal porridge, bakery products, pasta are excluded as far as possible. You can not eat apples, kiwi, nuts, plums, potatoes and a number of other products when sensitizing to pollen of alder, birch, apple. Citrus fruits are not used in response to weed pollen.

In severe cases, moving to another climate zone is shown.

Prevention of pollinosis

Prevention of pollinosis should be comprehensive, including elimination measures, specific immunotherapy and diet.

Elimination measures with a tendency to pollinosis are to fulfill a number of requirements to minimize the harmful effects of pollen on the body. To this end, it is necessary to avoid visiting squares, parks and similar objects. The amount of pollen entering the premises can be limited by hanging the window vents and windows with gauze.

To prevent the development of atopic dermatitis, it is advisable to wear long-sleeved clothing and trouser legs. It is recommended to remove from the room bouquets of flowers and indoor flowering plants.

One of the most effective methods in achieving remission in pollinosis is conducting specific immunotherapy. It consists in the introduction into the patient's body outside the acute phase of low doses of cause-significant allergens. With each injection, the amount of administered allergen increases, and hypersensitivity decreases as a result of manipulations. Medical procedures are carried out only in specialized offices under the supervision of a specialist.

In the remission stage, you can eat all the products, but do not abuse them.

Symptoms of allergic pollinosis

Pointing to pollinosis symptoms familiar to everyone. This is the so-called allergic triad: lacrimation, cough and severe runny nose. Symptoms can occur both together and separately. The most common symptoms of hay fever are severe itching in the nasopharynx, “multi-part” sneezing, nasal congestion.

In addition, the patient may feel pain in the ears due to swelling of the nasopharynx, and excessive tearing leads to increased eye sensitivity. One third of patients with pollinosis suffer from the so-called allergic asthma, not less frequent symptoms are face swelling and even a rash. During exacerbation allergic pollinosis may be accompanied by a significant increase in body temperature, headaches and sleep disturbance.

The most dangerous thing is that, like any pollinosis allergy affects not only the mucous membranes and skin. All body systems suffer: an excess of hydrochloric acid is released in the body, and cardiovascular activity is disturbed.

Pollinosis in children

Similar to pollinosis symptoms have many respiratory diseases, so it is especially difficult to recognize pollinosis in children. In March and September, childcare facilities experience outbreaks of acute respiratory viral infections, and parents often take an allergic reaction for a cold, especially if the baby’s card was not previously diagnosed.pollinosis allergy».

In young children, pollinosis may be atypical or hidden. The disease can begin with pain in the ears or redness of the eyes. If you pay attention to frequent scratching of the nose, but do not observe sneezing or runny nose, it is worth making allergy tests. It is possible that this is a reaction to contact with plant pollen.

Why does allergic pollinosis develop?

The main reason for developing pollinosis in children and adults, is a weakened immunity. In addition, allergies can be hereditary, so it does not hurt to ask about grandmothers hay fever. Allergic reactions do not always manifest themselves in early childhood. Sometimes pollinosis lurks in the body for the time being, and then suddenly reminds of itself under the influence of adverse factors. These are ubiquitous stress, poor ecology, past illnesses and bad habits.

Today, the environmental factor is becoming particularly significant. For example, it used to be that after a rain, an allergic exacerbation was less likely, because raindrops nail pollen to the ground. But nowadays, rainwater in cities contains a lot of harmful substances, turning pollen into an even greater source of danger. No less important are the weather conditions: in light wind pollen travels shorter distances, and it is easier for allergy sufferers to transfer the flowering season to calm weather than to storm storms.

Treat the symptoms or eliminate the cause?

Most allergy sufferers rush to doctors in the midst of illness, hoping to get a eliminating pollinosis treatment. In fact, in the period of exacerbation, medical assistance consists in removing the most acute symptoms of allergy. Looking through the medical sites lists of antiallergic drugs, remember that they will not cure spring pollinosis. Even the most modern antihistamines will only help to survive the height of flowering without interrupting everyday activities.

People with a diagnosis Pollinosis treatment should begin long before the arrival of spring heat. First of all, it is necessary to identify the immediate cause of the allergy. Some people suffer from poplar fluff, others suffer from moss spores, and someone suffers from hay fever for three seasons in a row! To reduce the susceptibility of the body to the irritant, you need to know exactly which plants are allergens for you. To conduct such a survey in the flowering season is much more difficult, because one allergic reaction can provoke another. Special tests are offered today by each medical laboratory. Consultation with an allergist will not hurt.

In addition, you should seriously think about cleaning the air in the house from foreign matter and pollution by pollen. Rag masks and cotton gauze dressings are unaesthetic, they are difficult to breathe and do everyday things. In addition, they have extremely low efficiency. Today, there are highly productive and affordable technologies for cleaning indoor air: many modern air purifiers are equipped with special filters against several types of allergens, including pollen from trees and grasses, as well as pet hair.

When the onset of the period of exacerbation of the disease, doctors recommend to resort to immunotherapy treatment. The meaning of the treatment of our immune system is to reduce the sensitivity to allergens to a safe norm, and not just to remove the external manifestations of our body's complex response to stimuli. The method of immunotherapy is much like antiviral vaccinations. It is based on the gradual habituation of the body at rest to small doses of the allergen.

Another exotic method of treating allergies is called the Clean Room. Its essence lies in the temporary stay of the patient in an artificially created dust-free environment, which is achieved by the strongest filtration of air in a sealed box. If you can’t afford hospitalization for allergy treatment for a variety of reasons, but be careful about your health, you should consider effective methods of purifying the air at home.

In response to the request "pollinosis treatment“Search engines offer a wealth of information on what is called hormone therapy, but be careful. Acceptance of hormonal drugs is a double-edged sword, and the use of hormones in the treatment of allergies is recommended only in extreme cases when other types of treatment do not help. Treat it in such a radical way. spring pollinosis - very dangerous. But vitamin therapy, by contrast, will be useful to everyone without exception. Do not forget about the regular feeding of the body with B and C vitamins - among other things, these are natural fighters with pollinosis.

In addition to medication and outpatient treatment, doctors advise allergy sufferers to adhere to a hypoallergenic diet during the period of exacerbation of pollinosis. No matter how tasty, you should not lean on strawberries, raspberries, citrus fruits, melons, grapes, chocolate, nuts, honey, eggs during the flowering period. And in order not to contradict the unconditional benefit of vitamin therapy, we remind you that vitamin C, in addition to citrus, contains sauerkraut and rosehip. In general, try to keep a light diet during the flowering period. Let the diet in the summer at 70% consists of vegetables and fruits. Normalization of the gastrointestinal tract will strengthen the immune system and improve the body's metabolism.

If pollinosis caught off guard

If you have not had time to undergo a course of immunotherapy or were first diagnosed in yourself or loved ones pollinosis, treatment should start with taking antihistamines. They struggle with the unpleasant symptoms accompanying pollinosis: itching, redness of mucous membranes, edema, etc. The most popular antihistamines today are generic drugs: Zyrtec, Claritin, Clarothin and others. There are also drugs of local action to relieve the most acute symptoms. For example, in allergic rhinitis (severe runny nose and sneezing) it is appropriate to use an antihistamine spray, and in allergic conjunctivitis and redness of the sclera - special eye drops. Remember that some antihistamines cause increased drowsiness or impaired coordination. You should also not forget that they provide only temporary relief and allergies will again be felt, if you do not treat the immune system.

In the period of exacerbation of the disease, try to leave the room less and take care of the air condition in your home. If you have not yet installed an air cleaner in your apartment, perhaps now is the time to think about choosing an affordable model with a set of high-quality filters. If you or your family members are prone to severe allergies, make sure that there are always antihistamines in your home. And do not delay with a visit to an allergist - the earlier you make an effort to eliminate allergies, the sooner the spring flowering will become an occasion to boldly open the windows to meet the renewed nature.

In our online store you can buy ultramodern air purifiers from well-known world brands with delivery to all regions of Russia. Efficient and compact air purifiers with humidification will help to reliably protect you and your loved ones from allergies and drying out the air during the flowering season, while maintaining the health and well-being of the whole family.

Discovery history

Although the ancient Greeks called ambrosia nectar “the food of the gods”, healers of that time, in particular, Galen, already knew that it, as well as many other plants, could cause cough and runny nose. They noticed that these symptoms disappear with the onset of cold weather. It was impossible to cure this disease, and the healers simply passed on information about it to their students.

Only in 1819, pollinosis was officially described by John Bostock, who called it "hay fever". He suggested that the reason lies in the smell of hay: a runny nose, watery eyes, cough and rash, often accompanied by chills, were observed mainly in rural areas during the mowing season. One smell, he thought, was not enough: a disease occurs when a person inhales the juice of mowed grass, caught in dust particles heated by the sun. And only in 1873, Dr. Blakely from Great Britain presented convincing evidence that hay, sunlight and dust are not the causes of hay fever - the disease results from the ingress of pollinated wind-pollinated plants into the respiratory tract. It was proved by experiments on the physician's own body, suffering from such allergies as pollinosis.

Why some people work quietly with plants and do not notice any manifestations of hay fever, while others, even living far from green spaces, begin to sneeze and cough with the onset of heat, it became known relatively recently. Only at the end of the last century were genes identified, whose presence in the DNA determines allergy to certain pollens. It was also found that such genes are transmitted, mainly from the mother, to a lesser extent, from the father. If both parents suffer from allergies, the risk of having a child prone to pollinosis is extremely high. Whether he develops a disease or not will depend on the climate of his residence (do “the necessary” plants grow there) and the nature of nutrition (will he receive with food those substances that are very similar in chemical structure to allergens).

Causes of pollinosis

The disease occurs in a person with special “defective” genes when that plant (those plants) begins to bloom, to which these genes dictate the onset of an allergy - an abnormal immune response. These are representatives of the Earth’s flora pollinated by the wind: their pollen consists of the smallest particles that make it easy to penetrate the airways (down to the smallest bronchi), settle on the mucous membrane of the lips, conjunctiva (this is the peculiar mucous membrane of the eyes), and also the skin. The immune cells present in the skin and on the mucous membranes recognize the protein components of pollen, and trigger the release of histidine, histamine. This causes the characteristic symptoms of pollinosis.

“Defective” genes are transmitted to a child with such a probability:

  • 50% - if both parents are allergic,
  • 25% - if the "wrong" immune reactions are observed only in one of the parents,
  • 10% - in the family of parents who do not have allergies. This percentage tends to zero if the child grows in an ecologically clean area, was born in winter or early spring (when there is no flowering), if he rarely suffers from viral infections.

The risk of disease (when parents are non-allergic) or the chance that it will be difficult (when one or both parents suffer from this pathology) increases if:

  • the child was born from a mother who suffered a worsening of pollinosis in the last 3 months of pregnancy,
  • the child was born in the warm season
  • in a city in which parents live with a child, an environmentally unfriendly environment,
  • in the first six months after birth, toxic wastes were released from factories or plants into the air,
  • early and not according to the rules introduced complementary foods to an infant up to a year,
  • the child eats products (especially during the pollinosis season), which in the composition have proteins similar to pollen allergens.

Hay fever is a seasonal disease, and it occurs in residents of different climatic zones at different times: in the southern regions - earlier, in the northern - later. Pollinosis also depends on good weather: when it rains, allergies do not torture people predisposed to it more than in dry weather. This is due to the fact that the dry wind carries pollen over much greater distances, and water, on the contrary, “nails” it to the ground. If the air temperature drops, it becomes easier for a sufferer to suffer from pollinosis, as the pollen “walks” more at its feet, and does not rise closer to the eyes and respiratory tract. The highest concentration of the allergen in the air is noted before a thunderstorm.

Spring pollinosis develops mainly in April or early May. Its causes are pollen from trees such as:

At this time, pollinosis may be caused by pollen of conifers: spruce, pine, cedar, fir. Such an allergy develops only in some people, which is associated with the large size of pollen particles.

The next “wave” of the disease begins at the end of May and lasts until the beginning of July. During this period, cereal plants bloom - both cultivated (wheat, barley, rye, oats), and weeds (wheatgrass, feather grass, hedgehog, field grass, rygrass, foxtail, timothy grass). Allergies are especially severe in those who have an increased sensitivity of immunity to the listed cultural representatives of the flora and at the same time consume bread or porridge made from these grains. In this case, the allergens get not only with inhaled air, but also with food: heat treatment does not change the composition of the molecules to which the immunity is “abnormally” sensitive.

The poplar fluff that flies at this time does not in itself cause allergies: it is not poplar pollen, and besides, its dimensions are too large to penetrate the respiratory tract. But this down perfectly carries on itself the pollen of the plants listed above, and because of this, there is an allergy.

Most people mark the development of pollinosis in the period from late July to September (in the southern regions - until the beginning of October). During this period, weeds bloom: ambrosia, nettle, wormwood, quinoa.

Symptoms of the disease

Signs of pollinosis are observed every year, almost at the same time. The first symptoms are:

  • itching in various areas: in the nose, in the throat, in the ears,
  • bouts of sneezing,
  • unpleasant sensations in the eyes: tearing, itching, sand, photophobia (this is the beginning of allergic conjunctivitis, which is also called "eye pollinosis")
  • runny nose with a large amount of mucous discharge.

After about 8 hours, the disease is complemented by one or more of the following symptoms:

  • swelling of the eyelids and redness of the eyes,
  • purulent discharge appears from the eyes,
  • dry paroxysmal cough,
  • difficulty breathing, more often in the form of asthma,
  • by raising the temperature to low numbers,
  • increased fatigue and irritability,
  • the appearance of a urticaria or rash on the skin as in atopic dermatitis,
  • itching genitals,
  • symptoms of cystitis: frequent urge to urinate, painful emptyings of the bladder, feeling that there is a lot of urine in it after going to the toilet,
  • inhalation of rye, oats or wheat pollen, which is combined with the ingestion of products from these cultures, will not only show signs of damage to the respiratory tract, but also symptoms suggesting inflammation and swelling of the gastrointestinal mucosa. These are stomach cramps, nausea, vomiting, and sometimes diarrhea.

Pollinosis - the main symptoms:

  • Weakness
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Burning eyes
  • Photophobia
  • Malaise
  • Itchy eyes
  • Tearfulness
  • Sneezing
  • Nasal mucus discharge
  • Itching in the nasopharynx
  • Foreign body sensation in the eye
  • Sinus pain
  • Crackling in the ears while chewing

Pollinosis is a type of allergic disease that is popularly called “hay fever”. The clinical picture appears, most often, during the flowering of shrubs and other plants. The disease has no restrictions regarding age. However, women living in the city, manifests itself much more often. If treatment is not started in a timely manner, allergies can develop into bronchial asthma.

It should be noted that the disease of this type has a genetic predisposition. If both parents have such a disease, then the probability of a pathological process in a child is 50%.

The main etiological factor in seasonal pollinosis is plant pollen. The allergenic plants include the following:

In addition, the etiological factors of this type of allergy include the following:

  • weakened immune system
  • habitat (allergy of this type is found only in urban residents),
  • viral infections that have not been fully treated,
  • increased concentration of allergens around the newborn baby.

It should be noted that pollinosis in children develops only if the allergy is observed in parents or their immunity is too weak.

Pollinosis is a type of allergy that is strictly seasonal. People who are hypersensitive react to pollen penetration by an allergic reaction. There are special receptors and macrophage immune cells in the mucous membranes of the mouth and nose. When the mucous membrane comes in contact with pollen, the activity of macrophages is activated, which can lead to the development of an allergic reaction.

Due to the fact that this type of disease is only seasonal, the risk of developing allergies is only in the spring and summer (early fall) period.


It should be noted that the clinical picture of this type of allergy may indicate at once several diseases of another type. Именно поэтому заниматься самолечением, принимать противоаллергенные препараты, не стоит.

In children, the first symptoms of hay fever appear from 5–6 years old. This is due to the fact that during this period the child is socially active and the likelihood of infection, weakening the immune system is more likely.

The initial clinical picture of allergy appears as follows:

  • burning inside the eye,
  • itch
  • tearing
  • sensation of an external body in the eye,
  • photophobia.

These symptoms indicate an initial stage of conjunctivitis, which can lead to an incorrect diagnosis and subsequent treatment.

As allergies develop, the above symptoms are complemented by the following symptoms:

  • itching in the nose and nasopharynx,
  • frequent bouts of sneezing - in one “attack” a person can sneeze up to 20 times,
  • abundant nasal discharge
  • feeling of pain and discomfort in the area of ​​the sinuses.

In more complex clinical cases of the manifestation of this allergy, the clinical picture may be complemented by the following symptoms of hay fever:

  • nausea,
  • vomiting
  • crackling in the ears when chewing food,
  • general weakness, malaise.

The degree of complexity of the clinical picture depends largely on the general state of health. For example, in one person an allergen can only cause conjunctivitis and only pills are enough. For other pollen can cause the full manifestation of the clinical picture and will require several drugs to relieve symptoms.

Symptoms of hay fever appear only if the allergen is present nearby.

Symptoms of pollinosis in children and adults

In more than 95% of cases, the symptoms of pollinosis in adults and children are manifested by the rhinoconjunctival syndrome, showing:

  1. Redness and itching of the eyelids,
  2. Dry eye syndrome (feeling of sand in the eyes),
  3. Photophobia and tearing, causing severe discomfort,
  4. Symptoms of rhinitis.

In medical practice, patients with severe allergic rhinitis syndrome caused by pollen are divided into groups according to the severity of those or other signs of pollinosis.

1) On patients in whom the leading symptom is manifested by itching in the nasal cavity, paroxysmal sneezing and copious secretion of fluid secretion. This condition worsens during the day, often accompanied by conjunctivitis caused by taking antihistamines.

2) On patients, with a predominance of around-the-clock symptoms of nasal congestion and with predominant mouth breathing. Symptoms worsened at night. The inability to breathe through the nose leads to excessive use of vasoconstrictor drugs. Sneezing may be insignificant or absent. Possible violations in the perception of smell or taste.

This conditional separation of patients helps to further determine the most effective tactics for the treatment of pollinosis. You should not also forget about the symptoms of pollinosis in adults, such as:

  • manifestation of itchy symptoms of the palate, pharynx and mucous membranes of the ear canals,
  • pressure and tenderness in the paranasal sinuses,
  • migraine and pain symptoms in the ears,
  • hoarseness of voice timbre and hearing impairment,
  • nasal hemorrhages (bleeding) and the appearance of signs of skin inflammation around the nose area,
  • development of pharyngolaryngitis,
  • intoxication symptoms (fatigue, sweating, memory impairment ....).

A long course of the disease, with a progressive nature, leads in half of the cases (after 2-3 years) to the development of asthma against the background of pollinosis. Accompanied by signs of pressure in the chest, bouts of coughing, difficulty wheezing and a feeling of choking, aggravated at night, while walking in nature, emotional and physical exertion.

Features of pollinosis in children

Pollinosis in children is often chronic. This is due to the fact that it is considered to be the beginning of the development of this pathology in children from the age of three, which is fundamentally wrong.

Even the smallest children can be exposed to pollen allergy, and since allergists have been receiving, mostly children from 2 years, the disease is often diagnosed by pediatricians as ARD with prescribing a heap of completely unnecessary anti-cough drugs. All this leads to late diagnosis and development of chronic hay fever in a child.

The symptoms of the disease in children are similar to the symptoms of manifestations in adult patients, differing only in children's skin pathologies in the form of atopic and contact dermatitis on skin open areas. With itchy, dry, or weeping rashes.

Exacerbation of pollinosis can cause angioedema in a child.

Frequent provocation of atopic dermatitis can be creams, ointments or lotions with components of plant pollen, used in children's cosmetics.

The presence of an allergenic “provocateur” in food causes symptomatic disturbances in the gastrointestinal system, manifested by gagging, discomfort in the epigastric zone, diarrhea, and the appearance of severe pain in the stomach.

  1. Allergic rhinitis manifested by varying degrees of severity.
  2. Conjunctivitis is accompanied by pain in the area of ​​the superciliary arches, the development of blepharospasm, keratitis, or papillary growths of the corneal epithelium.
  3. Signs of rhinoconjunctival syndrome are complemented by loss of appetite, excessive sweating and fatigue, the child is tearful and does not sleep well.

With the process started and a large accumulation of pollen in the immediate environment of the living space of babies, the following can develop:

  • changes in the cardiovascular system (high blood pressure, tachycardia),
  • epigastric disorders
  • high temperature
  • nervous disorders.

Characteristic of pollinosis in children is the fact that the cessation of the causative allergen can spontaneously regress the allergic inflammatory process within a month.

An exacerbation of the disease can manifest itself regardless of the pollination season, and may be due to herbal medicine of a completely different disease, or be provoked by food with a clear antigenic relationship with the cause-significant one or another plant.

Complications of pollen allergy

With late-diagnosed pollinosis, serious complications often occur. In addition to the development of asthma, the serious consequences of pollinosis can be:

  • Brain vascular lesions, manifested by signs of damage to the oculomotor nerves and nerves of the hearing aid,
  • Urogenital pathologies, in the form of cystitis, vulvar vaginitis or nephritis, accompanied by other signs of pollen allergy,
  • Inflammatory processes in the myocardium, manifested by a violation of ventricular conduction, dystrophic changes in the heart muscle, tachycardia.

Which people have pollinosis is harder

The likelihood that the disease will be severe, aggravated by inflammation of the paranasal sinuses (sinusitis: sinusitis, frontal sinusitis), and later on will turn into bronchial asthma, is higher in such people:

  1. who have congenital defects of the immune system. For example, when little secretory immunoglobulin A is produced - a substance that is secreted along with the secretion of the glands and is designed to protect the mucous membranes from microbes, preventing them from joining the cells,
  2. with acquired immunodeficiencies. Basically, it is the suppression of the immune system in case of long-term or chronic diseases, oncological diseases, treatment of cancer or autoimmune diseases by glucocorticoid hormones or cytostatic drugs,
  3. who has tonsils removed
  4. who often suffers bronchitis,
  5. living in poor environmental conditions,
  6. having other allergic diseases, especially bronchial asthma.

All these people, especially if they have 2 or more risk factors, cannot leave pollinosis without treatment: the drugs must be prescribed strictly by an allergist and taken according to a schedule prescribed for them.


During the period of occurrence of these symptoms, cross-allergy develops easily - an increase in the symptoms of pollinosis in the presence of antigens that have a similar structure to those that cause hypersensitivity. These molecules mainly enter the body as part of food. We will consider them in detail in the "Diet" section.

Lifestyle change

During the exacerbation of pollinosis, it is important that the person gets as little pollen as possible. Of course, in the summer you will not go outside in a respirator, but you need to remove pollen from exposed parts of the body, clothes, surfaces of the room where the patient lives.

Therefore, in the warm season:

  • rinsing the nose and mouth with 0.9% sodium chloride solution (physiological solution of sea salt, preparations “Aqua-Maris”, “Humer” and other preparations based on saline solutions) - after returning from the street,
  • take a shower and wash every day, especially after returning from the street,
  • wet cleaning every day is a must
  • airing the room - at night and after the rain,
  • in the hot time of the day, especially when there is a strong wind outside, without an absolute need to go outside - do not go out,
  • during flowering plants, go where there are many (for example, outside the city) is not worth it,
  • summer vacation - in those regions where there are reservoirs and plants that cause allergies do not grow
  • the air in the room must be humidified. To do this, you can buy and use a humidifier (or sink) of air, you can hang gauze, folded in several layers, on window openings, and constantly moisturize and gauge this gauze frequently. So the humidity will be maintained, and the pollen will settle without getting into the room,
  • All “dust collectors”: carpets, soft toys, feather pillows, feather blankets - should be removed from the room.

In the cold season, when you do not need to take pills for hay fever, engage in strengthening the immune system, because it is his wrong reaction and causes the symptoms of the disease. For this:

  • enter into the daily routine tempering procedures,
  • give up bad habits
  • find a suitable sport for yourself and practice it daily, at least in minimal amounts.

The essence of the pollinosis diet is to prevent additional allergens from entering the body, including potential ones. For this, for the period of exacerbation, it is necessary to exclude all “allergenic” products (honey, chocolate, citrus fruits, seafood, cow's milk), as well as those to which cross-allergy may occur:

Prevention and prognosis

Compliance with preventive measures, in most cases allows, if not completely avoid the manifestation of allergic reactions, then at least significantly reduce its aggressive effects. What is needed for this?

  • To achieve minimal contact with the irritant, reducing the time of walking in hot and windy weather,
  • Ensure pollen retention, preventing its penetration through windows with wet protective curtains,
  • Completely change clothes and wash the body after walking,
  • In the period of pollination, change the climate if possible,
  • Prior to the beginning of the flowering season, to normalize the gastrointestinal system, to strengthen the immune system, to carry out medication
  • Antihelminthic prophylaxis, eliminating the provoking factor of sensitization to allergens.

With timely treatment and compliance with all recommendations of prevention, the prognosis is favorable and does not promise the development of serious complications.

Risk factors

Hay fever often develops in women (in some regions of Russia every third woman is ill). For rural residents, pollinosis is less common. The incidence is influenced by environmental, climatic and geographical factors.

Hereditary predisposition plays a decisive role in the occurrence of pollinosis. If both parents suffer from allergic diseases, the probability of developing an allergy in a child is 50%, if one is 25%, if the parents have no allergic diseases, about 10%. The risk of pollinosis increases if a child at an early age is constantly in an environment polluted with allergens, is malnourished, or often has viral diseases.