Man's health

Low testosterone in men

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In the overwhelming majority of cases, a decrease in testosterone is a sign of aging in both the male and the female body. However, the lack of production of this sex hormone can be triggered by a large number of other predisposing factors.

This symptom is accompanied by a large number of additional symptoms, for example, deterioration of the hair, skin and nail plates, as well as sexual dysfunction.

You can make the correct diagnosis based on clinical manifestations and laboratory determination of the level of sex hormones. Conservative treatment methods are prescribed for the correction of the disorder.

The most common predisposing factors that can lower testosterone in the male are:

  • the age category is over forty years old - it is after this period that the physiological decline of a similar substance occurs. This is due to the aging of the body and to reverse this process is not possible,
  • poor nutrition - if the body does not get enough vitamins and micronutrients, the production of such a sex hormone will be insufficient,
  • the fact that a person has excess body weight is one of the most dangerous reasons for this condition. Obesity not only leads to a decrease in the concentration of male sex hormones, but also affects the activation of the production of estrogen - female hormones,
  • excessive addiction to drinking alcohol, tobacco and drugs,
  • insufficient physical activity of a person - a moderately active lifestyle helps to prevent the appearance of such a symptom and helps to increase testosterone. It is noteworthy that excessive exercise can also be a source of development of this disorder,
  • abuse of certain medicinal substances
  • genetic predisposition
  • trauma to the testes and other organs of the male reproductive system,
  • wearing a mobile phone in his trouser pockets,
  • Klinefelter syndrome.

Despite the fact that testosterone is a male sex hormone, it is also present in the body of women. It is produced by the adrenal glands and is contained in a small amount.

Causes of reduced testosterone in women:

  • Down syndrome,
  • entry into menopause,
  • menopause,
  • acute adrenal insufficiency, against which the glands cannot release the required amount of this substance,
  • anorexia and bulimia,
  • indiscriminately taking certain medications,
  • surgical excision of one or the cut of two ovaries,
  • polycystic ovary syndrome,
  • severe physical or emotional stress,
  • prolonged influence of stressful situations.

It follows from this that a decrease in the level of testosterone in the representatives of both sexes is often caused by physiological factors, but sometimes can indicate the occurrence of a particular disease requiring medical intervention.

Symptomatology

Signs of a decrease in the level of this sex hormone in men and women will differ somewhat. Thus, the basis of the clinical picture of such a disorder among the representatives of a strong half of humanity are the following symptoms:

  • lack of sexual attraction to the opposite sex,
  • increased sweating
  • decreased bone density, causing a person to suffer frequent injuries or fractures,
  • increase in body mass and volume of the mammary glands,
  • rarity of hair on the face, pubis and armpits,
  • muscle and joint pain
  • reduced performance
  • frequent mood swings and depression
  • constant fatigue and weakness
  • sleep disorders,
  • dry skin,
  • wrinkle formation
  • premature ejaculation,
  • a decrease in testicular volume
  • Erectile dysfunction.

The decrease in testosterone in women is clinically less pronounced than in men. This is explained by the fact that such a hormone for women is not the main one.

In such cases, the lack of such a substance is expressed in the following symptoms:

  • decrease or absence of sexual desire,
  • inability to enjoy during sexual intercourse,
  • violation of the menstruation cycle,
  • frequent tides
  • dry skin
  • increased fragility of hair and nail plates,
  • causeless fatigue and constant weakness
  • reduced physical strength
  • concentration problems
  • accumulation of fat in the abdomen, hands and neck,
  • change in voice tone,
  • apathy and irritability,
  • bone fragility
  • daytime sleepiness and lack of sleep at night.

If any pathology became the cause of reduced testosterone, then the symptoms will be complemented by the clinical manifestations of a particular disease.

Diagnostics

Despite the fact that the lack of male sex hormones is often a completely normal physiological process, it can sometimes be the result of a disease, and this means that patients need to undergo a comprehensive examination, which includes:

  • the clinical study of the patient’s history and the history of the patient’s life,
  • conducting a detailed survey of the patient - to identify the time of onset of symptoms,
  • conducting an objective examination,
  • laboratory studies of the level of hormones in the blood will show a direct decrease in this hormone, and also indicate a possible pathological reason for the sharp decrease in testosterone levels in men and women,
  • Ultrasound of the genitals.

Depending on individual indicators, additional laboratory and instrumental methods of examination may be prescribed.

Testosterone deficiency is replenished with the help of such conservative methods:

  • medication,
  • adherence to diet,
  • psychotherapy,
  • normalization of wakefulness and rest.

Drug therapy is intended only for men and is to perform hormone replacement therapy, which will help to achieve:

  • normalization of male libido,
  • bringing back erections,
  • hair regrowth in the pubic and axillary areas,
  • increase bone density
  • normalization of muscle strength.

The basis of therapy for reducing testosterone levels in women is diet therapy, which is also important for men, but is secondary. Medical ration involves the enrichment of the menu with products that increase the content of such sex hormone. These ingredients include:

  • seafood,
  • cabbage and beets,
  • green grapes and mango
  • melon and carrot,
  • raisins and pineapple,
  • oranges and pear,
  • prunes and pomegranates
  • courgettes and bell peppers,
  • black currants and plums
  • any greens
  • barley, buckwheat and wheat porridge,
  • curry and turmeric,
  • cardamom and garlic.

Complications

Low levels of sex hormone are fraught with the development of the following fairly dangerous consequences:

  • malignant tumors of the mammary glands,
  • diabetes mellitus
  • osteoporosis
  • pathologies of the cardiovascular system,
  • prostatitis in men
  • infertility in women.

Symptoms of low testosterone

Signs of low testosterone in men:

  • Absence or decrease in libido. Testosterone plays a key role in determining sexual behavior and sexual desire.
  • Erectile disfunction. With a low level of testosterone, difficulties arise in achieving an erection and orgasm during sex. The frequency of spontaneous morning erections decreases.
  • Reduced sperm volume. Lack of testosterone leads to inhibition of spermatogenesis.
  • Causeless fatigue. Men with a low concentration of testosterone often complain of fatigue and lack of motivation for any activity.
  • Loss of muscle mass Muscle strength does not suffer.
  • Osteoporosis. Reducing the proportion of bone tissue increases the tendency to fracture.
  • Increase the proportion of adipose tissue. The development of gynecomastia is noted - an increase in the mammary glands. This phenomenon is due to excessive production of estrogen with a decrease in testosterone.
  • Metabolic disorders. Low testosterone levels are associated with the development of obesity and diabetes.
  • Sleep disturbance. Men with low testosterone often complain of insomnia.
  • Mood change. Decreased testosterone leads to irritability and depression.

Against the background of lack of testosterone, erectile dysfunction develops.which is associated with insufficient blood supply to the penis. Violation of the arterial inflow and outflow of venous blood indicates the onset of vascular pathology. At the same time, the vessels feeding the penis have a smaller lumen than the coronary arteries feeding the heart. They respond more quickly to emerging pathology.

Erectile dysfunction is only the first symptom of vascular disorders. If you prevent the progression of the disease, it is possible not only to return a full-fledged sex life to a man, but also to avoid the development of cardiac pathology (including myocardial infarction).

Symptoms of testosterone reduction are non-specific and occur in other conditions. Reliably confirm a drop in hormone levels is possible only with a blood test.

Additional laboratory status assessment to the determination of total testosterone is assigned in conjunction with the measurement of the concentration of SHBG (thyroid pathology, obesity, cirrhosis, liver disease, age-related changes)

Testosterone norm in men 18-55 years old:

  • Free testosterone - 1-28 pg / ml.
  • Total testosterone - 9-42 nmol / l.

What determines the level of testosterone in men

Testosterone is a hormone that is produced in the testicles and adrenal glands of men and directly affects the regulation of spermatogenesis, sexual desire, muscle growth, metabolism and secondary sexual characteristics. It is of two types: free and associated with albumin. Normal hormone levels range from 12–22 nmol / L. A content of less than 5 nmol / l is a serious reason for going to the doctor.

Several key factors affect the amount of testosterone in a man’s body. The main one is age. Starting from 30 years, the production of this hormone is gradually reduced by about 1-1.5% per year. Its content depends on lifestyle, general health. The presence of bad habits, alcohol consumption, obesity and weak immunity significantly reduce the level of the hormone. Severe stress has a detrimental effect on men's health. To increase the content of testosterone in the body of a man helps exercise and a healthy lifestyle.

What is low testosterone in men?

The problem with hormones is often associated with age. The decrease in testosterone in men is justified by androgen deficiency - a clinical and biochemical syndrome that appears in adulthood. Such changes significantly affect the quality of life, sexual activity, so at the first sign of violations with the hormone, you should consult your doctor for advice. Low testosterone levels at an early age indicate other problems, possibly related to the reproductive system.

Symptoms of a lack of testosterone

For men, this hormone plays a crucial role. It affects the state of the genital organs, desire and general well-being, so any violations will manifest themselves very clearly. Low levels of testosterone in the body of a man cause a general decrease in social and physical activity. He is accompanied by a number of symptoms indicating health problems that have appeared. Testosterone deficiency is manifested by the following symptoms:

  • low libido
  • lack of pleasure from intercourse,
  • increased urination,
  • physical weakness
  • constant fatigue
  • distraction, memory impairment,
  • symptoms of depression for no apparent reason.

Signs of Low Testosterone

Any disruptions of the male hormone in the body immediately affect the physical condition. Signs of low testosterone in men are visible to the naked eye - the body begins to look different, masculinity disappears, strength is lost, excess weight appears. In addition, men can pursue problems in their sexual life. The appearance of the following failures should be a reason for recourse to specialists.

  • decrease in muscle mass, muscle strength,
  • increase in fat folds on the body,
  • Erectile dysfunction and erectile dysfunction
  • reducing the area of ​​hair on the body,
  • gynecomastia - breast growth that occurs with a strong decrease in testosterone levels.

Low testosterone levels in men may be due to factors of three main conditional groups: genetic, age and external. If a reduced hormone level in older men is considered normal, then early problems (up to 40 years) indicate serious disabilities. As a rule, we are talking about the endocrine system failures and dysfunction of the testicles. A number of other factors can contribute to testosterone deficiency:

  • Pathology of the pituitary and hypothalamus, testicular dysfunction. These disorders have a negative impact on the synthesis of testosterone in the body of a man. As a rule, they are innate.
  • Unhealthy Lifestyle. The excessive use of alcohol, smoking and the abuse of harmful food do not contribute to the synthesis of the male hormone in the body.
  • Lack of sex life and a permanent partner. Sexual abstinence can also cause testosterone deficiency.
  • Excess weight. Excessive fat deposits inhibit the production of androgens and contribute to the production of the female hormone - estrogen.
  • Stress. Constant stressful situations and emotional upheavals stimulate the release of adrenaline, which blocks testosterone production.
  • Other diseases. Andropause can bring the pathology of the cardiovascular system, kidneys.

Diagnostic methods

If you suspect an imbalance of the hormone testosterone, you need to undergo a comprehensive medical examination. At the first stage, the endocrinologist will familiarize with the complaints of the patient. Next, the patient will need to pass blood and urine tests, sometimes you need to examine the bone tissue. To obtain a reliable result, blood sampling should take place in the morning, since at this time the hormone levels are as close as possible to the real picture. Approximately one day prior to diagnosis, experts advise against excessive physical exertion.

A small identified lack of testosterone in men can be compensated for naturally. To do this, you need to change your lifestyle for a while, to limit the use of alcohol and smoking. It is best to stick to a diet without fried and fatty foods. At this time it is desirable for men to do physical activities, sports exercises.

If the problems are more serious, a doctor should prescribe a drug treatment. Doctors prescribe drugs to patients containing the missing hormone itself. Among them, the most popular are Androgel, Omnadren, Andriol, Nebido. On sale these funds are available in the form of injection, capsules, tablets. Andropause in men is also treated with hormone-free drugs such as Evo-test, Vitrix, Tribulus. They produce natural hormone production.

The duration of treatment and the dosage of drugs prescribed by the doctor. After about 2-3 weeks of therapy, the patient should undergo repeated tests. On this basis, it will be possible to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of the course, the results achieved, the need to adjust the dosage of the hormone. In rare cases, prescribed drugs have to be taken for life. Without medical intervention, low testosterone in men can lead to sad consequences - male infertility.

Hormonal drugs

Drugs containing hormones are assigned to patients according to test results. Tests should confirm a reduced level of testosterone in a man’s blood. The degree of hormone deficiency determines the necessary medication and dosage, which will contribute to the elimination of androgen deficiency. Drugs can be taken as an addition to the course of the means to increase potency. Hormonal drugs are available in tablets, gels, capsules, patches, injections, subcutaneous implants. An overview of the most popular tools, see below.

Androgel is a clear, colorless gel based on testosterone. The drug works on the principle of substitution action at a reduced level of the hormone. The drug is applied to the skin, after which it is absorbed and penetrates the circulatory system. The action of the gel begins on the first day. The level of the hormone gradually rises. The main advantage of Androgel is simplicity and obvious efficiency. Of the disadvantages can be noted a greater likelihood of an allergic reaction and contraindications. At the site of application of a rash often appears, irritation.

Omnadren - solution for intramuscular injections. It belongs to the pharmaceutical group of androgens. The drug is based on 4 testosterone esters with different rates of action. The medicine is injected into the sciatic muscle in one ampoule with a frequency indicated by the doctor.The main advantage of the drug is a low frequency of use (as a rule, 1 ampoule once every 4 weeks). Lack Omnadren - many side effects. Among them - priapism (prolonged painful erection), fluid retention in the body, oligospermia (decrease in the number of sperm).

Nebido is another hormone drug from the group of androgens for intramuscular injections. Lack of male hormone is compensated by the substance of testosterone undecanoate contained in the preparation. Plus Nebido: injections are given to men once every 10-14 weeks, which makes the medicine as long as possible among its peers. However, the drug has its drawbacks - a number of side effects from virtually all parts of the body.

Healthy food

In order to avoid situations when testosterone is lowered in men, experts recommend that you follow certain rules in the diet. It is advisable to include in the diet as much as possible seafood (squid, seaweed, mussels, shrimp). Every day on the table should be lean fish, vegetables and fruits, more cereals. You need to give up animal fats (all fried in sunflower oil, lard, cheeses). They can be replaced by plant contained in nuts: hazelnuts, pistachios. This will help bring the hormone balance in order.

Prevention

It is always easier to prevent a problem from occurring than to solve it. Experts have developed a list of simple recommendations for men, which will help to avoid low levels of the male hormone in the body. First of all, attention should be paid to the lifestyle and diet. The correct approach to the question will help keep the body in good shape and maintain masculine power. Lack of testosterone is not threatened if you observe the following rules:

  • From the diet you need to eliminate fats, add more meat products.
  • It is desirable to limit the use of chocolate, bakery products, sweets.
  • It is recommended to quit smoking and alcohol.
  • It is useful to enter into your daily routine light exercise.
  • It is undesirable to wear tight and slimming underwear necessary.

Signs of a Male Problem

According to medical standards, a reduced testosterone ratio corresponds to 300 ng of its presence in 1 for blood. But not all the representatives of the stronger sex are aware of their problem before they receive the results of laboratory research.

Keep in mind that testosterone can decrease at any age, and not only in old age. The causes of this male problem can be pathological processes in the body. It is possible to suspect a problem on your own, but you can only confirm by passing the appropriate tests.

Symptoms that indicate a decrease in testosterone levels in men include:

  1. Reduced semen volume.
  2. The frequency of morning erections. According to the norms, their number should be at least 3-4 times a week. If this figure is lower, then the daily fluctuation of hormones in the blood is below the medical norm.
  3. The periodical appearance of a feeling of heat distributed throughout the body. At this point, the amount of sweating increases. Symptoms are caused by age-related changes in the level of androgens in the body.
  4. Change in psycho-emotional behavior. By lowering testosterone, the man becomes less irritable.
  5. Reduced sexual desire.

Etiology factors

Some men are genetically prone to the fact that their indicator of hormone levels is not normal. As a rule, in the congenital form of the pathology, the symptoms of testosterone deficiency in the body will begin to manifest themselves even at the time of puberty. Others of the stronger sex have an innate tendency to decrease testosterone under the influence of some unfavorable factors. But most often the lack of a male hormone is an acquired complication.

The reasons for the decline in testosterone in men may be the following:

  1. Use of illegal drugs or alcoholism. In young men suffering from one of these addictions, the results of the analysis may be worse than in older people.
  2. Chronic fatigue, constant stay in the nervous tension, depression - these are all factors reducing the level of the hormone.
  3. Physical overvoltage and lack of rest.
  4. Overweight, elevated cholesterol and poor diet.
  5. Living in adverse environmental conditions.
  6. Hypertonic disease.
  7. Respiratory problems.
  8. Overheating of the testicles. According to the norm, the temperature should not exceed 34.4 ° C.
  9. The presence of acute or chronic diseases of the genitourinary system.

If a man has a decrease in testosterone, then in addition to a decrease in sexual desire there may be other health problems. Therefore, when the first signs of this pathological process appear, the visit to the doctor should not be postponed. The problem is much easier to fight as soon as it appeared.

If it was found that testosterone does not meet the minimum norm, then first of all you need to determine the cause of such a change in the body and try to eliminate it.

Drug treatment is selected individually for each patient. It may include hormone replacement therapy and the promotion of natural hormone production. A good way to raise the level of the male hormone in the blood is to maintain a full sex life.

Treatment methods

Non-drug methods for increasing testosterone in men:

  • Normalization of sleep. Restoration of the body occurs in the phase of deep sleep. Superficial and intermittent sleep prevents adequate functioning of the internal organs and the production of sex hormones. It is recommended to sleep 7-8 hours a day. The criterion for the normal duration of a night's sleep is a feeling of well-being after waking up.
  • Balanced diet. The production of testosterone is promoted by products rich in zinc, selenium and magnesium. Food should be balanced in essential nutrients.
  • Reception of vitamins. ROrmonal background stabilize vitamins B, C, D, E. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids will be beneficial.
  • Drinking mode. It is recommended to drink at least 1.5 liters of water per day. With intense physical activity, the volume of fluid increases.
  • Rejection of bad habits. It is recommended to quit smoking. It should reduce the proportion of alcohol or stop taking alcohol. No drug use.
  • Normalization of weight. A decrease in the proportion of adipose tissue leads to a decrease in the proportion of estrogen and an increase in testosterone levels.
  • Physical activity. Increase testosterone workout in the gym, including exercises with weights. Training should be regular. Walking and sprinting will also be beneficial. It is important to avoid overloading - physical exhaustion adversely affects the body's hormonal balance.
  • Sexual activity. Flirt and intimacy lead to increased testosterone.
  • Limiting stressful situations. With prolonged or repeated stress, increased production of cortisol, which leads to a decrease in testosterone. A good mood enhances testosterone production.
  • Sun baths Being under the sun increases the synthesis of vitamin D and increases testosterone levels.
  • Hardening Water pouring leads to short-term growth of testosterone and favorably affects the functioning of the body.

Drug therapy involves taking hormonal drugs that can compensate for the lack of testosterone.. Injection, oral and transdermal forms of drugs are used. Dosage and duration of administration are determined by the course of pathology.

Hormone replacement therapy is prescribed only by the andrologist. after a full examination and an accurate diagnosis. Uncontrolled hormonal drugs threaten violation of the production of testosterone and the development of dangerous complications.

What is testosterone?

It is a hormone that is produced in large quantities by Leydig cells in the testicles of men. In small amounts, this substance is produced by the adrenal cortex. Among its main functions, doctors note the following:

  • regulation of spermatogenesis,
  • increase in sexual desire
  • effect on muscle growth,
  • providing nitrogenous and phosphoric metabolism in the body,
  • the formation of secondary sexual characteristics.

Testosterone is of two types: biologically active and free. His indicators throughout a person's life change. However, there are certain parameters according to which the full-fledged male health is determined at any age. The norm is considered oscillation within 12–22 nmol / l.

Free testosterone has a greater effect on the body. He is responsible only for secondary sex characteristics and attraction to the opposite sex. Its level also depends on age. In a healthy body in men under 50 years old, 5–30 nmol / l is considered the norm. After 50 years - 5-19 nmol / l. A low level of free testosterone in men (less than 5 nmol / l) is a reason for going to a doctor.

It is worth noting that these indicators may vary depending on external factors and conditions of the laboratory where the analysis was taken. For example, after intense exercise and before sexual intercourse, testosterone levels usually increase in the blood. Its reduction sometimes indicates serious health problems that cannot be ignored. The reasons for the low levels of testosterone in men will be discussed below.

Prevalence of pathology

With age, testosterone levels in the body gradually decrease. This condition in medical practice is known as "andropause".

For most of the representatives of the stronger sex, the so-called physiological decline begins from 30-35 years old at a rate of 1-3% per year. This process stops after 50 years. Such a hormonal failure can happen at any age. Today, doctors are particularly concerned about the fact that androgen decline is already observed in young men. The speed of the process is up to 5% per year.

The development of andropause occurs gradually. Therefore, the first symptoms of low testosterone levels in men go unnoticed. If you go to a doctor at this stage and tell about the existing disorder, the situation can still be corrected. It is corrected by regular physical activity, proper nutrition and the intake of vitamin-mineral complexes.

Causes of failure

All the causes of the development of andropause can be divided into three conditional groups: age, hereditary and the influence of external factors.

Age-related decrease in testosterone is considered a natural process. If the failure occurred before 30-40 years old, you should look for other causes. Most often they are hidden in violation of the basic functions of the endocrine system.

Pathologies of the hypothalamus and pituitary, testicular dysfunction - these disorders affect the synthesis of testosterone. They are usually characterized by congenital etiology. For example, many boys are born with hypoplasia of the testicles. The body may be completely absent or have pronounced abnormalities. Sometimes the testicles are located outside the scrotum, which also causes a violation of their work.

Low testosterone levels in men may be due to exposure to external factors. Among them deserve special attention:

  1. Unhealthy lifestyle (alcohol abuse, smoking).
  2. Low physical activity. Moderate exercise and strength exercises contribute to the synthesis of sex hormones. Excessive activity has the opposite effect.
  3. Lack of proteins, vitamins and minerals in the diet.
  4. Sexual abstinence, the absence of a permanent sexual partner.
  5. Frequent emotional turmoil. Stress contributes to increased production of adrenaline, which inhibits the production of testosterone.
  6. Overweight. Excess weight not only suppresses the production of androgens, but also stimulates the production of female sex hormones.
  7. Taking certain drugs (analgesics, antidepressants, potency stimulants).

Certain diseases can also contribute to the development of andropause. These include hypertension, kidney disease, increased bilirubin levels.

What does a man with low testosterone look like?

For a strong half of humanity, this hormone plays an important role in life. It has an impact on the development of genital organs, the level of libido and sexual opportunities. Testosterone is able to turn a man into a real superhero who can do everything. Social and physical activity, happy fatherhood, willpower and muscle power all depend on the content of this hormone in the blood.

A decrease in its performance always indicates a health problem. This hormone has a strong external effect on the body, its deficiency is always very bright.

The main signs of low testosterone levels in men are:

  1. Permanent or temporary lack of sexual desire.
  2. Reducing the quantity and quality of erections.
  3. The appearance of depression, mood deterioration for no apparent reason.
  4. The development of gynecomastia, accompanied by abnormal growth of the mammary glands.
  5. Lack of pleasure from sexual intercourse.
  6. Increased urination, but the process itself becomes less pronounced.
  7. Physical weakness
  8. Impaired cognitive functions (confusion, memory impairment).
  9. Insomnia, constant fatigue.

In men, low testosterone levels negatively affect the quality of life. Therefore, to hesitate with medical care is not worth it. At the first symptoms of the disorder, you should consult your doctor and follow his recommendations.

Home treatment

Early detection of low testosterone levels in men can be raised naturally. If the changes are minor, it is enough to follow a diet for a while, limit alcohol consumption and smoking.

Diet is recommended to diversify seafood (shrimp, mussels, squids, seaweed). It is better to refuse animal fats. They can be replaced by plant. In large quantities, they are found in pistachios, hazelnuts and other types of nuts. In general, such a diet is based on the principles of proper nutrition, when all junk food is banned. Every day, the diet should contain lean varieties of fish, vegetables and fruits, cereals.

Increase testosterone can moderate sports activity. Some men like running, others prefer to spend their free time in the gym. As for the latter, it is better to practice with a trainer and try not to overload the body.

Medication

Drug treatment of low testosterone in men prescribed by a doctor. The help of drugs is usually resorted to when the form of the disorder is neglected. The hormone testosterone itself is directly present in their composition. Among such medicines the most effective are: Nebido, Androgel, Andriol, Omnadren. They go on sale both in the form of tablets and capsules, and in the form of a solution for injection.

Vitrix, Tribulus, Evo-Test are also used in the treatment of andropause. However, they do not contain testosterone, but the action is aimed at activating the natural production of the hormone.

The duration of such therapy, as well as the dosage of drugs is determined by the doctor. Usually after 2-3 weeks of treatment, the patient is asked to retake tests. According to their results, one can judge the dynamics of recovery, and, if necessary, adjust the dosage of drugs. In some cases, medications are prescribed for life.

Consequence of hormonal disorders

The symptoms presented just above show how dangerous the effects of low testosterone levels in men can be. The lack of adequate treatment always leads to a decrease in the quality of human life. Over time, he develops arterial hypertension, osteoporosis is not excluded. Many of the stronger sex have to hear the diagnosis of "infertility."

When hormonal disorder begins its development even in the prenatal period, an abnormal formation of the genital organs occurs. In some children, the genitalia are formed by the female type.

Causes of Testosterone Deficiency

Testosterone is the main sex hormone, androgen, which determines the functioning of the male body. Testosterone is responsible for the virilization of boys, that is, the masculinization, the appearance of male features in the male. A complex of symptoms of male composition and appearance are the results of testosterone activity. This hormone is responsible for a certain male body type, the growth of the skeleton and muscles of the boy, the expansion of the shoulder girdle, the development of the penis, the appearance of male body hair growth, the appearance of a specific male voice tone, jaw enlargement, and so on. Testosterone is produced in men in Leyding cells of the testes and in the adrenal cortex, but in smaller quantities and refers to the products of peripheral metabolism.

The activity of testosterone together with the hormones dihydrotestosterone and androstenedione, as well as derivatives of their activity leads to the necessary tone of the central nervous system of a man, his subcortical regions, centers of the autonomic nervous system.Such activity of the nervous system, due to hormonal regulation, supports the functioning of the sex glands in the correct mode, which is manifested in ensuring their copulative function.

In the female body, testosterone is produced in small quantities in the ovaries and adrenal cortex. In girls, testosterone causes androgenization processes, that is, activation of male hormones, which cause changes in the external appearance of a woman according to the male type, as well as transformation of the functioning of the female body.

Also, the activity of testosterone in the body of both sexes - both male and female - leads to a strong anabolic effect in different human tissues and organs. This is manifested in the activation of protein synthesis and the growth of muscle tissue, kidney, liver, uterus, and so on.

Causes of testosterone deficiency in men have a different origin:

  • Testicular dysfunction

If the testicles start to function improperly, then this can cause a testosterone deficiency in the man’s body. For example, impairments in functioning appear as the consequences of various injuries of the testicles or surgical interventions. Removing the testicles also leads to a decrease in testosterone levels in the male body.

Sometimes boys are born without testicles at all or with certain defects in these organs. It happens that the testicles are located incorrectly, that is, not in the scrotum. Such anomalies of the structure and development of men affect the level of testosterone in the body, leading to its production in small doses, insufficient for the normal development of the boy and man.

Inflammatory diseases, transferred at different ages (for example, parotitis and others), cause changes in testosterone production, leading to its deficiency.

  • Impaired functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary system

The pituitary and hypothalamus produce hormones that lead to testosterone production in the testicles. It happens that the amount of hormones produced by the pituitary and hypothalamus is insufficient. Such abnormalities cause a decrease in the function of the testes, which leads to a deficiency of testosterone.

The production of hormones by the hypothalamus is disrupted for a number of reasons, one of which may be the presence of genetic defects, for example, Kallman syndrome.

A small mass hypothalamus is also unable to produce hormones in the right quantity to stimulate the activity of the testicles. Cause of a similar lack of mass of the hypothalamus various diseases, large physical exertion, psychological disorders, such as bulimia.

Disruption of the pituitary gland also causes testosterone deficiency. There are congenital abnormalities that cause the production of low amounts of hormones in the pituitary gland. Various diseases of this organ, for example, a pituitary tumor, also lead to a decrease in its functioning.

Drug addiction, receiving large doses of radiation, exposure to environmental toxins lead to defects in communication between the hypothalamus, pituitary and testes, as well as disruption of their functioning. As a result, there is a decrease in the production of testosterone in the male body.

  • Age-related changes in the body

At a certain age, testosterone production begins to gradually decrease in men. There is no specific, abrupt moment when this occurs. In the male reproductive glands - the testicles - the threshold does not come when they stop functioning, and the man can no longer reproduce offspring. The process of reducing testosterone in the male body is slow, but constant.

With age, men have a certain mutually influential process. Aging of the body, which affects all functions and systems, including the testicles, hypothalamus and pituitary gland, leads to a decrease in testosterone production. It is necessary to take into account that the general level of health in a man decreases, he feels unwell due to the development of various age-related diseases, which is another reason for the appearance of a testosterone deficiency. But a decrease in the amount of testosterone in the body of a man stimulates the aging process and adversely affects his health.

It happens that hereditary changes in the body of a man with a genetic origin, for example, Clifelter syndrome affect testosterone production.

With this syndrome, a certain gene contains not the number of Y chromosomes for men, but a smaller number of them. For example, instead of the usual XYY chromosome configuration, there is a modified XXY configuration.

Such genetic abnormalities cause testosterone deficiency in the male body. The consequences of low testosterone are disorders of sexual development, insufficient virilization of boys, infertility, and other diseases, such as osteoporosis.

A disease that is genetically determined, and manifests itself in the disruption of the production of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the hypothalamus. Accordingly, an insufficient amount of the above hormone reduces the production of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone in the pituitary gland. A deficiency in the body of the last hormones affects the reduced testosterone synthesis in the testicles, as well as sperm.

People who suffer from this genetic disease, among other symptoms, have a low testosterone level in the body.

This is a mental disorder that is associated with an eating disorder. Usually, the manic desire to lose weight or fear of gaining extra pounds is found in women. But some men suffer from such deviations. Usually, the fight against excess weight results in a rigid diet, which is replaced by uncontrolled over-eating.

Then, in a fit of remorse, some men stimulate the urge to vomit or take laxatives to quickly get rid of food eaten.

It happens that in pursuit of harmony men refuse from the normal amount of food for a long time and eat minimally. Or, for such purposes, exhausting, prolonged physical exertion and training are used.

Such unnatural experiments on themselves cause testosterone deficiency in the male body.

As mentioned above, men do not have a specific age line, beyond which comes a sharp decline in sexual function. However, in medical practice, the terms male menopause and male menopause are used. This means that the amount of testosterone produced in men begins to gradually decline from about thirty-five years of age. Such gradual steady changes cause serious dysfunctions and diseases of the male body.

And yet, there are individual differences in which, for some men, even in old age, testosterone levels are normal. And in certain categories of the male population, the level of testosterone begins to decline very early, much earlier than the normal rate, which leads to hormonal deficiency in the body.

  • Taking drugs that affect the production of testosterone, namely, glucocorticoids, ketoconazole and opioids. As well as taking medications called antiandrogens, which block testosterone production.
  • The presence of bad habits, such as smoking, alcohol, drug addiction, which lead to disruptions or complete destabilization of the hormonal system.
  • Increased mental stress and stress.
  • Constantly being in a stressful state, which is caused by problems at work and in the family, leads to exhaustion of the nervous system, which reduces the level of testosterone in the blood. Also, the inability to obtain the usual male pleasures in a similar way affects the level of testosterone in the body.
  • Factors that are associated with an unhealthy lifestyle.

Prolonged abstinence, eating foods containing female hormones, environmentally unfriendly living conditions, office living arrangements, a small amount of physical exertion, or, conversely, their exorbitant amount, overweight, and so on, lead to a strong decrease in blood testosterone levels.

The causes of testosterone deficiency in women are as follows:

  • Menopause and menopause.
  • Entry by a woman during menopause is accompanied by a change in the hormonal balance in the body. The amount of production of certain hormones (including testosterone) begins to decline sharply, which leads to their deficiency.
  • Renal failure in which the adrenal glands cannot produce enough testosterone.
  • Down syndrome.
  • Women, as well as men with a similar disease, have a low content of testosterone in the body.
  • Taking certain medications can cause testosterone deficiency in women, namely glucocorticoids, opioids, and ketoconazole.
  • Ovariectomy.

Ovariectomy is the surgical removal of one or both ovaries. Since testosterone production occurs in these female organs, the absence of one or both ovaries leads to a deficiency of testosterone in the female body.

When the ovaries are removed, the woman enters the premature period of menopause and menopause, which is due to the lack of production of sex hormones. At the same time, it increases the risk of serious diseases, such as osteoporosis, heart disease, and so on.

Adrenalectomy is a surgical operation in which one or two adrenal glands are removed. Since the adrenal glands are responsible for the production of testosterone, in their absence women have a deficiency of testosterone in the body.

Symptoms of Testosterone Deficiency

Symptoms of testosterone deficiency in men are more pronounced than in women, since this hormone is the main male sex hormone. Symptoms of a lack of testosterone in the male body can be divided into several groups:

  1. Vegetative-vascular disorders:
    • increase in heart rate,
    • hot tides
    • occurrence of cardialgia,
    • the appearance of anemia,
    • the appearance of excessive sweating.
  2. Endocrine Disorders:
    • the occurrence of obesity
    • the appearance of gynecomastia - the growth of the mammary glands,
    • decrease in the amount of hair on the face, pubis and armpits.
  3. Musculoskeletal system disorders:
    • the occurrence of osteoporosis and a decrease in the overall level of bone density,
    • the appearance of pain in the bones
    • lowering the total muscle mass
    • reduced physical strength.
  4. Psycho-emotional disorders:
    • tendency to frequent mood changes,
    • a tendency to get depressed often
    • the occurrence of fatigue,
    • feeling tired all the time
    • appearance of memory impairment
    • the occurrence of various sleep disorders, the occurrence of insomnia,
    • low level of creative productivity,
    • impossibility of long concentration.
  5. Trophic disorders:
    • appearance of dry skin
    • the appearance of wrinkles.
  6. Genitourinary and sexual disorders:
    • decreased libido, decreased orgasm sensations,
    • the appearance of accelerated ejaculation
    • the occurrence of erectile dysfunction,
    • reducing the number of involuntary erections,
    • frequent urge to empty the bladder,
    • decrease in the size of the testicles.

Symptoms of testosterone deficiency in women are less pronounced than in men, because this hormone is not the main sex hormone in women. Signs of a lack of testosterone in the female body are as follows:

  1. Decreased libido, that is, lack of desire to have sex.
  2. The insensitivity of the genitals and other erogenous zones during sex and the inability to enjoy during sexual intercourse.
  3. Violations of the menstrual cycle, manifested in the absence of regular menstrual bleeding.
  4. Increased sweating of the body.
  5. Increased dryness of the skin and the appearance of wrinkles.
  6. Increase dryness of hair and increase their fragility.
  7. The appearance of constant fatigue and rapid fatigue.
  8. Decrease in general working capacity and physical strength.
  9. The appearance of impaired memory and attention.

Testosterone deficiency in men

Testosterone deficiency in men is caused by genetic diseases, age-related changes or common diseases affecting the amount of testosterone in the blood.

An age-related decrease in testosterone is considered to be a normal physiological phenomenon. Such a process occurs after thirty-five years, closer to forty years. At the same time, there is a smooth, gradual, but constant decrease in the level of testosterone in the blood, on average, in the amount of one to two percent per year. All men of middle and old age experience the process of slowly reducing testosterone, but there are cases when the amount of this hormone drops sharply to a level below the norm.

Experts believe that if there are no symptoms characteristic of testosterone deficiency in the body, it does not make sense to even conduct tests and, especially, prescribe treatment. There is an opinion that in the absence of these symptoms, therapy may be ineffective.

But when symptoms of testosterone deficiency appear, drug therapy should be used. Because a low level of testosterone, far below the norm significantly affects the deterioration of men's health. In this case, the treatment of this problem will necessarily lead to an improvement in the condition of the patient.

The lack of testosterone in the body occurs with a decrease in its amount to 300 nanograms and lower per deciliter of blood. In the presence of such a problem, the quality of life of men significantly deteriorates, since a large number of ailments and diseases appear. Some of the stronger sex notice a constant fatigue and a decrease in working ability, a decrease in physical strength, constant mood swings, a tendency to depressed states, poor sleep or insomnia, a decrease or absence of sexual desire, erection and ejaculation disorders, and so on. But only two-thirds of men who have similar problems turn to specialists for help.

It happens that the representatives of the stronger sex have symptoms of testosterone deficiency, but they do not pay attention to these signs and, therefore, do not receive timely treatment.

Testosterone deficiency in men in middle and old age leads to the appearance of the following diseases: osteoporosis, endocrine disorders, anemia, obesity, kidney disease, the appearance of hypertension, cardialgia, shortness of breath, prostatitis, and so on.

Testosterone deficiency in boys and adolescents, caused by diseases or genetic disorders that occurred in childhood, leads to insufficient virilization, that is, insufficient formation of the male teenager. There is a lower male hair growth, the teenage figure acquires feminine outlines, the shoulder width decreases, the amount of muscle mass decreases, the fat layer is distributed throughout the body according to the female type, the mammary glands increase, the voice timbre becomes feminine intonations, the type of behavior shifts towards feminine manifestations. In addition, bone fragility and the tendency to osteoporosis are increased, endocrine and vegeto-vascular disorders are observed, anemia occurs, serious forms of acne appear, sexual desire and erectile function decrease, the onset of infertility is possible, physical strength is reduced, mental instability is observed, depression tends to occur and so on.

Testosterone deficiency in women

Testosterone is the main hormone that affects female libido. The normal amount of testosterone in the female body contributes to the appearance of sexual desire in women. Studies that have been conducted in this area have found a clear relationship between the level of testosterone in the blood and the level of sexual desire, as well as the normal sensitivity of the genitals and the frequency of sex.

The lack of testosterone in women significantly reduces the level of libido, which leads to loss of desire to have sex, as well as to reduce the overall sensitivity of the genitals and get pleasure during sex. Perhaps the complete absence of orgasm with reduced testosterone levels.

Testosterone plays an important role in the maturation of the follicle in the ovaries. In adolescent girls in the cells of a ripening egg cell, the male hormone testosterone is transformed into the female hormone estrogen, which affects the development of the mammary glands during this period. In puberty, the amount of testosterone in the body of girls increases, due to the number of transformations that should occur in the body of a girl.

If the amount of testosterone is reduced, then such a violation can lead to infertility of girls and women. Lack of testosterone can lead to a lack of estrogen in girls, which will affect the lack of formation of their secondary sexual characteristics.

Testosterone is also responsible for the normal activity of the bone marrow and sebaceous glands, as well as the development of skeletal bones. A low amount of testosterone in the female body affects the strength of bones and a sufficient level of their development.

Повышенный эмоциональный тонус женщины и хорошее настроение связаны с нормальным количеством тестостерона в крови. A low testosterone level affects the deterioration of mood and well-being, increases mood swings in the direction of depressive states. A woman with a deficiency of testosterone feels constant lethargy and fatigue.

There is also a low resistance to stress factors and minimal mental stability.

Testosterone deficiency in women also affects a decrease in the total muscle mass and a reduction in physical strength.

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