There are many different diseases in the world that can develop in both adults and children. Know about all is simply impossible. That is why in this article I want to talk about such a problem as dyslexia. What is it, how can it be identified and what methods of its treatment exist - I want to tell about it.
There are such children to whom reading and writing are given with great difficulty. Such babies are often considered lazy, but not so simple. Who knows, maybe a child has dyslexia? This is a special neurological condition, a violation of learning, which is able to influence the student's perception of letters, numbers, signs. In this case, the crumb poorly perceives and understands reading, writing, math, he has a rather low academic performance. However, at the same time, studies of scientists prove that IQ in such children is most often above average. You can also try to simply clarify the disease. In this case, dyslexia is a kind of malfunction in the brain of a child, which blocks his access to a certain analyzer (for example, words or numbers). Why is this happening - let's try to figure it out further.
A bit of history
Very interesting will be the fact that this term was first used back in 1887 by ophthalmologist R. Berlin. The doctor first encountered a problem when he examined a comprehensively developed boy. He had considerable difficulty in reading and writing, but at the same time in all other areas of knowledge the guy showed just great results. This term, according to Berlin, should have meant a problem when, with universal learning, a child has problems with reading and writing. According to modern statistics, this disease is known not by hearsay about 5-10% of all inhabitants of the planet, and it is most often determined at the age of 6-7 years. Due to its neurological nature, getting rid of this disease is not so easy, it takes maximum effort on the part of the child, patience from the parents and, of course, a lot of time.
How can I determine if a child is present with this disease? So, children's speech therapists recommend a special test that will help solve the problem and find out if the child is really sick with dyslexia or simply lags behind in the development and study of subjects. Predisposition can also be identified by genetic analysis, when the DCDC2 gene responsible for the disease is examined.
What if a child has dyslexia? Drug treatment in this case is not the way out. In addition, this option to get rid of the problem is unlikely someone will tell, there is simply no such medicine. In this case, you need competent remedial work. Teachers, children's speech therapists and, of course, specially trained specialists can help. So, work with such children can be carried out as in the classroom (the teacher should pay special attention to such a child, which, however, is very difficult), or else the child should be sent to work with special teachers who can correct this problem.
Special programs may include a variety of working methods. It may even be exercise for the eyes, which can also help to cope with this disease. However, most often each case of dyslexia is considered individually, a special program is selected and formed for the child, which will help to cope with the problem only to him. If the symptoms of the disease do not disappear immediately and dyslexia does not subside, the treatment should still be continued. Do not give up, and the result will definitely be felt.
Correction of dyslexia in younger schoolchildren: exercises. Types of dyslexia and methods of correction
In the world there are a large number of childhood diseases. One of these diseases is dyslexia. How to treat this disease? She is being treated in Russia, and is being treated quite successfully.
In order not to start this disease, it is necessary to know its initial symptoms, and then to figure out what kind of treatment will suit the child.
This article will tell parents what the correction of dyslexia in younger schoolchildren, the exercises for the correction will also be considered. And now about everything in order.
When does the disease manifest itself?
Answering the question: “Dyslexia, what is it?” - you need to figure out exactly when this disease appears. It is mainly found in children who have just started school. Due to illness, it is more difficult for children to perceive the information that the teacher gives.
It is worth noting that the information that the student listens and perceives by ear is absorbed by them many times better than that which he takes from his textbooks.
The child can change the words in the text in places or perceive them as inverted, in addition, he can confuse numbers and letters. In this regard, students have low grades in school, poor performance in general.
They are less active compared to their peers.
Symptoms of dyslexia
Each parent needs to know the main symptoms of dyslexia in order to start treatment at an early stage. Also, these symptoms will help to understand what kind of illness the child has at the moment. So, the symptoms of dyslexia in medicine are as follows:
- Clumsiness and problems in coordination.
- Difficulties in accepting and processing information.
- Various problems in the assimilation of words.
- Misunderstanding of the information that was read by the child in the text.
These are the main symptoms of the disease. But there are others. They are less noticeable, but you should also pay attention to them.
Other symptoms of dyslexia
- Despite poor reading skills, the child’s intelligence is well developed.
- There may be any problems with the vision of the child.
- There are difficulties in writing, namely, illegible handwriting.
- Errors in writing or reading, namely the omission of letters or their permutation.
- Bad memory.
Varieties of the disease
In medicine, there are several varieties of the disease. Doctors know them, but parents need their understanding. So, the following types of dyslexia exist:
- Mnetic dyslexia. A distinctive feature of this type is that a child who has this type of disease, it is difficult to work with letters: he does not understand which of the sounds corresponds to a particular letter.
- Agrammatic dyslexia. This type is expressed in the change of case endings, the child has difficulty in declining words in cases. In addition, he hardly changes the words of the genera. This type of dyslexia is most common in children with systemic speech underdevelopment.
- Phonemic dyslexia. This type of disease is expressed in the child’s mixing sounds when listening to the words that are dictated to him. Basically, these include sounds that differ in one sense of distinction. In addition, the child spells words, he can also rearrange syllables and letters.
- Semantic dyslexia. This type is manifested in the fact that the child reads the text absolutely correctly, but his understanding is erroneous. When reading a text, words are perceived absolutely in an isolated form, then this leads to a loss of communication with other lexemes.
- Optical dyslexia. This last type of dyslexia expresses itself in the difficulty of mastering, as well as mixing similar graphic letters.
Correction of dyslexia in younger schoolchildren, exercises that are conducted with specialists, can help the child and his parents to cure the disease of any kind and of any complexity.
Dyslexia: methods of correction
Any disease must be treated. And start this process as soon as possible. As mentioned above, the correction of dyslexia in younger schoolchildren, exercises aimed at combating it, can help the child cope with this ailment. But this is a rather complicated process.
Unfortunately, the correction of dyslexia Moscow only under force. In other cities, the treatment of this disease is not made. The method of dyslexia correction can take several forms. Next will be told about absolutely all the techniques and exercises that exist at the moment in medicine.
Dyslexia correction by the Davis system has become very popular in this area of treatment. Invented this method, as you can already understand by its name, researcher Ronald Davis.
He was very familiar with this disease, because he himself suffered as a child. His technique has several stages, each of which plays an important role in the treatment of dyslexia.
Thanks to them, the child gradually develops his thinking, memory and attention.
Many experts and parents managed to appreciate the entire positive effect of this method.
Stages of the Davis Method
- The very first stage is comfort. The child should be in the comfort zone, without any discomfort.
- The next stage is the work on coordination. This stage helps the child learn concepts such as right-left, top-bottom. This requires a rubber ball, in the future they will need two.
These balls are capable of making pleasant sounds at the moment when they touch the hands of a child. Knowledge of characters using sculpting. Plasticine is given to the child, from which, together with the teacher, he should make letters, numbers and various syllables. Due to this, the child better learns the symbols, because.
he can touch them and even smell them. The last and most important stage is reading. It is divided into three segments. In the first child, you must learn to translate your view from left to right and recognize groups of letters. In the second, the ability to translate your view from left to right occurs.
And the third segment includes work on understanding the meaning of one sentence, and then the whole text.
Parent reviews about the Davis method
The feedback on this technique is mostly positive. Parents note an increase in the performance of children in school, as well as their success in reading. They can take 50, and some 60 pages per day.
The student begins to write more legibly than before the treatment. Yes, and the child becomes more active.
It is easier to raise him early in the morning to school, although earlier, as many have noted, they managed to do this with great difficulty.
Of course, it’s up to you to use this technique or not, but many parents whose children unfortunately are familiar with this ailment have confirmed that it helps.
Classes and exercises for the correction of dyslexia
In Moscow, there are a huge number of centers that make it possible to attend a class with a speech therapist to correct dyslexia. It is these specialists that use the Davis method mentioned above.
In addition, a speech therapist can advise parents of exactly those exercises that suit the child most. Of course, you must pay a sufficient amount of money for these visits. The minimum price per visit is 1500 rubles.
In some clinics even more - 2300 rubles.
Of course, you can go the other way - to engage the child yourself. For this, there are a large number of different exercises that help to effectively fight dyslexia. To begin with, the ways speech therapists use to combat dyslexia will be examined.
Exercises that are conducted with speech therapists
Each doctor, before starting classes with a child, looks at what kind of dyslexia he has. This is because each type has its own specific methods. Below are exercises that are related to a particular type of dyslexia:
- Exercises with phonemic dyslexia. Work with this view takes place in two stages. The first is to clarify the articulation. In front of the mirror, the speech therapist shows the child how the language should be located, how to open the mouth when pronouncing a particular sound. When this stage is completed and the child understands the mechanics of pronunciation, the second stage begins. The meaning of it is to compare the various mix sounds, both in pronunciation and in listening. The task before the child is gradually becoming more complex.
- Exercises with agrammatic dyslexia. Experts solve this problem by drawing up with the child first small and then longer sentences. It helps him learn to change words by number, gender, and also by case.
- Exercises for mnestic dyslexia. Speech therapist uses in his work for this type of disease objects that are most similar to the letter. At the same time, the model can emit various sounds that will help the child understand exactly which letter is meant.
- Exercises for optical dyslexia. Here the speech therapist sets the task for the child to find the necessary letter. She can hide in a drawing, it needs to be drawn or finished. Also used modeling clay, drawing letters from the counting sticks.
- Exercises for semantic dyslexia. The task that a speech therapist faces in this situation is to help the child understand the meaning of this or that word. In addition, it is necessary to ensure that the student understands the meaning of the read text. Understanding it is made at the expense of pictures or any questions on it.
A large list of species has a disease. Correction of dyslexia in younger students, exercise is closely related to these types. After all, thanks to them, experts know exactly what methods to use.
Correction of dysgraphia and dyslexia of younger schoolchildren: exercises
So, it's time to talk about exercises that help in the fight against dyslexia. They are effective, and if you practice the child every day, you can achieve good results:
- Tongue Twisters. Yes, their pronunciation is very helpful to the child. The fact is that tongue twisters themselves are a sequence of words with similar sound. Thanks to this, the child can feel the difference. You can also try reading the words in reverse order.
- Pronunciation of various sounds. Parents must explain to the child that he must pronounce the consonants first, and then the vowel sounds in absolutely any order. And it must be done on the exhale. After some time, it is necessary to mix the vowels and consonants.
- Gymnastics for articulation. Various breathing exercises are performed. They are a warm-up before dyslexia correction.
- Rubber ball. Here it is necessary to teach a child to read syllables. The ball is needed so that when a child pronounces a syllable, he squeezes it with all his fingers.
- Exercise "Tug". Its meaning lies in the fact that one of the parents should read the text together with the child. First, the baby and the adult read together out loud, and then everyone silently. It is important to remember that parents should adapt to the speed of reading the child, because he may not keep pace with adults.
- The last exercise is reading the text repeatedly. The child is given a passage, and within a minute he reads it. When the minute passes, a mark is placed at the place where the child stopped. Then, after a short amount of time, he must read the same piece again. Parents, in turn, should monitor the reading dynamics, and the child understood this time more or less. It is important to remember that you need to read the text many times a day, but with interruptions.
These exercises can and should be performed at home every day. There will be no instant result, but improvements in development over time will manifest themselves to a large extent.
Correction of dyslexia in younger schoolchildren, exercises to combat it are widely practiced in various countries of the world. Unfortunately, there are few special institutions in Russia.
Prices for speech therapy services are relatively low. Therefore, it is possible and necessary to treat a child in Russia. The result will be fixed and he forever. Thanks to special exercises, the activity of the child will grow, and his performance in school will also improve. Dyslexia is a disease that can be cured.
Game techniques for the correction of dyslexia
The relevance of this topic lies in the fact that many primary school students have problems in mastering the processes of reading, the development of vocabulary and grammatical structure of speech.
Many scientists point to the huge role of reading in the formation of a person as a self-developing personality. The famous psychologist B.G. Ananiev wrote that children first learn to read and write, and then through reading and writing.
The timely elimination of reading prevents the occurrence of violations of the letter.
Reading is a complex psycho-physiological process. It is carried out as a result of the conscientious activity of the visual, motor-speech and speech-and-speech analyzers.
There are two sides to the reading process: the first is technical, this is the perception of letter signs, the correlation of the visual image, the second is the comprehension of the read.
The formation of the technical side goes in stages: from the syllable to reading in whole words, then to the phrase and sentence. Constant training turns the technical side into an automated process.
What is dyslexia?
Внимательный логопед при качественном обследовании ребенка в детском саду должен заподозрить возможные трудности с формированием процесса чтения. Однако чаще всего диагноз «дислексия» родители слышат впервые, когда у первоклассника возникают проблемы с обучением грамоте.
Дислексия – это специфическое нарушение процесса обучения чтению при сохранении общей способности к обучению.
Dyslexia manifests itself in the persistent inability of the child to master the syllable, reading in words and, as a result, lack of understanding of the read.
Dyslexic children, while reading, distort words, “swallowing” whole syllables, changing letters in places, skipping sounds or, on the contrary, adding unnecessary ones.
It should be understood that dyslexia does not relate to impaired reading and writing that appear due to mental retardation, abnormalities in the development of hearing and vision. This is a partial inability to master reading skills associated with impaired or underdeveloped certain areas of the cerebral cortex.
Dyslexia is the most common disorder that occurs in children and remains for life. The severity of the disease can be mild to severe. The sooner the correction of this disorder begins, the better the results.
Characteristics of children with dyslexia.
Children with dyslexia, have difficulty reading, it is difficult for them in the process of learning. The cause of this disorder is a violation of certain functions in the child’s brain, such as the transfer of a picture as a visual image, to what a person hears and understands. This is not a consequence of impaired vision or hearing, nor is it the result of dementia or lack of intelligence.
In the first years of training a child, dyslexia may go unnoticed. The child is afraid of the difficulty of learning to read, there may also be other problems associated with this disease.
The child may experience the first signs of depression and low self-esteem. It can often be observed that the child, both at school and at home, behaves inadequately.
If the disease is not treated, then the child’s problems at school will become even worse.
When dyslexia is observed the following groups of errors:
- Replace and mix graphically similar letters (I - W, B - D, XH, PN, W), phonetically close sounds (voiced - deaf, hard - soft)
- Letter verbalization, violation of fusion of sounds in syllables and words.
- Distortion of the sound-syllable structure of the word (skipping syllables or letters, permutations, additions, truncation of words).
- Agrammatizah when reading (passwords, sentences, paragraphs, violations of case endings, violations of agreement and control of words).
- Violations of the sense of reading.
Causes of dyslexia.
- Neurobiological causes are associated with underdevelopment or brain damage in different periods of the child’s development (pregnancy, childbirth and after the birth period). As a result, parts of the brain suffer, providing psychological functions involved in the reading process.
- Heredity, as it turned out, dyslexia is a syndrome with hereditary conditionality. Heritability of dyslexia is 40-70%. In molecular genetic studies, it was possible to detect the genes responsible for the onset of dyslexia.
- Socio-psychological reasons. Such reasons include the lack of voice contacts, pedagogical neglect.
What threatens a child with dyslexia?
A child with dyslexia often becomes the object of ridicule from classmates, as well as the object of teacher discontent. At school, such a child feels uncomfortable, has difficulty in communicating with peers and teachers, begins to complex.
If you do not try to rectify the situation, then with age the child will face even greater difficulties and problems, including: disorientation in space, disorganization, impaired coordination, difficulties in perceiving and assimilating information.
Types of dyslexia.
1. Phonemic dyslexia - this type of reading disorder is most common in younger students. Phonemic dyslexia is associated with the underdevelopment of the functions of the phonemic system.
One phoneme is different from the other by a number of distinctive features (for example, hardness - softness, sonority - deafness, method and place of education, etc.). Changing one of the phonemes in a word (spit - goats, home - tom - com) or changing the sequence ( linden - saw) leads to a change in meaning.
Most often, a child with this form of dyslexia mixes the sounds that are distinguished by one distinctive sign (cc, ssh, fsh) by ear.
It is also noted: letter-by-letter reading, sound syllabic structure of a word (omission of letters, insertions, transpositions of sounds, syllables.)
2. Semantic dyslexia (the so-called mechanical reading). Manifested in violation of the understanding of the read words, sentences, text with technically correct reading.
The violation of reading comprehension is due to two facts: the difficulties of sound-syllable synthesis and the vagueness of the syntactic connections within the sentence (when words are perceived in the process of reading in isolation, apart from the other words of the sentence).
3. Agrammaticdislexia. Most often observed in children with systemic speech underdevelopment.
With this form of dyslexia is observed:
- change of case endings and the number of nouns ("with comrades"),
- incorrect coordination in the genus, in the number and case of the noun and adjective (“interesting tale”),
- change endings of the past person 3rd person verbs.
4. Optical dyslexia. Manifested in the difficulties of assimilation and in mixing similar graphic letters. Letters that differ only in one element (B – Z, b – M), letters consisting of identical elements, but differingly arranged in space (T – T, P – b, P – N – I) are mixed.
5. Mneticheskydislexiya. This form of dyslexia is manifested in the difficulty of learning letters. The child does not know which letter corresponds to a particular sound.
Dyslexia is a neurobiological feature of a person and you can only help your child cope with the difficulties that arise during dyslexia, but not save him from dyslexia forever.
Dyslexia correction most successful at an early stage of its development. Prevention is an even more effective measure to prevent these disorders.
Most children can not be diagnosed to 8-9 years. If it were possible to diagnose this disease at an earlier stage, they could be given additional help even before the children begin to experience learning difficulties.
It is necessary to conduct early workouts with phonemes that help dyslexics to read better. This is a specific type of language training aimed at the sound structure of a word, and not just at general reading skills.
There is software that allows you to slow down or stretch the sound of words, helping children to practice putting words into phonemes.
In addition, dyslexics may have problems with long or new words. They find it difficult to master rote memorization since they need contextual keys in order to understand the meaning of the word. Children with dyslexia need special correctional help, since reading difficulties cannot be overcome by ordinary school methods.
We offer tasks and games that will benefit all children with dyslexia. The exercises are aimed at developing visual attention, perception and memory, at enriching vocabulary and improving reading skills.
1. Making a word from the initial letters.
Put pictures in front of the child, the initial letters of which together form a word. You can use toys or any other items. Try to suggest the opposite: the baby will “cast a spell” on a similar way, and you will read it.
2. Words are lost.
"In the room there are words that begin with the sound of R. Let us look for them." Further complicate the task and offer to find items that end in a specific sound.
3. Letter from memory.
The child must read the word and remember it, and then write. Happened? Complicate the task and offer a phrase and sentence.
Invite a child to make a word from a set of syllables. At the very beginning of training, if there are difficulties, show a picture-tip.
5. Words on a flypaper.
“The words“ stuck ”to each other. They need to help divide.
Subsequently complicate the task and propose to divide the sentence into words.
We all played "in the city." Just create a string of words that end with the last sound of the previous one. For example: mother - album - chalk - moon - aquarium.
Type on a sheet of rows of letters, among which the child must find a certain word. For example, "sausage". For starters, you can facilitate the task and put a card with a lost word in front of your student.
8. Culinary alphabet.
Give the child a task to lay out the macaroni schemes - the number of macaroni must match the number of sounds in the word. It's great if you come up with your own personal notation of sounds. For example, pasta means vowels, beans - hard consonants, and peas - soft. Get an unusual "food" icon.
9. We write, sculpt, cut out.
Look for objects with the child that resemble unruly letters, write them on the seething, on the misted glass, lay out, compare graphemes and try to find pronounced differences. Sculpt, cut, lay out beads, beans, macaroni There are many options, there would be a desire.
10. Get the letter by the description.
"Attention! The letter disappeared, special signs - two long, flat sticks, between them in the middle is short. Announced urgent search. Let the child try to give you a riddle and describe your letter in your own words.
11. The letter on the back.
The baby will not only improve in reading, but also get a good relaxing massage, when the mother on his back will draw letters, syllables and words.
12. Fill in the letter.
The essence of the task is clear from the title. Self-produce cards with unfinished letters, skip the individual elements. The task of the child is to restore the defective grapheme. The exercise is aimed at developing visual attention and imagination, as well as the differentiation of mixed letters.
13. Name it gently.
A chair - a stool, a table - a table, a tree - a tree, etc.
16. Naughty words.
“Words dabbled and fell out of place. I wonder what was written. Let's fix the sentence. ” You can use pictures to help.
Reading disorders have a negative impact on the child’s entire learning process, on his mental and speech development.
When eliminating dyslexia, it must be borne in mind that dyslexia is not an isolated disorder. The mechanisms causing it cause violations of both oral and written language.
Therefore, overcoming this deficiency can be successful with a complex effect on the whole complex of speech and mental disorders.
Work with a child should be carried out in a complex with speech therapists, psychologists, teachers, medical workers and parents.
When selecting assignments, it is necessary to take into account the following principles: gradual complication of assignments, a large number of exercises, and leadable temporary connections in a child to complete automation. General didactic principles are also taken into account: individual approach, accessibility, visibility, concreteness.
Dyslexia - to some extent, a gift that is not given to everyone (approximately 5% of them are Einstein, Walt Disney, Quentin Tarantino)
Dyslexic children have non-standard thinking, which allows them to approach the solution of emerging problems creatively. They have a well-developed intuition, they are inquisitive and have a rich imagination. Children who have managed to overcome their shortcomings can become very successful adults.
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- Akimenko V.M. Speech disorders in children - / Rostov n / D Phoenix, 2008.
- Volkova LS, Speech Therapy: A Textbook for High Schools / -M.: Vlados, 2002.
- Goncharova, E.L. Early stages of reading development. To the theory of the question: / E.L.Goncharova // Defectology, 2007.-№1.
- Efimenkova, L.N. Correction of oral and written speech of primary school students: a guide for speech therapists / -M .: VLADOS,
- Kornev, A.N. Dyslexia - a real phenomenon or an artificial concept? / A.N. Kornev // Defectology. 2007.№1.
- Lalaeva, R.I. Elimination of reading disorders in secondary school students: a guide for speech therapists / -M .: Enlightenment, 1978.
- Speech therapy in school: Practical experience / Ed. V.S. Kukushina, Rostov n / D.: Publishing Center "MarT", 2005.
- Basics of special psychology: Textbook. Manual for students. / L.V. Kuznetsova, L.I. Peresleni, M, Akademiya Publishing Center, 2003.
- Pattern.O.V. A practical guide for teaching reading dates / Moscow: AST: Astrel, 20015.
»Identify and correct dyslexia in younger students
Parents of first-graders face many problems in connection with the start of their baby's learning activities.
This applies not only to the material and time costs of preparing for school, but also often to identify rather unpleasant deviations in the development of a child, which affect his academic performance.
Among these disorders is dyslexia. What are the features of deviation in younger schoolchildren and is it amenable to correction with the help of exercises?
What is dyslexia
These talented people are united not only by fame, they are dyslexics
Dyslexia is a kind of malfunction of the brain, which is characterized by the inability of the child to find differences in the graphic images of certain letters, numbers and signs. For the first time this term appeared in 1887, when the ophthalmologist R.
Berlin, who observed two small patients, found that they were ahead of their peers in their intellectual abilities, but were unable to read and write. Since that time, began the study of the causes of this disorder.
At the moment, scientists do not undertake to talk about the exact premises of dyslexia, but the hypothesis of a genetic predisposition to this disease turns out to be the most valid.
And the disease is transmitted through the male line and, most likely, is associated with deviations in the structureYchromosomes
Symptoms and types
Dyslexic child looks no different from their peers
Disturbance of attention, disorder in the perception of sounds and words, or, in one word, dyslexia can be diagnosed only with the start of learning activities. Up to this point, the baby is just beginning to recognize letters, sounds, so it is absolutely natural that he has certain difficulties with these concepts. And only by the age of 7-8, teachers and parents can notice persistent signs of dyslexia:
Up to this point, the baby is just beginning to recognize letters, sounds, so it is absolutely natural that he has certain difficulties with these concepts.
And only by the age of 7-8, teachers and parents can notice persistent signs of dyslexia:
By the way, some scientists believe that one of the first signs of dyslexia manifests itself even in infancy. Namely: those children who did not crawl before they went on their own are more prone to speech disorder. But this is not an absolute premise.
There are several types of dyslexia, depending on the manifestation of the disorder:
- phonemic (confusion with words that differ in one letter - saw-linden),
- mechanical (the child reads fluently, but cannot connect the meaning of some words with others, respectively, is not able to retell what has been read),
- Agramatical (difficulties in reconciling the number and gender of the “big problem”)
- optical (mixing letters with similar elements),
- Mental (baby can not identify the letter that belongs to a particular sound).
Correction exercises for younger students
Drawing with kids is one way to identify and correct a violation of reading and writing
Correction of dyslexia is carried out with the help of special exercises. But the drug treatment has a completely unproven efficacy, so it is not prescribed.
The main requirement for the treatment of dyslexia is the timely commencement of work to correct irregularities in the development of types of speech activity. The older the child becomes, the more difficult the correction is.
That is why in adolescence to correct deviations is almost unreal.
The following exercises are most effective:
- Training the motility of the fingers with a spiked ball (for each syllable, suggest that the child squeeze the ball with his fingers, especially with his little finger)
- Reading words on the contrary
- Learning memories Ws ”)
- Медленное произношение чистоговорок («ра-ра-ра – начинается игра, ры-ры-ры – у нас в руках шары, ру-ру-ру – бью рукою по шару»),
- Заучивание скороговорок («Водовоз вёз воду из-под водопада». «Говори, говори, да не заговаривайся». «На горе гогочут гуси, под горой огонь горит». "Our head will turn your head over your head, re-head out." "Our duda and here and there"),
- Reading 15 consonants on the exhale, gradually adding to the series on one vowel (KVMSPLBSHGRDBLST, PRLGNTVSCCHTSFBHNM),
- "Tow". An adult reads “to himself” and runs his finger over the text, the child’s task is to read this pointer, but out loud,
- "In unison". This is a variant of the previous exercise, only an adult and a baby should both read aloud,
- "Repeat." Invite the child to read the text in 1 minute and note what word he read to, and then let the child repeat the same passage for the same time - he will surely read a couple more words! In this exercise, the main thing is not to overdo it - you should not read more than three times, and do not forget to praise the child even for a little progress,
- "Serif". At the command of the child begins to read the text out loud, holding his hands in his lap. At the command "notch" the little reader closes his eyes, raises his head, leaving his hands on his knees. A minute later he needs to find with his eyes that place in the book on which he stopped.
- "Lightning". The essence of the exercise is the alternation of reading out loud, silently, at a fast and slow pace, with an expression and without for a certain time (starting with 20 seconds, ending with 2 minutes),
- "Sprinters". This game is great for a group of kids. At the command, the guys start to read aloud at the same time, and then with the word “stop” they point with their fingers to the place where they stopped,
- "Correct mistakes". Suggest to correct the mistakes in the well-known child of expressions (“To bezrybe and Buck - fish.” “Under the still stone. Fashion does not flow”),
- "Write the words." Write the baby 6 syllables and offer to write down 5 words that hid in them (la-pa-ra-no-sha-long),
- "Find the name." In the series of letters, the child needs to find the name (ONMAKNGTANYA) or the name of the animal (YESHMEDVED).
- "Same words." In the series of words, ask the child to find those that are read from left to right and from right to left in the same way.
- "Cross out repeats." Write the letters, have the child cross out those that repeat 2 times.
Practicing fine motor skills, such as tying shoelaces, has a positive effect on speech activity.
Dyslexia prevention is a rather controversial concept, as it is a genetic disorder. And yet, experts recommend not to neglect certain preventive measures:
- prevent fetal abnormalities during pregnancy, timely performing the necessary tests and tests,
- try to prevent infectious and somatic diseases of children at an early age,
- time to pay attention to the delayed development of speech in the baby (the appearance of the first words after 1 year 3 months - a signal to turn to a speech therapist),
- choose an adequate method of teaching reading in bilingual families,
- master the skill of reading ahead of time, that is, even before the beginning of the study of letters in kindergarten and school,
- do not rush to teach the letter - it is better to wait until 6-7 years, that is, until the first class.
Reliably diagnose dyslexia in younger students can only specialist. However, even with such a diagnosis you should not despair: the disease is amenable to correction.
The main thing - to show perseverance and patience.
But attaching labels to dyslexics from the “unsuccessful” series is not at all worth it: history knows many examples when people suffering from reading and writing disorder turned out to be geniuses.
Symptoms and causes of dyslexia
Of course, the main symptoms of dyslexia can be considered difficulties in mastering reading as such. However, there are a number of other indicative symptoms:
- lack of coordination, clumsiness, poor ability to plan movements,
- poor memorization of the words and rhymes that even I just encountered,
- often do not understand what I read (at the same time, the general intellectual development does not suffer),
- has Attention Deficit Syndrome, poorly plans activities and understands (fulfills) requests,
- when reading, a child may rub eyes, mow, pull a book, move it close to the eyes, cover one eye, complain about poor eyesight (with an objectively diagnosed rate),
- when reading, he gets tired quickly, complains of a headache,
- under any pretext trying to avoid reading,
- It also has problems with the selection of similar geometric shapes.
The most frequently encountered theories assert that the cause of dyslexia is a characteristic of the development of the central nervous system, as well as in features of the structure of the posterior sections of the left hemisphere of the brain. Theories about “familial” dyslexia are also becoming increasingly popular. Rarely, a problem can appear in the form of social neglect. But, dyslexia is not associated with problems of sight and hearing. As well as movements per se.
There is another approach that suggests the possibility of dyslexia in the field of abnormal development of the fetus. For example, in case of insufficient supply of oxygen to the fetus (cord entanglement, mother's heart flow, premature placental abruption, etc.). And also - in case of serious diseases during pregnancy (rubella, herpes, measles), intoxication or poisoning (alcoholic, narcotic, drug).
How to treat
As a rule, dyslexia does not involve medical treatment. However, it is possible to prescribe those drugs that eliminate the problems of a particular child. For example, with a pronounced lack of attention or severe headaches. Therefore, remember that treatment in such cases should be prescribed exclusively by your doctor. And what will be shown to one baby may not suit the other.
But the correction of dyslexia often has more universal complexes. Thus, phonemic dyslexia involves the correction of the pronunciation of sounds, the correlation of the letter and sound with the help of game visual examples. Similarly, with agrammatic dyslexia, classes on the formation of word formations take place. In addition, hearing and speech perception, analysis and synthesis of the material also develop.
It is worth saying that the usual working out of skills is exhausting and not always productive. Therefore, it is important to use non-standard visual approaches that form specific images using game and demonstration methods. For example, the method of Ronald and Davis involves learning, in which printed characters are assigned mental images with the help of which the “white spots” of perception are removed.
What is dysgraphia?
Disgraphy is a similar problem, but related to the problems of writing words and texts. Some types of dysgraphia are commonly viewed as a possible continuation of the problem of dyslexia. Others often stand out as a separate type of problem. So, it is customary to single out five types of dysgraphia.
- Articular acoustic is most commonly associated with dyslexia. In this case, it is believed that the substitution of characters when writing occurs primarily because the child says (and reads) the words. For example, the child and in speech replaces "p" with "l". But, not because it has imperfection of the speech apparatus, but because it does not see the difference. Thus, the “mouth” turns into a “lot”.
- The pure acoustic form assumes that the child correctly speaks and separates the letters in oral speech. But, at the same time, mixes similar letters when writing. Most often this is manifested in the substitution of "d-t", "bp", "s-sh", "ts-t" and others.
- Violation of analysis and synthesis in the form of dysgraphia leads to a change in the structure of words, their merging, the coherent writing of prepositions and the separation of prefixes, the disappearance of endings, etc.
- Agrammatic dysgraphia affects problems in the coordination of words in phrases, punctuation, capital letters. In short, the grammatical system suffers.
- Optical dysgraphia forms the phenomenon of inadequate perception and transmission of the constituent parts of a letter. In principle, the letter is a combination of dashes, hooks and circles. However, it is difficult for a child suffering from this kind of problem to grasp and grasp the difference in their set: he draws an extra stick in “Ш”, or stubbornly does not perceive hooks in “U”.
However, most often manifest several forms of dysgraphia. In addition to these, you should pay attention to the following symptoms:
- a child often cannot decide which hand to write with,
- the child is incredibly bad handwriting, it is difficult to select elements in it,
- the kid may complain of headaches while doing written work,
- words are poorly oriented relative to the cells or lines of the notebook (“jump”),
- There is an obvious problem with elementary punctuation marks (dots) and capital letters (after a dot, names).
Causes of pathology
Scientists still do not have a unanimous opinion on this matter. It is reliably known that writing skills develop well in the case of sufficiently developed components, such as clear pronouncing of sounds, vocabulary, grammar, and generalization. If any of the above suffers, then the letter may suffer.
In addition, dysgraphia is often associated with severe pregnancy, childbirth trauma, severe diseases (meningitis, stroke, encephalitis), transferred to infection and intoxication.
Among social factors, it is worth noting the extreme degree of social neglect and multilingual families. In addition, there is a genetic predisposition to dysgraphia.
Methods for diagnosing dysgraphia: medical examinations and home tests
So, if you suspected something wrong with a child of preschool age, try to confirm or dispel your fears by simple homework. First of all, ask to draw something with a pencil and analyze its drawing. For dysgraphics, the outline of the pattern will be torn, quivering lines. They can be barely noticeable, but can be, on the contrary, with strong pressure. Also, the baby can persistently refuse to draw, referring to the fact that he at the same time "sore hands." This indicates a physiological underdevelopment of this skill.
For students, there are rapid tests, consisting of several tasks. Task number one includes setting the desired endings. You can come up with several such phrases. For example, "cherry sang ...", "the pond is deep ...", "pears are tasty ...", etc. In the second task, you need to pick up a pair on the principle of one-many (ball-balls, mouth-…., Sleeps…., Reads….). In the third task you need to make a sentence on the given words. For example, “cook, cook, dinner” should be transformed into “cook preparing dinner.”
The fourth step involves the compilation of words from separate syllables: “ba with ka” - “dog”, “kalos” - “spoon”. Task number 5 asks to make up the letters of the word: "o g k a r" - "hill", "e h v el k o" - "man". The sixth task checks the possibility of orientation between the prefix and the preposition. In this case, you must open the brackets "(by) driving (along) the road", "(from) flew (from) the window". Further, small dictations are given. And in one of them you need to use your own name so that you can insert.
You can simply give an outline with the main text, where you should insert a few words under the dictation. As a result, we obtain an estimate for the possible presence of suspicions of agrammatic, acoustic, and dysgraphic on the background of analysis and synthesis.
However, the suspicions themselves are not yet a real diagnosis. Therefore, it is necessary to consult a specialist. Indeed, in addition to the problems found, it is imperative to ensure that there are no problems with hearing and vision, normal functioning of the limbs. Perhaps to clarify the diagnosis will need to do an MRI or other studies of the functioning of the brain.
Effective methods for working with children with dysgraphia
There are many methods for working with dysgraphia. For example, the “word scheme” technique assumes the correlation of a picture to a written word. First, the student calls the subject in the picture, then sees the name written and relates the sound and the letter, and then vice versa, when pronouncing the sound, writes a letter. The Ebingaus technique in various variations involves filling the gap with the necessary letter. The "initial letter" technique allows you to find both pictures and words that begin with a specific letter.
The method of "structure" deepens us in the analysis of the word: the child considers the number of vowels and consonants. You can also offer the student correct the errors in the text, or make a word out of the letters that are. It is worth noting that some tasks can be completed more successfully, and some - very hard or not at all. Do not despair. Start with the simplest tasks and meticulously explain to your child how to do it correctly. Believe me, he does not understand at all in order to annoy you. Practice constantly, even in the intervals between trips to a specialist. For this, there are also home exercises.
Home exercises to eliminate disgraphing
A great method is called “proofreading”: in the bulk text you need to search and cross out the same letter. Also required tasks on the development of motor skills. To do this, draw or print more labyrinths, which the student must lead with a pencil to find a way out.
However, in addition to special tasks, the kid should be introduced to sports training, which are able to develop coordination and movement: table tennis, badminton, etc.
Game ways to correct dyslexia and dysgraphia
The tremendous work that offers all the possible gaming methods for correcting the problems mentioned belongs to I.N. Sadovnikov is called "Violation of writing and overcoming them in younger schoolchildren." This approach consists of five interesting blocks that can be submitted to the kid as a very fascinating process. The first unit is aimed at the formation of oral speech, the second - optical-spatial representations, the third - the development of temporal representations, the fourth - the development of rhythmic abilities, and the fifth - develops hands for writing.
We give only a few examples of such tasks. For example, in the development of oral speech, the exercise “clap” is applied, during which the student must clap if the word begins with a certain letter. Or translate sounds into "circles", with the help of which you can compose all possible words.
Thus, the child will not perform “dry” tasks, he will “unravel” the letters from other letters, follow the arrows, walk and move.
Many of these exercises can also be taken as a basis for preventive measures. Consider some more.
Prevention of dyslexia and dysgraphia
The simplest methods of prevention include the following:
- make sure that you and family members say the words correctly,
- make sure that the child draws more, and even with a simple pencil or pen, in time to notice and eliminate the problems associated with this (incorrect pressure, poor motor skills, inability to determine the leading hand, etc.),
- read the baby more with the ability to follow the readable words, this is the correlation of sound and letter,
- encourage retelling, they should be logical, with the right combination of gender and time, and also correct, if necessary, the end of the plural,
- answer your child's questions with more complete sentences,
- in case of suspicion of Attention Deficit Syndrome or of the mentioned problems of one of the relatives, pass an early diagnosis by a specialist.
The full development of the child is the main guarantee of its normal functioning as a whole. The kid should be able to play with peers, and at the same time - to hear the right speech and instructive stories. In all these areas, you can notice some features of the baby, which should alert you. Clumsiness, inability to stop or hear a request, unwillingness to draw and play, monosyllabic phrases and replacement of letters in words - all this is an occasion to seek advice from a specialist. Moreover, it is worth doing if someone from the family has the same problems.
Therefore, to the question: dysgraphia and dyslexia, what is it? You can answer that this is, first of all, the neuropsychiatric feature of your crumbs, and not his "stupidity." Therefore, the correction must be thought out and constant. And screams and insults should leave the child's life forever.
Author of the article: Galina Lapshun, Master of Psychology, Psychologist I category
In case of phonemic dyslexia, the system of the same name suffers. Its manifestations consist in the fact that it is difficult for the student to distinguish the sounds that influence the sense-discerning function.
The underdevelopment of a number of functions of the phonemic system makes it possible to divide the disease into 2 forms. So, phonemic dyslexia is expressed in the following disorders:
- Incorrect reading, which is associated with the lack of perception of phonemes. With this development of the disease, it is difficult for a child to assimilate letters, and there is also a frequent replacement of sounds that are similar to each other in acoustic and articulation (d - t, w - w, b - n, s - w, etc.)
- Incorrect reading due to underdevelopment of the ability to analyze phonemic sound. For this variant of the disease, similar disorders are characteristic: reading by letters, incorrect combination of sounds and syllables.
When phonemic dyslexia can be distorted words by skipping consonant sounds - for example, instead of "mark" read "Mara". Также нередки вставки гласных звуков между согласными, например, вместо «пасла» — «пасала». Имеет место нарушение в перестановке звуков: вместо «утка» — «тука».With various forms of phonemic dyslexia, syllables permutations and their omissions are possible: instead of “shovel”, there may be “lata” and “lotap”.
When manifesting semantic dyslexia, there is no distortion of sounds, words and sentences, but the child does not understand at all what he reads about. This situation most often occurs when the child reads fractional syllables. Subsequent reading interferes with the perception of whole words. Children cannot even recognize familiar words if they are read in syllables. The problem is the difficulty of synthesizing and restoring fragmented parts into a coherent whole.
With semantic dyslexia, the child cannot connect the parts into a single whole.
Semantic dyslexia prevents children from performing the following tasks:
- combine the sounds into a single word, if these sounds are pronounced separately with a few pauses, for example, “f - a - b - a”,
- read the words and sentences lined up in syllables: “Ko-ro-va zhu-tra-vu”.
Correctly interpreting sentences is hampered by the insufficient formation of concepts about the connection of words within a sentence from the point of view of syntax. All the words in the sentence appear to the child apart, without regard to other words. See below for how to correct semantic dyslexia.
The grammatical structure of speech in agrammatic dyslexia, as well as the possibility of generalizing syntactic and morphological structures, has a general underdevelopment. This dyslectic variant is manifested in the following violations:
- incorrect endings of cases and numbers (“from under the bench”, “for guests”, “dog” - “dogs”),
- erroneous agreement in case, gender and number of adjectives and nouns (“interesting fairy tale”, heavy rains ”),
- incorrect formation of the number of pronouns ("all" - "all"),
- the erroneous formation of pronouns belonging to nouns (“our Panama”, “this museum”),
- violation of the formation of the verb forms of the third person in the past tense (“it was a good day”, “life went by”)
- erroneous formation of verbs in different tenses (“spoke” - “speaks”, “hears” - “heard”).
Who has agrammatic dyslexia most often? Most often, it affects schoolchildren with systemic insufficient speech formation.
The problem most often affects school-age children.
All letters in mnestic dyslexia are extremely difficult to digest. Undifferentiated replacement is associated with failures in the installation of sound-letter connections, as well as problems in speech memory. When you pronounce the order is broken, the number is reduced, and the sounds or words are skipped. This is how mnestic dyslexia manifests itself.
Letters similar in spelling are extremely difficult to memorize. They eventually become interchangeable. Letters are mixed, changed to others, similar. All of this is the result of the impossibility of dismembering forms on the visual level. Insufficient development of visual-spatial perception and representation is complemented by failures in the work of visual recognition, synthesis and analysis.
Visual-spatial perception and recognition have impaired dyslexia. Optical dyslexia makes it difficult for children to draw simple drawings (repetition by sample or writing from memory), but reproducing more complex objects leads to inaccuracies if the child draws from the sample. Drawing complex memory, baby admits misses even more often.
The child simplifies a given object, reduces the number of elements, and also violates the arrangement of lines. Children can hardly recognize letters if one of them is written on top of the other. The erroneous spelling of a letter is not always recognized by children with a disease of this kind. They can not add the missing elements to the proposed letter.
Children who begin to go to school, to a large extent, are difficult to master the writing of letters that are similar in writing. As an example, you can call the letters C and O, b and b, H and P.
This type of tactile disease is characteristic of blind children. They find it difficult to distinguish between tactile Braille. The child begins to confuse letters that are similar in the number of points, as well as those letters in which there are mirrors, for example, E and I, F and X, or those that differ by just one point: A and B, L and K.
Blind children with tactile dyslexia are poorly oriented in time and space, and also have a number of other disorders. Among others, we call the delay in the development of speech.
When reading the word, the child “sees” it separately, without communication with others. There is no general perception of the text; it reads only individual letters. A blind child has difficulty in reading because he is constantly forced to look for a missing word or sentence. Misses in reading caused by frequent changes and skips. Fingers when reading move irregularly, intermittently. All of these features give a definition of the concept of "tactile dyslexia."
A good method for correcting dyslexia in preschoolers is when you require a child to slowly read or pronounce words when rewriting. Give your kid a feeling of success during home games, because he needs support so much after all the failures and twos at school. Speed reading is not required. For a child is a huge stress, even when he reads slowly and makes mistakes. Excessive pressure can only aggravate the situation and cause neurosis.
Reading out loud must be practiced in a playful way, without creating a feeling of exercise in a child.
It is important to work not for quantity, but for quality. Do not rush yourself and do not rush the child. Optimally, write or read a little, but with a minimum number of errors. Additional ideas on how to work with your child at home can be viewed in thematic videos.
Speech therapy sessions with a specialist are of great importance. Treatment in such conditions will be most effective. Game tasks of a speech therapist will be interesting and useful. The child is asked to find a specific letter in a small passage, or for a capital printed letter, the younger student is required to find an upper case letter. Another task may be cutting letters and reading some letter combinations. For work, you need a magnetic alphabet. Such exercises will help the child to quickly master the skill of pronouncing sounds and words.
For training the speech therapist chooses a variety of exercises. Among others - writing dictation, repeating words over and over again, picking up word forms.
Classes with a speech therapist will help to get rid of the problem
Dyslexia and its causes
Dyslexia is a neurological disorder or mental disorder in which some structure of the cerebral cortex blocks the work of the analyzer, resulting in a violation of general learning and the correct perception of numbers, signs and letters. There are several types of pathology: phonemic, agrammatic, optical, mnestic or semantic.
The violation is found in the kindergarten preparatory group or in the first grade of a school when a child tries to learn how to read and write. Until 1887, such children were considered untrained, but the doctor Rudolf Berlin investigated this problem and noted that children with such a disorder may have a high IQ and outstanding abilities.
Dyslexia is found in 4.7% of children entering school. More often, the disorder occurs in boys, as well as in children who use the left hand to write and have the right brain type of thinking.
Congenital factors of dyslexia formation
Scientists agree that the disorder is often inborn, aided by the following reasons:
- genetic predisposition
- intrauterine brain damage due to oxygen starvation caused by anemia, heart disease in the mother or fetus, abnormalities in the development of the umbilical cord, improper attachment of the ovum, premature detachment of the placenta, asphyxia, or a prolonged anhydrous period in labor,
- brain damage due to the cytotoxic effect of high bilirubin concentration,
- the defeat of the child’s central nervous system during the perinatal period with alcohol and drug toxins,
- hemolytic disease that develops with rhesus or group incompatibility of the blood of the mother and child,
- pathology of the corpus callosum of the brain, which appeared in the embryonic period,
- infectious diseases carried by the future mother, such as rubella, measles, herpes, chicken pox, influenza,
- mechanical damage to the skull during labor due to the narrow pelvis of the mother, medical manipulations and intracranial hemorrhages.
Causes of Acquired Dyslexia
In rare cases, the loss of the skill of correct perception of signs, letters and numbers is acquired after birth. The problem may occur due to the improper functioning of a separate part of the brain, provoked by some reasons:
- mental retardation manifested as a consequence of a lack of communication between parents and the baby, an unfavorable psychological microclimate in the family, a lack of sufficient development and upbringing,
- general mental retardation
- against the background of cerebral palsy,
- traumatic brain injury suffered in early childhood.
Mechanism of dyslexia
The skill of reading and writing as a psycho-physiological process is possible due to the coordinated work of brain analyzers such as the visual, speech and speech-speaking. The human brain, in the process of reading, goes through several stages:
- perceives letters, recognizes them and distinguishes them,
- relates them to the corresponding sounds,
- adds sounds to syllables,
- combines syllables into words, and then them into sentences,
- understands and realizes the reading.
Classification: Dyslexia Varieties and Accompanying Symptoms
Experts identify several types of pathology such as dyslexia. Parents need to know and understand the features of each of them, because they have specific signs that require different diagnostics:
- Agrammatic dyslexia - manifests itself in the inability to reconcile the endings of words between themselves (for example, the number and gender of nouns and adjectives) and the incorrect pronunciation of prefixes and suffixes of words (“tasty cake”, “from a chair”, “brown bears”). This pathology is observed in the underdevelopment of the grammatical structure of speech, functional, syntactic and morphological generalizations (we recommend reading: phonemic underdevelopment of speech: what is it?). Agrammatisms are manifested both in speech and in writing.
- Mnestic - expressed in the impossibility of correlating the visual image of the letter and the pronunciation of sound (acoustic image). A child with a mnestic form of dyslexia cannot remember which sound corresponds to a letter, because of a violation of speech memory. In speech and in letter, he replaces the incomprehensible sound with another letter (“bird”).
- Phonemic - is found when mixing and changing phonemes in violation of the meaning of the word. Children with a phonematic violation form confuse the meaning of words that are close in sound (beast - door, tom - house) and change the order of letters or syllables in a word (can - boar, fox - power).
- Semantic dyslexia or "mechanical reading" - is found in the lack of understanding of the semantic and syntactic connection of the units of the sentence, the meaning of individual words, the impossibility of retelling the meaning of the read text. In this case, the child can read fluently, correctly pronouncing words, letters and syllables. This kind of pathology arises due to the paucity of the dictionary and the lack of formation of syllable synthesis.
- Optical dyslexia - is expressed in the difficulty of distinguishing visually similar letters from each other (“O” and “C”, “P” and “H”, “D” and “A”) when reading words and sentences due to the lack of visual-spatial submissions. With this type of illness, the child may jump from one line to another or read it in a mirror (right to left) while reading.
- Tactile dyslexia - manifested in visually impaired and blind children with fuzzy tactile perception, especially when reading books printed in Braille. The child randomly runs his fingers over the book, skips the letters, loses the meaning of the read text.
Dyslexia is a disease that can be completely cured with timely access to specialists (up to 10 years of age), adequate and careful observance of all necessary conditions. Each subtype of pathology can be treated with special exercises in accordance with the manifestation of its own symptoms, slowly and difficultly, but the improvement will be in any case.
Modern medicine offers several techniques to help solve the problem of dyslexia in the baby:
- The agrammatic variety of dyslexia requires correctional work to assimilate the laws of the language governing the correctness of the construction of words and sentences. The specialist offers the child to make simple sentences in which words are correctly matched by case, number, and have corresponding endings, gradually complicating the task.
- The mnestic form needs the development of aural speech and frivolous memory. Exercises to correct pathology are the pronunciation of sounds and the presentation to the child of objects or videos that clearly resemble the letter corresponding to this sound. Mnetic dyslexia is more easily corrected than other forms.
- The phonemic form of dyslexia involves the adjustment of sound pronunciation and the formation of the concept of the sound-letter composition of the word. Speech therapist conducts articulation exercises, and then begins work on the comparison of different sounds during listening and pronunciation.
- The semantic type of dyslexia requires a student to correct the grammatical rules, increase vocabulary and develop syllable synthesis. Effectively helps Ronald Davis's method of correcting pathology in younger schoolchildren, consisting of tasks for creating mental images, switching, exercises for discharging imagination, finding an orientation point, determining oneself in space, learning simple symbols and comparing them with words.
- The optical variety of dyslexia is corrected by the work on the visual-spatial representation and the analysis of the visual perception of signs, letters and numbers. The child is offered a game in which he studies the visual image of the letter (searches for it, draws the missing parts, sculpts from plasticine, highlights the words inside, makes up of improvised objects). Additionally, you must limit the stay of the child at the computer.
- The tactile type of dyslexia involves the analysis of schemes and the development of a presentation based on tactile sensations.
Prognosis and preventive measures
Parents do not need to be afraid and panic when the doctor says that the child has problems, regardless of the type of diagnosed pathology. At the same time, the kid can demonstrate outstanding abilities in music, drawing, biology, and other areas of scientific knowledge. He only needs to help overcome the difficulties of reading and writing, which, when stubbornly correcting and applying methods of getting rid of dyslexia, do not interfere with a happy life.
Attentive parents who are worried about the success of their child in school and adult life will develop fine and large motor skills from birth, offer different games to overcome symptoms and mistakes, improve memory, attention and visual-spatial function. From early childhood it is not necessary to deprive a child of communication with parents, peers and just the people around them. Parents should try to properly speak at home, eliminating weird words and foul language.
Too frequent “communication” with electronic gadgets and computers affects the mental abilities of children. It is necessary to limit the stay of a preschooler near the monitor to 30 minutes or one hour per day.
Types of dyslexia in children
In schoolchildren, as a result of the fact that in some parts of the brain activity decreases, and as a result, different types of dyslexia develop. They may be:
Phonemic dyslexia is usually characterized by the fact that the baby begins to replace some sounds with others that sound similar. Semantic dyslexia is that younger students lack an understanding of what they read. The child reads mechanically, can not retell what he read.
Aagrammatic dyslexia is that the baby does not correctly pronounce the prefixes, suffixes, endings of words, end of cases while reading. Optical dyslexia is a disorder in which younger students have problems distinguishing letters that are very similar in writing. Mnetic dyslexia is that the baby cannot remember which letter corresponds to which sound.
5 effective exercises
There are various exercises that are aimed at eliminating and conducting correction of dyslexia when reading.
The essence of the first exercise is that you have to give your child a small text every day and ask him to cross out the letters you call in it. Сначала лучше начать с гласных, потом можно добавить согласные. Когда малыш хорошо справиться с этой частью задания, усложните его. Попросите ребенка теперь обводить кружком согласные, а гласные подчеркивать. Делайте упор на те буквы, которые даются малышу с трудом.The task must be performed every day for at least 2 months.
The game "Ring" should develop fine motor skills, memory, attention, speech. It is only necessary to try to close each finger on the hand in a ring with a thumb. You need to do at least 15 minutes in the morning every day for two months in a row. This is an excellent prevention and correction option for dyslexia when reading.
The task of mirror drawing will help improve the brain of the child. You just need to put a blank sheet of paper in front of the baby and ask the baby to draw a simple drawing with two hands at the same time. Do exercise every day for two months.
Such an assignment called “Tug” is very effective. You, as an adult, will be leading. Take an interesting book and start to drive with your finger in rows, reading by yourself. The task of the child is to pronounce the words and read at a given pace.
Excellent results gives the task when you ask your child to read out loud for one minute. Practice every day, noting how much the child has read. With a positive result, the child rises self-esteem and he will want to do more and longer.