Pregnancy

Traces of acetone in urine in pregnant women: why they appear, possible danger to the child and methods of dealing with the condition

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The female body undergoes a large number of changes in almost all functional systems during the carrying of a child. In some cases, the pregnant woman's body does not have time to adapt to this complex state and perform the necessary, familiar activity for itself. One of the first deteriorates the quality of metabolism, which is reflected in the impossibility of rapid utilization of intermediate decay products of protein compounds.

As a result, toxic substances, called ketone bodies, or the more common word for many, acetone, begin to accumulate. The state when acetone is present in the urine during pregnancy is dangerous - it can cause serious complications up to the death of the fetus and mother. Therefore, the slightest suspicion of an increase in ketones in the urine should lead a woman to the clinic for examination.

Features of the appearance of ketone bodies in pregnant women

Despite all the difficulties of adapting the female body during gestation, the majority of pregnant women return to normal after the first trimester. But the individual characteristics of each, as well as the tendency to various diseases or their presence, in some women can lead to ketonemia (acetone in the blood), and as a result, ketonuria (acetonuria).

These two terms, in fact, denote the same thing - an increased content of ketone bodies (acetone) in the urine. If, at later periods - in the 2nd or 3rd trimester - when performing tests, there is an increased acetone in the urine, then this gives the doctor the right to make an assumption about preeclampsia (complicated pregnancy). Such a state without the absence of qualified assistance, as a rule, leads to sad consequences.

If the level of acetone in the urine is slightly elevated, this means that the pregnancy proceeds normally. The rapid increase and high concentration of ketone bodies is always combined with the deterioration of the woman’s condition and frequent vomiting.

The factors causing ketonuria

Elevated acetone in the urine of pregnant women can be the result of a violation of the diet and diet, when fatty and protein foods of animal origin predominate with an apparent carbohydrate deficiency. But the most frequent occurrence when the presence of ketone bodies in a woman’s body exceeds normal levels is a strong dehydration due to prolonged vomiting.

In such conditions, the pregnant woman is sent to inpatient treatment, having previously performed not only a urine test for acetone, but also a full diagnostic complex, including:

  • general and biochemical blood test,
  • blood test to determine the level of acetone
  • glucose tolerance test (sugar curve),
  • Ultrasound (ultrasound) of the thyroid gland, etc.

In addition, a woman in the position must visit an endocrinologist for consultation. In many cases, only a comprehensive examination can determine why the concentration of ketone bodies in the urine has increased. During pregnancy, the woman's body is also susceptible to infection with viral, bacterial or infectious diseases, as in a normal state.

And if these pathologies are combined with vomiting and pronounced intoxication of the organism, then the results of the urine analysis in almost all cases will show ketonuria in one degree or another. In the period of carrying a child in a pregnant woman, chronic diseases, including liver disease, which is the main organ that helps the body get rid of toxic substances, may worsen.

As a result of a decrease in the functional ability of the liver in the blood (ketonemia) and in the urine (ketonuria), an increased content of acetone will be determined. In addition, ketone bodies above the norm are observed in primary or recurrent diseases of the pituitary, adrenal glands and the thyroid gland. So, if you bring all the above information to the list, the reasons for ketonuria are as follows:

  • 1 trimester toxicosis,
  • preeclampsia 2 and 3 trimester,
  • infectious diseases
  • liver disease,
  • hormonal changes,
  • oncological processes
  • starvation or diet.

A strict and unbalanced diet, in which lipids (fats) and carbohydrates make up a large part of the diet, while protein foods are kept in minimal amounts, a very common cause of ketonuria. The same can be said about diseases of a pathogenic nature, occurring with a pronounced intoxication syndrome.

Possible complications

The accumulation and increase of ketone concentration in the body of a woman who is expecting a child, without taking appropriate measures, can cause the development of complications of varying severity. These include:

  • intoxication of the body of a woman and child,
  • dehydration of varying degrees
  • spontaneous abortion (miscarriage),
  • preterm labor,
  • coma,
  • death.

In the absence of timely diagnosis of the pregnant woman and the appointment of adequate therapeutic measures, the symptoms gradually increase and the woman’s condition worsens. In some cases, this process can be rapid, which is even more dangerous. Therefore, the sooner the expectant mother or her attending physician will pay attention to the manifestations of acetonuria (even if they are insignificant), the easier and faster it will be to get rid of the pathological symptoms. And, as a result, the recovery of the mother's organism will occur more likely, and the future development of the fetus will not be endangered.

Methods for the elimination of pathology

With toxicosis in pregnant women, the level of ketones returns to normal when electrolyte balance is restored by sufficient and regular intake of fluids. Although, with indomitable vomiting, it is difficult for a woman to drink, especially in large portions, it will cause repeated seizures. Therefore, in order to reduce the concentration of acetone in the urine and to minimize the occurrence of retching, pregnant women should take rehydration agents (solutions to fill the body fluids) in small portions of 2-3 tbsp. spoons every 5-10 minutes.

If for a long time the level of ketones does not fall, then the woman is recommended to limit the amount of food consumed. In order to protect the fetus from intoxication, intravenous therapy is carried out by dropwise, which includes glucose and vitamin complexes.

After adjusting the acetone concentration to normal, the expectant mother is advised to follow a certain diet, which minimizes the risks of the subsequent appearance of ketones in urine.

According to statistics, it is noted that the treatment of ketonuria during pregnancy often does not need medicines and, as a rule, consists of diet and nutrition. While the identified primary diseases in which an increase in acetone in the urine is detected as one of the symptoms, require complex treatment, including medications of various actions.

It should be noted that if an increase in the level of ketones in the urine of a pregnant woman, regardless of early or late periods, is combined with a deterioration of health or signs of illness, then the doctor will definitely insist on hospitalization. And the faster, the better for the condition of a woman. During the stay of the future mother in the hospital, she will be selected an appropriate diet and detoxification therapy.

Diabetes mellitus and ketonuria during pregnancy

For any person, diabetes mellitus is a serious disease that can take a severe form at any time and requires careful monitoring of blood sugar. And for a woman in the position of danger from such an illness increases several times. Diabetes mellitus also refers to pathologies that can lead to an increase in the content of acetone in the urine during pregnancy.

In the period of gestation of a fetus in a woman with a history of this disease, the condition may worsen. This is due to additional loads on the body, which leads to jumps in blood glucose and even to precoma. The result of such metabolic shifts is often an increase in ketones in the blood and urine, which becomes a cause of intoxication.

Also, gestational diabetes mellitus may develop in pregnant women, due to the additional stress on the female body during fetal growth. After birth, glucose levels very often return to normal, but throughout the entire period of gestation, blood sugar and ketone concentrations in the urine should be monitored.

Norm acetone bodies in urine

Normally, ketones in urine are absent or are determined in daily urine in an amount of not more than 0.02-0.05 grams. This indicator applies to all categories of people of adult age of both sexes. These values ​​are not determined by standard methods of examination when performing a general urinalysis, as well as indicator test strips, which are used for self-examination.

In case of poor-quality collection of the biomaterial (for example, vaginal contents, etc. getting into the urine sample), the result of the study may be false-positive. Therefore, it is recommended to check at least twice - this will exclude the possibility of making an error.

Determination of acetone at home

You can conduct a regular check of the level of ketone bodies in urine yourself. It is easy, fast, and very convenient to do, especially for pregnant women. Self-diagnostics is performed at home, that is, there is no need to visit the laboratory every time you need to track changes in your condition.

For such a study, it is enough to purchase indicator test strips in a pharmacy specifically designed to determine the presence of ketone bodies in the urine. They are sold in almost all pharmacies, are affordable and are available without a doctor's prescription. For the analysis you need to collect a portion of morning urine in a sterile container.

In order to avoid any impurities in the sample, it is necessary to first hold the toilet of the genitals and close the entrance to the vagina with a cotton swab. Then, lower the test strip with the specified end into the urine sample, then chill the excess drops without touching the container walls with a strip. Test strips are narrow plates on which laboratory reagents are applied, which are used for research in an independent way at home.

On the packaging indicated color marks that will help determine the presence and level of ketones. So, for example, if the result is a pink tint, then acetone is present, but its content is not high, whereas violet is a clear sign of a significant increase, requiring immediate treatment.

In a situation where not only ketone bodies in the urine are detected in a pregnant woman, but also an increase in blood sugar levels, the doctor recommends using multifunctional test strips to check the condition of the urine. This type of material for research allows you to diagnose up to 13 parameters, which is very convenient for pregnant women who have multiple pathological changes in the composition of urine.

In addition, you can always be examined in the laboratory, which will significantly increase the reliability of analyzes. It should be noted, if tests for ketones in the urine indicate their increased concentration, and the woman feels normal, then it is necessary to repeat the analysis, allowing to confirm or deny the previous one.

How is formed

Normally, the main source of energy for the human body is glucose, which enters during the day with food (mainly, along with simple and complex carbohydrates). In conditions of deficiency of glucose (sugars), the body begins to look for additional sources of energy. As a result, processed fats and proteins. A byproduct of this exchange is acetone. In small quantities, it does not bring significant negative effects, but during accumulation it has a toxic effect on the organs, especially during pregnancy.

Cells of a brain, a mucous membrane of intestines are sensitive to it. The high content of acetone in the blood leads to a violation of the acid-base state of the blood, which leads to an abnormal work of all enzymes. There is dehydration and serious suffering of the body, including the developing fetus.

Toxicosis, preeclampsia and other causes.

The main causes of acetone in the urine during early and late pregnancy can be identified.

  • In 1 trimester. Ketone bodies appear most often due to a moderate or severe degree of toxicosis. With an increase in the number of vomiting episodes more than five to ten times a day, nutrients are practically not supplied to the body or food intake is very long. Proteins and fats are processed to ensure minimum energy requirements. Therefore, a woman is rapidly losing weight, and ketone bodies are found in blood and urine.
  • In 3 trimester. Acetone can appear on the background of preeclampsia and abnormal liver function. Also at this time, women are often prescribed rice diets or fasting days to reduce the severity of swelling and correct the pathological weight gain. If you get involved in the recommendations and seriously limit yourself to food, acetone can appear in the blood and urine.

Regardless of the duration of pregnancy, acetone can be detected for the following reasons (without toxicosis and preeclampsia).

  • With alcohol abuse. In women who even drink excessively during pregnancy, the metabolism changes. As a rule, pregnant women do not eat well and their main source of energy is alcohol. At the same time, in addition to acetone, other harmful products of metabolism appear that negatively affect the fetus.
  • With diabetes. In this case, glucose, which is contained in the blood, does not enter the cells and does not participate in the energy supply process. Therefore, other ways of its processing begin to work more intensively, as a result of which ketone bodies are formed. Ketonuria can develop both in diabetes mellitus of the first or second type, and in the gestational form (it appears only during pregnancy).
  • Under severe stress. Constant or even a single psycho-emotional stress leads to the release of the hormones "stress" - glucocorticosteroids by the adrenal glands. They stimulate enhanced cleavage of protein and fatty molecules, with the formation of acetone in parallel.
  • In infectious diseases. Serious viral or bacterial infections require a lot of energy. The pathogenic microorganisms themselves also need it to support vital activity. Blood glucose ends quickly, after which proteins and fats are exchanged. Acetonuria is especially characteristic with diarrhea and vomiting (intestinal poisoning).
  • In diseases of the pancreas. In chronic pancreatitis, the metabolism of fats and proteins can also be disturbed.

How can you suspect

Not always the symptoms of increased acetone in the urine during pregnancy can be noticed. A small amount of it, except as a laboratory, may not manifest itself. Signs of ketonuria become apparent only in case of serious diseases or with a significant change in metabolism. The main ones are the following.

  • The smell of acetone. Ketone bodies are excreted with sweat and exhaled air, therefore, when their level is high, the specific smell of acetone appears in the blood. Sometimes it is compared with the aroma of "Antonov apples." It is felt during a conversation with close contact with a person. During pregnancy, the appearance of the smell of acetone in 90% of cases indicates a pronounced early toxicosis (up to 2 trimester), in the later periods - about preeclampsia, as well as decompensated diabetes mellitus.
  • Decreased appetite. Even with the desire to eat something, nausea and vomiting occurs. So the vicious circle closes.
  • Stomach ache. With severe ketonuria and comorbidities (infections, diabetes, pancreatic pathologies), periodic mean pain in the abdomen, similar to spasms, may appear.
  • Weakness, lethargy. With the aggravation of the condition appears fatigue, apathy.
  • Symptoms of dehydration. With the release of ketone bodies with exhaled air, increased evaporation of moisture leads to dry mouth, the tongue is covered with white bloom. The skin becomes dry, prone to flaking.

How to identify the laboratory

To identify such metabolic disorders, it is enough to pass a urine test for acetone, during pregnancy, such studies are carried out at each visit to the doctor. The result is expressed in pluses from one to four (“+” ... “++++”).

Special test strips can also be used that indicate approximate urine acetone values. They are convenient to use and make it possible to determine ketone bodies on their own at home.
Additional information can give biochemical analysis of blood. It will disrupt the balance of electrolytes (trace elements). But in general, an analysis of blood often has an increase in ESR and leukocytes.

With obvious signs of acetonuria, a study of the acid-base status of the blood is performed. Decryption of such tests is only a doctor. If necessary, a correction of the state.

Чем опасен ацетон в моче при беременности

Traces of acetone in the urine, as well as the episodic appearance of these compounds during pregnancy will not cause serious disturbances in the woman and fetus. But for those who have the risk of a significant increase in the level of ketone bodies, it is important to know how dangerous acetone in the urine during pregnancy is for the child and how to reduce it.

The main effect of acetone on the fetus is as follows:

  • acetone is toxic to baby brain cells,
  • the blood pH of the baby may be disturbed,
  • changes the function of the placenta with the occurrence of its failure.

Acetone is especially dangerous in the urine during early pregnancy, as at this time the main organs and tissues are laid.

How to deal with ketonuria

If the urine test for acetone during pregnancy shows that the permissible indications are exceeded, first of all it is necessary to find out the possible causes of this and eliminate the threatening conditions - toxicosis, preeclampsia, and decompensation of diabetes.

If there are no obvious reasons for ketonuria, try to adjust the nutrition. Reviews of pregnant women confirm that in many cases this is enough. Product groups that should be excluded are shown in the table.

Table of useful and harmful products with acetonuria

You should also exclude junk food - fast foods, carbonated drinks. Be sure to follow the drinking regime to accelerate the removal of acetone from the blood. In the day you need to drink at least 1.5-2 liters of pure water.

Drug therapy

In severe conditions (marked preeclampsia, toxicosis, and abnormal liver function), drugs are also used to treat metabolic disorders.

  • Infusion therapy Intravenous infusions (infusions) of solutions are carried out to combat dehydration and for the additional supply of glucose.
  • Reception of enterosorbents. They adsorb on themselves acetone, which is released in the intestine. So its removal is accelerated and the severity of symptoms decreases. This may be the usual coal, but it is better to use more modern drugs: "Smekta", "Enterosgel".
  • Compensation of chronic diseases. In the presence of diabetes, liver disease or pancreas, in parallel, it is necessary to treat these ailments.

Prevention

To prevent the appearance of acetone in the urine during pregnancy should follow the following recommendations:

  • eat right and balanced
  • monitor the condition of chronic diseases,
  • time to treat early toxicosis and preeclampsia,
  • drink enough liquid.

Acetone in urine is not always a reflection of the pathological state during gestation. He may appear in violation of the diet, with physical exertion. Along with this, high amounts of ketone bodies indicate serious diseases that can affect the growth and development of the fetus. How to remove acetone during pregnancy safely and quickly, and whether it should be done in a particular situation, can only be told by a specialist after a comprehensive examination. You should not rely on treatment in various communities and clubs (for example, popular with the Ball - Dr. Komarovsky’s club).

Acetonuria

Acetonuria (ketonuria) - an increased content in the urine of ketone bodies, which are products of incomplete oxidation of proteins and fats in the body. Ketone bodies include acetone, hydroxybutyric acid, acetoacetic acid.

More recently, the phenomenon of acetonuria was very rare, but now the situation has changed dramatically, and increasingly acetone in the urine can be found not only in children, but also in adults.

Acetone can be in the urine of each person, only in very low concentrations. In a small amount (20-50 mg / day) it is constantly excreted by the kidneys. No treatment is required.

In adults

In adults, this phenomenon can be caused by a number of reasons:

  • The predominance in the diet of fatty and protein foods, when the body is not able to completely break down fats and proteins.
  • Lack of food containing carbohydrates.
    In such cases, it is enough to balance the food, not to eat fatty foods, add foods containing carbohydrates. Adhering to a simple diet that will remove all the errors in the diet, it is possible to get rid of acetonuria, without resorting to treatment.
  • Physical exercise.
    If the reasons lie in the enhanced sports activities, you need to contact a specialist and adjust the load that would fit the body.
  • Stiff diet or fasting.
    In this case, you will have to give up fasting and turn to a nutritionist, so that he chooses the optimal diet and foods necessary to restore the normal state of the body.
  • Diabetes mellitus type I or depleted state of the pancreas with long-lasting type II diabetes.

In this state, the body does not have enough carbohydrates for the complete oxidation of fats and proteins. Depending on the reasons that provoked the appearance of acetone in the urine with diabetes, the tactics of the patient is chosen. If the reason lies in the simple observance of a rigid diet (although this is unwise behavior for diabetics), then such acetonuria will disappear in a few days after the normalization of food or adding to the diet foods containing carbohydrates. But when the patient with diabetes does not decrease the level of acetone in the urine, even after taking carbohydrates and simultaneous insulin injections, it is worth thinking seriously about metabolic disorders. In such cases, the prognosis is unfavorable and is fraught with diabetic coma if urgent measures are not taken.

  • Cerebral coma.
  • Heat.
  • Alcohol intoxication.
  • Prekomatoznoe condition.
  • Hyperinsulinism (episodes of hypocglycemia due to increased insulin levels).
  • A number of serious diseases - stomach cancer, stenosis (narrowing of the opening or lumen) of the pylorus of the stomach or esophagus, severe anemia, cachexia (the greatest exhaustion of the body) - are almost always accompanied by acetonuria.
  • Indomitable vomiting in pregnant women.
  • Eclampsia (severe toxemia in late pregnancy).
  • Infectious diseases.
  • Anesthesia, especially chloroform. In patients in the postoperative period, acetone may appear in the urine.
  • Various poisonings, for example, phosphorus, lead, atropine and many other chemical compounds.
  • Thyrotoxicosis (increased thyroid hormone levels).
  • The consequence of injuries affecting the central nervous system.

  • If acetone in the urine appears during pathological processes in the body, the treatment is prescribed by a doctor who observes the patient.

    Acetone in the urine during pregnancy

    During pregnancy, the appearance of acetone in the urine is to some extent a mysterious phenomenon. The exact cause of acetonuria in pregnant women, no one can say yet, but nevertheless, experts identify several factors contributing to the emergence of this syndrome:

    • Negative environmental impact.
    • Large psychological burdens on the future mother, not only in the present, but in the past.
    • Reduced immunity.
    • The presence of chemical products used in products - dyes, preservatives and flavors.
    • Toxicosis, in which the main symptom is constant vomiting. At the same time, it is simply necessary to restore the water balance in the body - drink water in small sips or even inject the liquid intravenously. With the right treatment, acetone from the urine disappears within two days or even earlier.

    In any case, it is necessary as soon as possible to identify the cause of acetonuria in a pregnant woman and eliminate it so that this condition does not affect the health of the unborn child.

    Urine Acetone Test

    Recently, the procedure for determining acetone in the urine has become much easier. At the slightest suspicion of a problem, it is enough to purchase special tests in a regular pharmacy, which are sold by the piece. It is best to take several strips at once.

    The test is done every morning for three days in a row. To do this, you need to collect the morning urine and lower the strip into it. After that, remove it, shake off the extra drops and wait a couple of minutes. If a strip of yellow turned to pink, this indicates the presence of acetone. The appearance of purple shades may indicate severe acetonuria.

    Naturally, the test will not show exact figures, but it will help to determine the level of acetone, at which an urgent need to consult a doctor.

    Acetone Urine Analysis

    To clarify the level of acetone, the doctor writes out a referral for a routine urinalysis, where it is determined along with other indicators.

    The collection of urine for analysis is carried out according to the usual rules: after hygienic procedures, the morning urine is collected in a dry and clean container.

    Normally, ketone bodies (acetone) in the urine are so small that they cannot be determined using standard laboratory methods. Therefore, it is believed that acetone in urine should not be normal. If acetone is detected in the urine, its quantity is indicated in the analysis by pluses ("crosses").

    One plus signifies that the reaction of urine to acetone is weakly positive.

    Two or three plus points are a positive reaction.

    Four pluses ("four crosses") - a sharply positive reaction, the situation requires immediate medical assistance.

    Which doctor should I use for acetone in the urine?

    Since the presence of acetone in the urine can be caused not only by various diseases, but also by physiological causes (overwork, unbalanced nutrition, etc.), it is not necessary to consult a doctor in all cases of acetonuria. The help of a doctor is necessary only in those cases when the appearance of acetone in the urine is due to various diseases. Below we consider the doctors of which specialties should be treated with acetonuria, depending on the disease that provoked it.

    If, in addition to acetone in the urine, a person is tormented by constant thirst, he drinks a lot and urinates a lot, the oral mucosa feels dry, then this indicates diabetes mellitus, and in that case you should refer endocrinologist (to register).

    If acetone is present in the urine due to high body temperature or an infectious disease, refer to general practitioner (to make an appointment) or infectious disease disease (enroll)who will conduct the necessary examination and find out the cause of a fever or inflammatory process with the subsequent appointment of treatment.

    If acetone in urine appeared after alcohol abuse, then you need to turn to doctor-narcologist (sign up), which will carry out the necessary treatment aimed at removing toxic decomposition products of ethyl alcohol from the body.

    If a high concentration of acetone in the urine is due to anesthesia, then you should refer to resuscitator (enroll) or a therapist for activities aimed at the early elimination of toxic products from the body.

    When there are symptoms of hyperinsulinism (recurrent bouts of sweating, palpitations, feeling of hunger, fear, anxiety, trembling in the legs and hands, loss of orientation in space, double vision, numbness and tingling in the extremities) or thyrotoxicosis (nervousness, excitability, lack of balance, fear , anxiety, fast speech, insomnia, disturbed concentration of thoughts, fine trembling of the limbs and head, rapid heartbeat, protrusion of the eyes, eyelid edema, double vision, dryness and pain in the eyes, sweating, high temperature body tour, low weight, intolerance to high ambient temperature, abdominal pain, diarrhea and constipation, muscle weakness and fatigue, menstrual disorders, fainting, headache and dizziness), then you should contact the endocrinologist.

    If a pregnant woman has acetone in the urine, and at the same time she is worried about frequent vomiting or complex edema + high blood pressure + protein in the urine, then you should refer to gynecologist (to sign up), since such symptoms make it possible to suspect pregnancy complications, such as severe toxicosis or preeclampsia.

    If acetone in the urine appears after suffering traumas of the central nervous system (for example, brain contusion, encephalitis, etc.), then you should refer to doctor-neurologist (sign up).

    If a person deliberately or accidentally poisoned with any substances, for example, took atropine or worked in hazardous production with lead, phosphorus or mercury compounds, then you should contact Toxicologist (enroll) or, in his absence, to the therapist.

    If acetone in the urine is combined with symptoms such as abdominal pain, flatulence, alternating constipation and diarrhea, muscle pain, swelling, recurrent rash on the skin, apathy, bad mood, feeling of hopelessness, possibly jaundice, drops of blood at the end of urination, helminth infection (parasitic worms) is suspected, and in this case it is necessary to refer to parasitologist (enroll), helminthologist (to sign up) or infectious diseases.

    If an adult or child has severe abdominal pain in combination with diarrhea, and possibly with vomiting and fever, then you should contact an infectious diseases specialist, since the symptoms indicate dysentery.

    If a child has a high concentration of acetone in the urine combined with diathesis, then it is necessary to consult a general practitioner or allergist (to sign up).

    When acetone in the urine is found on the background of pallor of skin and mucous membranes, weakness, dizziness, taste distortion, "stuck" in the corners of the mouth, dry skin, brittle nails, shortness of breath, heart palpitations, anemia is suspected, and in this case it is necessary to refer to hematologist (to sign up).

    If a person is too thin, the presence of acetone in the urine is one of the signs of such extreme exhaustion, and in this case it is necessary to consult a general practitioner or rehabilitator (to register).

    If, against the background of acetone in the urine, a person regularly has vomiting of food eaten before, a splashing sound in the stomach after abstinence from food for several hours, visible peristalsis in the stomach, belching sour or rotten, heartburn, weakness, fatigue and diarrhea, then stenosis is suspected pylorus or esophagus, in which case it is necessary to refer to Gastroenterologist (to register) and surgeon (to sign up).

    If acetone in the urine is combined with pain in the stomach, weight in the stomach after eating, poor appetite, aversion to meat, nausea and possibly vomiting, saturation with a small amount of food and poor general well-being, fatigue, then stomach cancer is suspected, and in such If necessary, refer to Oncologist (to sign up).

    What tests and examinations can be prescribed by a doctor with acetone in the urine?

    If acetone in the urine is combined with symptoms that indicate hyperinsulinism (periodic bouts of sweating, heart palpitations, hunger, fear, anxiety, tremors in the legs and arms, loss of orientation in space, double vision, numbness and tingling in the limbs), the doctor must assign a daily measurement of glucose concentration in the blood. The level of glucose is measured every hour or every two hours. If the results of daily monitoring of blood sugar levels reveal abnormalities, then the diagnosis of hyperinsulinism is considered established. And further, additional examinations are needed to understand the causes of hyperinsulinism. The first test is performed with starvation, when the level of C-peptide, immunoreactive insulin and glucose in the blood is measured on an empty stomach, and if their concentration is increased, then the disease is due to organic changes in the pancreas.

    To confirm that hyperinsulinism is caused by pathological changes in the pancreas, additional tests are conducted for sensitivity to tolbutamide and leucine. If the results of sensitivity tests are positive, then it is necessarily assigned Ultrasound (enroll), scintigraphy (to sign up) and magnetic resonance imaging of the pancreas (to enroll).

    But if during the fasting test the level of C-peptide, immunoreactive insulin and glucose in the blood remains normal, then hyperinsulinism is considered secondary, that is, not due to pathological changes in the pancreas, but a disorder of the work of other organs. In such a situation, to determine the cause of hyperinsulinism, the doctor prescribes an ultrasound scan of all abdominal organs and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain (to enroll).

    If acetone in urine is fixed against the background of thyrotoxicosis symptoms (nervousness, excitability, lack of balance, fear, anxiety, fast speech, insomnia, impaired concentration of thoughts, fine trembling of the limbs and head, rapid heartbeat, protrusion of the eyes, swelling of the eyelids, double vision, dryness and pain eyes, sweating, high body temperature, low weight, intolerance to high ambient temperature, abdominal pain, diarrhea and constipation, weakness and fatigue of muscles, menstrual disorders, fainting, headache and headache environment), the doctor prescribes the following tests and examinations:

    • The level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the blood,
    • The level of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) in the blood,
    • Thyroid ultrasound (sign up),
    • Computed tomography of the thyroid gland,
    • Electrocardiogram (ECG) (enroll),
    • Thyroid scintigraphy (enroll),
    • Биопсия щитовидной железы (записаться).

    First of all, blood tests are given for the content of thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine and triiodothyronine, as well as ultrasound imaging of the thyroid gland, since these studies make it possible to diagnose hyperthyroidism. Other studies listed above may not be carried out, as they are considered additional, and if it is not possible to do them, then they can be neglected. However, if technical capabilities are available, then computed tomography of the thyroid gland is also assigned, which allows you to accurately determine the localization of nodes in the organ. Scintigraphy is used to assess the functional activity of the gland, but a biopsy is taken only if a tumor is suspected. An electrocardiogram is performed to assess abnormalities in the work of the heart.

    When the presence of acetone in the urine is combined with constant thirst, frequent and abundant urination, a feeling of dry mucous membranes, diabetes mellitus is suspected, in which case the doctor prescribes the following tests and examinations:

    • Determination of fasting blood glucose,
    • Determination of urine glucose,
    • Determination of the level of glycated hemoglobin in the blood,
    • Determining the level of C-peptide and insulin in the blood,
    • Glucose Tolerance Test (enroll).

    Definition of glucose in the blood and urine, as well as the glucose tolerance test are required. These laboratory methods are sufficient for the diagnosis of diabetes. Therefore, in the absence of technical feasibility, other studies are not appointed and not conducted, since they can be considered as additional. For example, the level of C-peptide and insulin in the blood distinguishes type 1 diabetes from type 2 (but this can be done by other signs, without tests), and the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin makes it possible to predict the likelihood of complications.

    In order to identify complications of diabetes, the doctor may prescribe Ultrasound of the kidneys (to sign up), rheoencephalography (REG) (enroll) brain and reovasography (enroll) feet.

    If acetone in the urine is detected on the background of high body temperature or an infectious disease, the doctor prescribes general and biochemical blood tests, as well as various tests to identify the causative agent of the inflammatory process - PCR (sign up), IFA, RNGA, RIF, RTGA, bacteriological seeding, etc. At the same time, for conducting tests to identify the causative agent of infection, depending on the place of its localization, various biological fluids can be taken - blood, urine, feces, sputum, washings from the bronchi, saliva, etc. For the presence of which specific pathogens the tests are made, the doctor determines each time individually depending on the clinical symptoms present in the patient.

    When acetone in urine appears due to alcohol abuse, the doctor usually prescribes only general and biochemical blood tests, urinalysis, and Ultrasound examination of abdominal organs, to assess the general condition of the body and understand how pronounced functional disorders of the various organs.

    If acetone in the urine is detected in a pregnant woman, then the doctor must prescribe complete blood count (enroll) and urine, determination of protein concentration in urine, biochemical blood analysis, blood test for electrolyte concentration (potassium, sodium, chlorine, calcium), blood pressure measurement, analysis of blood clotting (with mandatory determination of APTT, PTH, MNO, TB, fibrinogen, RFMK and D-dimers).

    When acetone in the urine appears after suffering traumas of the central nervous system, the doctor, first of all, performs various neurological tests, and also prescribes general and biochemical blood tests, rheoencephalography, electroencephalography (enroll), dopplerography brain vessels and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. In addition, depending on the results of examinations, the doctor may additionally prescribe any other research methods necessary to identify the CNS pathology and clarify its nature.

    When acetone in urine appears simultaneously with suspected poisoning with heavy metal salts, phosphorus, atropine, the doctor must prescribe a complete blood count, blood clotting analysis and biochemical blood test (bilirubin, glucose, cholesterol, cholinesterase, AcAT, AlAT, alkaline phosphatase, amylase , lipase, LDH, potassium, calcium, chlorine, sodium, magnesium, etc.).

    When acetone in the urine is accompanied by abdominal pain, flatulence, alternating constipation and diarrhea, muscle pain, edema, periodic body rashes, apathy, bad mood, possibly jaundice, blood drops at the end of urination, then infection with parasitic worms is suspected and in this case The doctor may prescribe any of the following tests:

    • The analysis of feces for Shigella antigens using the PKA, RLA, ELISA, and Pharoma methods with antibody diagnosis,
    • Blood for complement fixation reaction,
    • Analysis of feces for dysbiosis (enroll),
    • Coprological examination of feces,
    • General blood analysis,
    • Biochemical blood test (it is necessary to determine the level of potassium, sodium, chlorine and calcium).

    If dysentery is suspected, shigella antigens must be tested by some method available to a medical institution, since it is these tests that help to clarify the diagnosis. The complement fixation reaction can be used as an alternative to tests for Shigella antigens, if the latter are not performed by laboratory staff. The rest of the survey methods are not always appointed, as they are considered additional and are used to identify the extent of the violations that have arisen as a result of dehydration and the disturbance of the intestinal biocenosis.

    When acetone in the urine appears in a child with diathesis symptoms, the doctor prescribes allergy tests (to sign up) sensitivity to various allergens, as well as determination of the level of IgE in the blood and complete blood count. Tests for sensitivity to allergens allow us to understand which foods, herbs, or substances a child has too much of a reaction provoking diathesis. And the blood test for IgE and the general blood test allow us to understand whether it is a question of a true allergy or pseudo-allergy. After all, if a child has pseudo-allergy, then it appears in the same way as a true allergy, but is caused by the immaturity of the digestive tract organs, and, consequently, these over-sensitivity reactions will pass when the baby is older. But if a child has a true allergy, then it will remain for the rest of his life, in which case he needs to know which substances cause his hypersensitivity reactions in order to avoid their effects on his body in the future.

    If acetone in urine is present on the background of pallor of the skin and mucous membranes, weakness, dizziness, taste perversion, "stuck" in the corners of the mouth, dry skin, brittle nails, shortness of breath, heart palpitations, dizziness - anemia is suspected, and in this case, the doctor prescribes the following tests and surveys:

    • General blood analysis,
    • Determining the level of ferritin in the blood (to enroll),
    • Determination of the level of transferrin in the blood,
    • Determining the level of serum iron in the blood,
    • Determination of serum iron binding capacity,
    • Determining the level of bilirubin in the blood (to enroll),
    • Determining the level of vitamins B12 and folic acid in the blood,
    • The study of fecal occult blood,
    • Bone marrow puncture (enroll) with counting the number of cells of each germ (myelogram),
    • X-ray of the lungs (to enroll),
    • Fibrogastroduodenoscopy (enroll),
    • Colonoscopy (enroll),
    • CT scan,
    • Ultrasound of various organs.

    When anemia is suspected, doctors do not prescribe all tests at once, but do it in stages. First, a complete blood count is made to confirm anemia and to suspect its possible nature (folic deficiency, B12-deficient, hemolytic, etc.). Further, at the second stage, tests are carried out to identify the nature of anemia, if necessary. B12-deficient anemia and folic deficiency anemia are also diagnosed by a general blood test, so if we are talking about these anemias, then, in fact, the simplest laboratory test is enough to detect them.

    However, for other anemias, a blood test is required for the concentration of bilirubin and ferritin, as well as a stool test for occult blood. If the level of bilirubin is elevated, then hemolytic anemia is caused by the destruction of red blood cells. If there is latent blood in the feces, it means hemorrhagic anemia, that is, caused by bleeding from the digestive, urinary tract or respiratory tract. If the level of ferritin is reduced, then anemia is iron deficient.

    Further studies are conducted only if hemolytic or hemorrhagic anemia is detected. For hemorrhagic anemia, colonoscopy, fibrogastroduodenoscopy, x-ray of the lungs, Ultrasound of the pelvic organs (to sign up) and the abdominal cavity to reveal the source of the bleeding. In hemolytic anemia, bone marrow is punctured with a smear test and counting the number of different hematopoietic stem cells.

    Analyzes to determine the level of transferrin, serum iron, serum iron-binding ability, vitamin B12 and folic acid is rarely prescribed, as they are referred to as auxiliary, since the results they give are also obtained by the other, simpler, tests listed above. For example, determining the level of vitamin B12 in the blood allows you to diagnose12-deficiency anemia, but the same can be done by a general blood test.

    If a high concentration of acetone in the urine is accompanied by regular vomiting some time after eating, a splashing noise in the stomach a few hours after eating, visible motility in the stomach area, rumbling in the stomach, belching sour or rotten, heartburn, weakness, fatigue, diarrhea, the doctor suspects stenosis (narrowing) of the pylorus of the stomach or esophagus, and prescribes the following tests and examinations:

    • Ultrasound of the stomach and esophagus (to sign up),
    • X-ray of the stomach with a contrast agent (enroll),
    • Esophagogastroduodenoscopy,
    • Electrogastrography
    • A blood test for hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit,
    • Biochemical analysis of blood (potassium, sodium, calcium, chlorine, urea, creatinine, uric acid),
    • Analysis of the acid-base state of the blood,
    • Electrocardiogram (ECG).

    Directly to identify stenosis (narrowing), you can assign ultrasound, or x-rays of the stomach with a contrast agent, or esophagogastroduodenoscopy. You can use any of these methods of examination, but the most informative and, accordingly, is preferred esophagogastroduodenoscopy. After stenosis is detected, electrogastrography is assigned to assess the severity of the impairment. In addition, if stenosis is detected, then a biochemical blood test, an acid-base blood condition, as well as an analysis of hemoglobin and hematocrit are assigned to assess the general condition of the body. If the test results reveal a low level of potassium in the blood, then electrocardiography is performed to assess the degree of impairment of the heart.

    When, in addition to acetone in the urine, a person has heaviness in the stomach after eating, saturation with a small amount of food, aversion to meat, poor appetite, nausea, sometimes vomiting, poor general well-being, fatigue, the doctor suspects stomach cancer and prescribes the following tests and examinations:

    • Gastroscopy with a fence biopsy (enroll) suspicious areas of the stomach wall,
    • X-rays of light,
    • Ultrasound of the abdominal organs,
    • Multispiral or positron emission tomography,
    • Analysis of fecal occult blood,
    • General blood analysis,
    • Blood test for tumor markers (to sign up) (the main ones are CA 19-9, SA 72-4, REA, additional CA 242, PC-M2).

    If you suspect cancer of the stomach, not all of the above studies are conducted without fail, since some of them duplicate each other's indicators and, accordingly, have the same information content. Therefore, the doctor chooses only the necessary set of studies for accurate diagnosis in each case. Thus, a mandatory complete blood count, fecal occult blood test, as well as gastroscopy with biopsy sampling, are compulsory for suspected gastric cancer. During gastroscopy, the eye doctor can see the tumor, assess its location, size, the presence of ulcerations, bleeding on it, etc. Be sure to pinch a small piece of the tumor (biopsy) for histological examination under a microscope. If the result of a biopsy examination under a microscope showed the presence of cancer, the diagnosis is considered accurate and finally confirmed.

    If the results of gastroscopy and biopsy histology revealed no cancer, other studies are not conducted. But if cancer is detected, then an x-ray of the lung is required to detect chest metastases, and either ultrasound or multispiral computed tomography or positron emission tomography is performed to detect abdominal metastases. A blood test for tumor markers is desirable, but not necessary, as gastric cancer is detected by other methods, and the concentration of tumor markers allows you to judge the activity of the process and help in the future to monitor the effectiveness of therapy.

    Treatment of acetonuria

    Treatment of acetonuria depends on the causes and severity of the process. Sometimes it's enough just to adjust the daily routine and diet. With high numbers of acetone in the urine, urgent hospitalization of the patient is necessary.

    First of all, the doctor will prescribe a strict diet and plenty of drinks. Water should be drunk often and little by little, children should be watered every 5-10 minutes with a teaspoon.

    In this case, a decoction of raisins and solutions of special medicines, such as Regidron or Orsol, are very useful. It is recommended to drink also non-carbonated alkaline water, chamomile infusion or decoction of dried fruit.

    If a baby or an adult cannot drink due to severe vomiting, intravenous drip is administered. In case of severe vomiting, injections of the Cerucal preparation sometimes help.

    In addition to drinking heavily, toxins can be removed from the body with the help of absorbent drugs such as White coal or Sorbex.

    To alleviate the condition of the child, you can make him a cleansing enema. And at a high temperature for an enema, prepare the following solution: dilute one tablespoon of salt in one liter of water at room temperature.

    Diet with acetone in the urine

    Diet with acetonuria must be observed.

    You can eat meat in boiled or stewed form, in extreme cases, in baked. It is allowed to eat turkey, rabbit, and beef.

    Vegetable soups and borscht, lean fish and cereal are also allowed.

    Vegetables, fruits, as well as juices, fruit drinks and compotes perfectly restore the water balance and at the same time are a source of vitamins.

    Of all the fruits most useful quince in any form. Since this fruit is rather tart to the taste, it is best to cook compote from it or make jam.

    Do not eat fatty meats and broths, sweets, spices, and various canned foods with acetonuria. Fried foods, bananas and citrus fruits are excluded from the menu.
    More about diets

    Komarovsky about acetone in urine

    Famous pediatrician and TV presenter Komarovsky E.O. repeatedly raised the topic of acetone in the urine in children and devoted a special transfer to the acetone grain syndrome.

    Komarovsky says that in recent years, the appearance of acetone in the urine has become very common in children. The doctor believes that this phenomenon is associated with unbalanced nutrition of children and the increasing incidence of chronic diseases of the stomach in childhood. When the diet is overloaded with protein and fatty foods, with a lack of carbohydrates, and even if the child has any digestive dysfunction, the ketone bodies formed are not processed, but begin to be excreted in the urine.

    In his program, Komarovsky lucidly explains to parents how to build baby food in order to prevent the development of acetonuria.

    Special features

    In pregnant women, the accumulation of acetone is associated with hormonal adjustment, when a tremendous load is created on all organ systems.

    Ketone bodies appear for the following reasons:

    • toxicosis at a late period (aggravated gestosis),
    • prolonged fasting
    • rich foods with fats and carbohydrates,
    • insufficient amount of protein
    • infectious diseases and chronic foci,
    • a strong change in hormonal background,
    • various liver pathologies (temporary and permanent),
    • injuries, tumors (extremely rare).

    Acetone in the urine is more likely to occur with severe and prolonged toxicosis. It is manifested by a serious deterioration and vomiting. During gestation, the mother's body has to work hard and recycle double the amount of protein.

    During pregnancy, a condition such as renal colic can provoke numerous complications. You can familiarize yourself with the main causes, symptoms and treatment of renal colic during pregnancy.

    In the first trimester, the formation of an increased amount of acetone can be controlled without effort. But the development of late gestosis can seriously threaten the condition of the mother and fetus. Здесь потребуется тщательное медицинское наблюдение, терапия, и соблюдение всех рекомендаций врача. Также ацетон в моче может появится:

    1. Из-за инфекции, она относится к более редким причинам повышения ацетона. Usually during pregnancy, future mothers try to protect themselves from viral and bacterial attacks. But no one is immune from the introduction of infectious agents in a weakened body.
    2. Women with endocrine disorders are registered with gynecologists. When diabetes occurs, there is always a risk of acetonuria. So called the state of the organism in which ketone substances are located at the upper critical boundary. This usually happens when the control of diabetes mellitus is lost or gestosis joins it.
    3. Sometimes acetone occurs for deep reasons related to dysfunction of the thyroid gland, pituitary, or adrenal glands. In this case, the patient will need a thorough examination and testing.

    Norm Ketones in Urine

    Acetone in the normal functioning of the body in the urine is not observed. It should be freely excreted during breathing and sweating.

    With deviations in urine, ketone substances are present, which are defined in mmol / l or mg / 100 l:

    • 0 mg per 100 ml (normal, no treatment required),
    • from 0.5 to 1.5 (mild severity, treatment can be carried out at home),
    • 2-4 (medium degree, requires monitoring in the hospital),
    • 4-10 (severe form with possible loss of consciousness, urgent hospitalization).

    Signs of acetone in the urine in pregnant women do not differ from other people. They are always specific, on their background the general condition is significantly deteriorating, and a health hazard may arise.

    • constant vomiting after eating food or fluids
    • appetite is disturbed, comes full refusal of any food or drink,
    • there is pain in the stomach in the form of spasms,
    • general intoxication,
    • decrease in urine volume,
    • the skin turns pale and dry
    • there may be redness on the cheeks,
    • tongue is coated with bloom.

    With a maximum increase in acetone, a change in the reaction of the nervous system is observed. Sharply excited state gives way to apathy and lethargy. If untreated, seizures and coma begin.

    With the advent of ketone bodies, there is a weak or strong smell of acetone from the mouth, from urine and vomit. It has a fruity aroma, like from premy apples. The more severe the condition of the pregnant woman, the more intense the smell.

    Acetonuria is always accompanied by laboratory changes in biological material (urine and blood).

    Previously, to determine the acetone, future mothers had to carry urine to the laboratory. The results came the next day, if the patient's condition allowed to wait.

    At the present time, it is not necessary to take urine for analysis every three days or once a week to monitor the condition of the future mother. To determine the level of acetone, there are special strips. The higher the level of ketone bodies, the more intense the indicator is colored.

    How to use?

    The strip is immersed in a container with urine, then removed and look at the intensity of staining. With traces of ketone substances, it becomes pink. Severe acetonuria is confirmed by bright purple staining of the strip. Express diagnostics is carried out at home. If the results are positive, the pregnant woman is advised to immediately visit a doctor.

    In the conditions of inpatient control tests are carried out, before which requires special training:

    1. for the day excluded the use of salty, spicy and spicy foods,
    2. remove from the diet products that contribute to the staining of urine,
    3. some time you can not take diuretic drugs,
    4. the analysis is carried out only after proper hygiene of the genitals.

    Therapy for acetone in the urine depends on the severity of the process and the cause. Many pregnant women quickly return to normal, they need only adjustments to the daily regimen, drinking and nutrition:

    1. High rates of acetonuria require urgent hospitalization. Patients are given a strict diet and fluid control to prevent dehydration. Drink take often, but not more than 30 ml, so as not to provoke a new attack of vomiting.
    2. To restore the water-salt balance, medicinal powder Regidron helps well. But with diabetes, it is contraindicated. With a strong loss of fluid can be taken up to 2-2.5 liters of solution.
    3. If a pregnant woman does not stop vomiting, the fluid is injected intravenously. To stop the reflex, use Zeercal.
    4. To reduce toxicity in the body, it is necessary to take sorbents. Well helps activated carbon in various preparations.

    Often, ketone bodies are detected by 15-18 weeks of pregnancy. During this period, natural toxicosis in most cases is absent. At a later stage, acetone may be the result of a breakdown in the breakdown of proteins and fats, stomach cancer, diabetes, or intestinal disorders.

    In case of frequently repeated critical acetonuria, a thorough examination is recommended. After finding the cause, the doctor will be able to prescribe the correct treatment.

    In case of deterioration, pallor of the skin and incessant vomiting, it is recommended to urgently call an ambulance.

    You can also watch this video where the doctor will tell you what tests are being taken, as well as other kidney diseases that pregnant women are predisposed to.

    Norm ketone and pathology diagnosis

    The presence of acetone microparticles in the fluid excreted by the kidneys is normal. Being in the normal range (10-30 milligrams per 24 hours), they do not require therapy. Treatment is not necessary and with small deviations. In the case of a strong excess of the ketone standard, it is urgent to identify the cause and take the necessary actions.

    If there is no time to conduct research on acetone in the urine in a medical facility, you need to buy test strips at the pharmacy. They allow you to identify the level of ketone bodies independently. The result is determined by comparing the test results with the scale on the packaging.

    At the maximum value, that is, with three pluses, it is possible to talk about the serious condition of the patient, since the number of acetone bodies is 10 mmol / l. In this situation, the person is immediately taken to hospital and immediately begin treatment.

    If the scale stops at two positive points, then ketone bodies are 4 mmol / l. With one plus acetone just 1.5 mmol / l. Such indicators allow therapy at home, showing a slight deviation from the norm. If the benefits are not identified, then the rate of acetone in the urine has not changed. In the case of well-being, but poor performance test strips, the study is carried out again or sent to the laboratory for delivery of the analysis of urine. Liquid should be collected in the morning, immediately after sleep.

    In adult

    The factor causing abnormality of acetone in the fluid excreted by the kidneys can be protein-rich food. Perhaps the digestive system fails to cope with its breakdown and absorption. Other reasons include:

    • lack of carbohydrate-containing foods
    • heavy physical loads, professional sports,
    • long-term fasting, strict diet food,
    • diabetes mellitus 1 and 2 degrees
    • raising body temperature to high levels
    • intoxication of the body with alcoholic beverages,
    • chloroform anesthesia,
    • cerebral coma and precomatose state,
    • infectious diseases and other serious illnesses (oncology of the stomach, anemia, cachexia),
    • effects of CNS injuries.

    If ketonuria occurs due to severe pathology, treatment is necessary under the supervision of an experienced physician.

    In children, the pancreas develops to the age of twelve. During this period, a lot of work falls on her, with which she can not cope. There is a malfunction in its functioning, which provokes acetonuria. The reasons that cause an increase in the number of acetone bodies in urine are also overeating, overwork, stressful situations or overexcitement, as well as hypothermia, temperature increase.

    Worms, dysentery, diathesis and antibiotics in an unidentified doctor’s dosage become factors for the development of ketonuria.

    In women in position

    The exact reasons for the increase in ketone bodies during pregnancy have not been identified. Doctors call several factors that can cause such a deviation:

    • bad ecology,
    • the psychological state of the future mother during pregnancy and before her,
    • reduced immune system function
    • toxicosis, eclampsia, thyrotoxicosis,
    • consumption of products containing dyes, preservatives, flavors.

    Seeing a doctor while carrying a future baby is necessary when detecting acetonuria. The doctor will prescribe the desired therapy or diet, so that the deviation does not harm the fetus and the expectant mother.

    Ketonuria Symptoms

    The increase in acetone in urine can be determined by a number of characteristic manifestations. This is the lethargy and psychological instability of the patient, the unpleasant smell of ketone from the oral cavity and during emptying of the bladder.

    For children, a somewhat different symptom is inherent. The crumb does not eat at all, when he drinks water, vomiting begins. Babies are worried about headaches, weakness, vomiting after trying to eat something. He complains of pain in the abdomen, near the navel, fever is observed, the tongue dries out. From the urine, emetic discharge and from the mouth comes the smell of ketone.

    Acetonuria Therapy

    When the deviation of ketone bodies from the norm is minimal, it will suffice to put in order the daily routine and nutrition. If acetone is high, the person is taken to hospital and sent to pass urine for research.

    After the examination, the doctor prescribes a strict diet and abundant drinking regime. Liquid is drunk in small portions and often. Babies are given water in a pair of small spoons every 10 minutes. You can use Regidron or Orsol. Also suitable decoction of chamomile, raisins and other dried fruit, alkaline water.

    With abundant vomiting prescribed injection of Cerukal. Due to frequent vomiting, a liquid can be injected with a dropper. Additionally, sorbents (white coal, Sorbex) are used to remove toxins from the body. The child can put an enema. At elevated temperatures, the water poured into it can be replaced with brine.

    Proper nutrition in pathology

    The purpose of the diet - a condition without which there will be no successful treatment of acetonuria. Of meat products allowed rabbit and beef, turkey. Eat them only in boiled and stewed form. The menu can include fish non-fat varieties, cereals. Vegetables and fruits, juices, compotes and fruit drinks filled with vitamins will be useful. In the daily diet can be soups and borscht of vegetables.

    Canned food, sweets, fatty meats and broths boiled on them are excluded from the menu for ketonuria. The use of bananas, citrus fruits and fried foods is not recommended.

    A pathological condition manifested as an accumulation of ketone particles in the blood is diagnosed through a general study of urine on acetone. A slight deviation does not pose a threat to human health and is eliminated at home. With a significant increase in the number of acetone bodies, the patient needs hospitalization and medical care.

    Causes

    Accidentally, the presence of acetone in the urine is rarely found. But since the pregnant woman is undergoing a comprehensive examination, this substance may well be detected.

    The main reason for the appearance of acetone in the urine is a complete restructuring of the woman’s body, resulting in the disruption of many organs. In a healthy organism, the acetone formed as a result of protein breakdown is neutralized and excreted naturally.

    And since during pregnancy a woman's body suffers a double burden, the removal of a dangerous product can become impossible or difficult to accomplish. As a result, it is found in its pure form in the urine.

    If we consider in detail the causes of the development of acetonuria, the diseases and conditions that can cause such manifestations include:

    • strong toxicosis, which is accompanied by frequent bouts of vomiting and fasting of the pregnant woman (usually occurs in the early stages),
    • increase in the load on the body (if there are no sharp changes in the indicator, the deviation is not considered a dangerous pathology),
    • preeclampsia (late),
    • diseases of the liver, kidneys, pancreas.

    Also among the reasons include external factors:

    • improperly organized diet (lack of carbohydrates, resulting in the consumption of fat reserves),
    • excessive amounts in the diet of fats and proteins,
    • poisoning or high fever,
    • improper production of the hormone "thyroid" or pancreas.

    Symptoms and signs

    A high content of acetone, which can be determined with the help of a clinical study, is usually manifested by a smell characteristic of a nail polish remover.

    This smell can come from the skin or mouth. During pregnancy, an increase in the level of acetone may be accompanied by a feeling of chronic fatigue, increased irritability and general weakness.

    In more complex clinical cases, when the content of acetone exceeds even the highest rates, a pregnant woman can experience vomiting, swelling, and fever. Usually, such symptoms occur when the exacerbation of a chronic illness causes the accumulation of a dangerous substance.

    How to take a urine test for acetone during pregnancy?

    The result of the urine analysis can be affected by the way the bioproduct is collected.

    A pregnant woman who has received an appropriate referral must observe some simple requirements:

    1. refrain from exercise before urine collection,
    2. eliminate from the diet fatty and salty foods for 2-3 days before the analysis,
    3. the container for the research material must be clean and dry (it is prepared in advance),
    4. urine for analysis is collected in the morning, during the first visit to the toilet. Before this, it is desirable to conduct hygiene of the external genital organs, as well as to close the entrance to the vagina with a cotton swab,
    5. The first urine should be flushed down the toilet. For the study will be enough 150-200 g of the product
    6. the urine is passed to the laboratory on the same day. It is strictly forbidden to collect the product from yesterday and keep it in the refrigerator,
    7. it is undesirable to shake the container with the biomaterial during transportation, since such actions may not have the best effect on the result.

    Compliance with these rules will help avoid damage to the urine and get the wrong results.

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