Acute herpetic stomatitis in children is susceptible to patients with weakened immunity from 1 to 3 years, whose body is not able to resist viral infections. Statistics show that the main cause of the disease is microorganisms that get to children in the mouth when exploring the area and wanting to taste all the surrounding objects. The inflammatory process is accompanied by the manifestation of a rash on the palate, tongue, gums, abscesses, temperature.
Causes of acute herpetic stomatitis in children
80% of infections occur in the winter and autumn. Main reasons:
- infectious diseases,
- a recent antibiotic course,
- damage to the oral mucosa,
- non-compliance with the rules of hygiene,
- monotonous food
- hormonal disbalance,
The smallest factors of weakening of immunity can serve the development of the disease in an acute form. Therefore, it is important to lead a healthy lifestyle, to prevent the risks of herpes stomatitis.
Viral herpes is transmitted by airborne, hematogenous and household methods.
Ways of infection
- close contact with infected people, animals,
- intrauterine infection during the passage of the fetus through the birth canal,
- contact with surfaces, household items on which the virus is located.
At the time of teething in children, one must strictly adhere to the rules of hygiene, since it is during this period that the danger of catching the virus is high.
Signs and symptoms of herpetic stomatitis
The incubation period can last from 1 to 7 days, but most often within 5 hours after the virus enters the body, a rash, redness, and white sores, vesicles, appear on the oral mucosa. The vesicles with serous fluid contained within the fluid subsequently burst, forming aphthous (ulcers). This creates discomfort to the child when swallowing food, which is followed by a complete rejection of food.
As the disease progresses, it is divided into three degrees of severity: mild, moderate and severe.
Symptoms of mild lesions
- insignificant body temperature
- drowsiness or refusal to sleep
- swelling of the gums,
- enlarged lymph nodes.
With a mild child, the child becomes whiny and restless, but if you know how to properly treat herpes stomatitis in a child, then a bubbly rash can be avoided.
Symptomatology of moderate degree of damage
- lack of appetite,
- white bloom on the tongue.
At this stage, multiple blistering rash begins to grow cloudy, burst, cough, runny nose, gums may bleed, leave behind erosion, the treatment of which will take up to 2 weeks. Herpetic stomatitis in children has a wave-like character, may subside for several days, then suddenly flash a high temperature jump.
Symptoms of severe damage
- rash on lips and nose
- increased salivation,
- white acne all over the mouth,
- burning mouth,
- bad breath.
The severe form of the disease is quite rare. It can cause a secondary bacterial infection, septic lesion of internal organs (airways are inflamed), and become chronic. Recurrent stomatitis is less painful, and healing of aft is faster.
Diagnosis of the disease
At the initial stage, it is not possible to diagnose the disease, especially in children under one year old. Therefore, you should pay attention to excessive tearfulness and unpleasant smell from the mouth. Most often, parents go to a doctor at an advanced stage, therefore, at the first signs, an immediate examination of the patient is needed. Doctors prescribe a complete blood count, urine. In mild form, it may be unsuccessful, since in children the reading of the number of lymphocytes in the blood up to 50% is considered normal. In this case, the doctor sends the child to cytological examination, which consists in the study of scrapings from areas affected by erosion. If required, a number of other procedures are appointed, expensive but effective.
Symptoms and treatment of herpetic stomatitis in children
- Characteristics and causes
- Treatment methods
Herpetic stomatitis in children occurs quite often. If a child has been found this viral infection, which led to the development of an inflammatory process in the oral cavity, it is necessary to immediately begin treatment. The sooner the disease is diagnosed and measures taken to eliminate it, the faster and easier it will be during the course of therapy.
At the first contact of the herpes virus with the body of a child, which manifests itself in the form of an infectious lesion of the oral cavity, herpetic stomatitis is diagnosed. This pathological process is most often observed in children under the age of 3 years.
This fact is explained by the fact that the immune system has not yet fully formed in the children's body, or it is in a weakened state.
By the nature of their course, herpetic stomatitis in children can be acute and chronic.
Herpes virus type 1 enters the body of the baby when in contact with a sick person. An infection can enter the body through the mucous membrane, through the skin or by airborne droplets.
As soon as the virus settles in the body, it begins to multiply actively using cell resources. Against this background, signs of the disease begin to appear.
Symptoms of the pathological process can occur in mild, moderate and severe forms.
The main reasons that cause herpes stomatitis in a child are:
- previous infectious disease,
- reduction of the body’s natural defense functions,
- lack of vitamins
- close contact with the carrier of the disease,
- poor quality care for the baby's oral cavity,
- trauma to the oral mucosa,
- hypothermia or overheating,
- nerve strain (stress).
Infection with the herpes virus is possible immediately after birth. A pathogenic agent enters the body during passage through the birth canal, in the case when the woman has a herpetic infection.
Treatment of herpes stomatitis in children should be comprehensive. All drugs can be prescribed only by a doctor. Independent attempts to cope with the disease can only aggravate its course and provoke the development of serious complications.
With this problem, parents should contact a pediatrician or dentist. In the process of diagnosis may require consultation of other specialists.
Due to the fact that herpes stomatitis is actively developing against the background of reduced immunity of the baby, therapeutic treatment should include a set of measures aimed at strengthening the immune system. Otherwise, the fight against the disease will be ineffective.
- antiviral drugs
- means for correcting the immune system,
- vitamin therapy,
In case of a severe form of the disease, broad-spectrum antibiotics can be prescribed.
As for young children and newborns, antibacterial drugs are prescribed extremely rarely. In this situation, preference is given to local treatment.
Parents should treat affected areas with a solution of such an antiseptic drug as Furacilin. Pain can be removed by applying applications with Lidocaine or Trimecain. Sea buckthorn and rosehip oil has a good therapeutic effect.
It is prohibited to treat the oral mucosa with alcohol-containing preparations, as there is a possibility of getting a burn.
In addition, the child should be provided with abundant drinking, balanced nutrition and a comfortable ambient temperature. To avoid the adherence of a bacterial infection, you need to carefully monitor oral hygiene.
To prevent infection of other children or adults, the child needs to allocate their personal dishes and separate toys that should be washed regularly. For babies who are bottle-fed, all nipples and bottles should always be carefully handled. Such measures will prevent re-infection.
When diagnosing a mild form of the disease, the therapeutic course lasted about 10 days. When a moderate or severe form of herpes stomatitis is observed, the duration of treatment increases to several weeks.
The recovery period will largely depend on the child’s immune system and the form of the disease. But even if the symptoms of herpetic stomatitis were already on the second or third day, it is impossible to stop treatment. You need to complete a full therapeutic course.
Otherwise, the disease recurs, but in a more stable form.
In order to further prevent the development of herpetic stomatitis, the child must follow the rules of hygiene, increase his immune defense and try not to contact infected people.
Acute herpetic stomatitis in children: manifestations and features
Single entry number to the doctor
In children, diseases of the oral cavity are quite common. This is due to unconscious behavior, in which bacteria get into the mouth through infected objects and dirty hands - an ideal environment for the development of pathogenic microflora.
Acute herpetic stomatitis in children is not immediately apparent. After a certain time, the child begins to feel discomfort when chewing products, which eventually develops into full-fledged pain.
What other symptoms signal the development of the disease, as well as methods of treatment, we will examine in more detail.
Features of the disease
Acute herpetic stomatitis is an infectious disease caused by the first type of herpes virus. Most often, the defeat of the oral cavity occurs in the period from six months to three years, when the child unknowingly pulls into the mouth any objects from the street.
Stomatitis develops when the child does not have any developed immunity to the herpes virus, and he contacts him for the first time. After medication, certain immunity is produced.who will be able to recognize herpes and fight it in the early stages.
The lack of complex treatment leads to the fact that the virus settles in the body and can stay in it all its life, without giving signs (latent form).
The stage of manifestation occurs in the case of weakening of the protective functions of the body, in which there is an acute form of the disease.
Constant hand washing is not enough to pass the virus. The risk factors that increase the likelihood of pathogen penetration into the body of a child include:
- Direct contact with the carrier of the virus,
- Reduced immunity, especially in the off season,
- The presence of frequent stress and instability of nervous reactions,
- Abrupt climate change.
When a virus enters the body through mucous membranes, it is important to notice it as soon as possible, although this is not so easy, since herpetic stomatitis has an incubation period of up to 3 days.
General rules for the treatment of herpetic stomatitis in childhood
Since the virus enters the body is able to penetrate into any cells and make its own adjustments to their work, it is important to treat the treatment comprehensively. What exactly will be the treatment, and what drugs will contain, directly depends on the age of the child and the severity of the disease.
Also taken into account are the individual characteristics of health, especially if there are chronic diseases or individual intolerance to any drugs.
It is better to visit the doctors as soon as possible so that the treatment process is effective and takes a little time. Up to this point, parents are advised to adhere to the following rules:
- Do not force the child to eat, and if the appetite still persists, it is better to eat small doses and only pureed meals.
- Provide abundant warm drinks, since water is able to naturally remove toxins accumulated in the body, thereby reducing their concentration in the blood.
- Identify the child's separate room or bed, as well as personal hygiene items.
- Treat the mucous membrane of the mouth with a solution consisting of boiled water at room temperature and baking soda in a 10: 1 ratio.
The key rule is the lack of self-treatment and avoidance of the recommendations of the doctor. Only an experienced specialist can determine the type and severity of the disease, as well as select the most effective treatment. In most cases, self-treatment leads to a deterioration in the patient’s general condition, in which further treatment is performed only in the hospital.
Medicinal products whose activity is aimed at inhibiting the synthesis of the herpes virus help to prevent its spread through the circulatory system. Medicines destroy the virus molecule, not allowing it to multiply. Being in minimal concentration, the body over time suppresses the virus itself, which loses its viability.
Antiviral therapy can have two directions:
- Systemic - applies to the entire body, effective in cases of severe disease.
- Local - acts directly on the inflammatory focus, removing symptoms and effectively fighting the virus.
Among the most popular and effective drugs, without which treatment can not do, emit:
- Herpevir (tablets and ointment) - can be used both orally in the form of tablets, and externally, for lubrication of lesions.
- Viferon ointment - reduces swelling and itching, and also makes the treatment as effective as possible.
- Acyclovir ointment - used externally, well tolerated in childhood.
The duration of the course of treatment is prescribed by the doctor individually.
Its principle is to maintain the body's natural defenses. Treatment at the same time becomes more effective, since the fight against the virus is made, both with medicines and with the help of the organism itself. For children use these drugs:
- Anaferon pills - contains interferon, which is produced in the body independently and fights against foreign cells.
- Immunoflazid - drops for oral use, a completely homeopathic remedy that has tonic properties.
- Aflubin - allowed for use by children from birth, well helps to restore immunity.
Before you start using one of the drugs, you must consult a doctor.
Anti-Inflammatory Nonsteroid Drugs
Treatment with this group of drugs involves the removal of the inflammatory process, pain syndrome and the fight against fever. Such a complex effect is achieved due to the multi-action effect of NSAIDs on prostaglandins - cells that play a key role in the development of pain, swelling of soft tissues and temperature increase. The most affordable medicines are:
- Ibuprofen or drugs based on it - copes well with fever, and can also be used from the first months of life.
- Phenylbutazol - is used only under the supervision of doctors, when the treatment is performed directly stationary.
- Ketoprofen - a stronger tool with a pronounced anti-inflammatory effects.
Treatment needs to be made only by those preparations which the doctor selected for the child. The specialist has more experience, so it is better to trust him, and not the advice of friends, grandmothers or other people.
It is necessary and important in the case when the treatment was overdue, and the child has signs of intoxication, in the form of severe swelling of the mouth, urticaria and itching of the skin.
Antihistamines are also good as a preventive measure against allergic reactions, which can occur while using certain medicines, without which treatment is ineffective.
For children, the best antihistamines are the following:
- Suprastin - to quickly relieve symptoms of allergy, you can put a shot deep intramuscularly,
- Aleron - is produced in the form of a suspension for young children,
- Finistil drops are well tolerated and do not provoke adverse reactions.
Summing up, we can say that no one is insured against the occurrence of herpetic stomatitis in childhood. It can manifest itself even in the most healthy babies of the most caring and clean parents.
It is important to start treatment as soon as possible, reducing the child to the doctor, in order to diagnose and confirm the intended diagnosis. Self-medication may not only be ineffective, but also carry a threat to the inferior child organism.
Only a doctor is able to prescribe a complex treatment, which in a few days will save the baby from unpleasant sensations in the mouth.
Bladder ulcers - herpetic stomatitis in children. Treatment and Symptoms
As medical practice shows, about 80% of children are familiar with stomatitis, most of whom are in the age range from 6 months to 3 years.
Herpetic stomatitis refers to varieties of herpetic infectious pathologies and delivers considerable discomfort to patients. To avoid serious complications of the disease, parents should know how to recognize herpetic stomatitis in children.
Causes of the disease
Herpetic stomatitis, which in the medical field is also called aphthous, leads not only to local lesions of the oral mucosa, but also to general intoxication of the body. Against the background of pathology, disturbances in the functioning of the nervous and reticuloendothelial systems and a decrease in immunity are often observed.
Attention! The reason for the development of this type of stomatitis is considered to be the infection of the body with a herpes virus, which for a long time may be in an inactive state, without showing itself at all.
Infection is possible both through contacts with pathogen carriers and at birth from an infected mother. The manifestation of the first signs of herpes stomatitis indicates activation of the virus under the influence of provoking factors.
Activation of the causative agent of the disease can be triggered by:
- weakening of protective forces
- previous infectious diseases
- lack of vitamins in the body,
- inadequate oral hygiene,
- close contacts with persons suffering from herpetic stomatitis,
- mechanical damage to the oral mucosa, burns resulting from eating hot,
- surgery or other mechanical trauma,
- dehydration of the child’s body,
- non-compliance with the diet, resulting in an organism deficiency of nutrients,
- hormonal disruptions in the child’s body,
- treatment with strong drugs.
One-year-old children are more susceptible to the development of herpetic stomatitis, which is explained by the insufficient formation of the child’s immune system at this age. One of the provoking factors at an early age is the period of appearance of milk teeth, accompanied by the regular formation of wounds on the mucous membrane of the baby’s mouth.
Herpetic stomatitis in its development passes the incubation period lasting up to 1 week. As for the duration of the pathology, it rarely exceeds 2 weeks.
Most often, the first development of the disease in children is diagnosed with acute herpetic stomatitis in children, accompanied by:
- Increased body temperature.
- Migraine, dizziness.
- The appearance of bubble eruptions in the oral cavity. The neoplasms are filled with a practically colorless liquid and cause significant discomfort. Over time, there is destruction of the bubbles and the formation of painful sores in their place.
- Swollen gums.
- Enlarged submandibular lymph nodes.
- Itching and burning, aggravated by eating food.
The listed symptoms are common and may differ depending on the form of the severity of the ailment. So, they distinguish mild, moderate and severe herpetic stomatitis in children.
Photo manifestations of the disease confirms the divergence of symptoms.
Herpetic stomatitis in children. A photo.
For example, mild form of the disease is not accompanied by fever, weakness, malaise. The only sign of stomatitis in this case are only single bubbles of small size. As a rule, mild stomatitis is quite fast and is not accompanied by significant discomfort.
Important! In case of herpetic stomatitis of moderate severity, young patients often experience weakness, bouts of nausea, the appearance of numerous vesicles in the oral cavity, an increase in temperature to subfebrile parameters.
A pronounced symptomatology is characterized by a severe form of the ailment, accompanied by an increase in temperature to the level of 40 degrees, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and multiple rashes in the oral cavity. In the absence of proper treatment, herpetic stomatitis may become chronic.which is quite difficult to treat.
Chronic herpetic stomatitis can occur against the background of infectious diseases, frequent colds, with regular injuries of soft tissue structures in the oral cavity. At the same time, the chronic form of the disease differs from acute stomatitis by symptomatology, which is limited solely to rashes in the oral cavity.
How to treat herpetic stomatitis in children
In determining the optimal treatment regimen for stomatitis, it is extremely important to begin to establish the form of the ailment, which only a specialist can. As already noted, it is necessary to pay due attention to the treatment of the acute form in order to avoid its chronicity.
In this case, an integrated approach is recommended, including local, antiviral and immunomodulatory therapy.
Important! Topical preparations are prescribed to eliminate pain, accelerate the recovery of damaged soft tissues and prevent the emergence of new sores.
Since the cause of the development of the disease is the herpes pathogen, it is impossible to do without drugs with antiviral effect. To suppress the activity of the virus, you can use 0.5% tebrofen ointment, 0.25% oxolinic ointment, interferon solution, zovirax, neoferon solution.
With a responsible approach, it will be possible to defeat acute herpetic stomatitis in children. Treatment must be supplemented and nutrition correction. It is recommended to supplement the daily diet with products containing many nutrients and healthy substances. We are talking about fresh fruits, vegetables, natural juices, berries.
With this child it is better to give carefully chopped food to reduce the intensity of pain. It is also important to check for adequate fluid intake by the child.
Due to the discomfort, children often refuse to eat food, therefore, to facilitate well-being, experts recommend anesthetizing the oral mucosa using anesthesin emulsion solution.
Processing should be done before each feeding.. Vitamin complexes can help strengthen the immune system of the baby, for the purpose of which you need to contact a pediatrician.
If after three days from the moment of the use of complex therapy there is no improvement in the condition, you may need to hospitalization of the child for further treatment in inpatient conditions.
Only in this way will it be possible to prevent the development of chronic stomatitis, which is practically not cured.
Drugs for the treatment of herpetic stomatitis
The basis of the treatment of herpetic stomatitis is antiviral drugs, because with their help you can suppress the activity of the pathogen, thereby accelerating the cure and prevent the recurrence of the disease.
Only a specialist will be able to recommend how to work on herpetic stomatitis in children. Treatment is most often carried out with the use of:
- Acyclovir - a drug that effectively disinfects herpes. The mechanism of the effect of the medicinal composition is to reduce the number of new ulcers, accelerate the renewal and healing of tissue structures, as well as eliminate the pain and discomfort that accompany the acute form of pathology. Acyclovir can be used in the treatment of children from the age of 3, but can also be used at an early age, if we are talking about severe forms of herpetic stomatitis, resistant to other formulations. The ointment should be applied dotted on the damaged areas, pre-sanitized the oral cavity using sea buckthorn oil or calendula infusion, as well as eliminating white plaque with cotton buds. One treatment per day with a duration of treatment up to 7 days is enough.
- Zovirax - antiviral cream based on acyclovir. The drug is recommended to treat the affected areas every three hours with a duration of treatment of about 10 days. The composition can be applied at any age.
- Gerpevir - Another acyclovir antiviral ointment. Treatment of the oral cavity with a drug is recommended every 4 hours, but it must be borne in mind that the composition can be used only by children over 12 years of age. The tablet form of the drug can be prescribed for children from 1 year old, and the optimal dosage should be determined by the attending physician.
Any disease is easier to prevent than to cure. This also applies to herpetic stomatitis, the prevention of which parents should pay due attention to, informing children about the basic rules of hygiene, the importance of caring for the oral cavity and the dangers of using other people's toys.
With a responsible approach, the disease will bypass your child.
Herpetic stomatitis in a child: treatment
Aphthous or herpetic stomatitis is one of the most common diseases of the oral cavity, which manifest themselves in childhood.
Main danger It is not even an acute course of the disease, but a high risk of its transition to the chronic form.
The causative agent is a viral infection, which in addition to damage to the mucous membranes also causes a number of associated symptoms that are most dangerous for young children.
Forms of the disease
The main criterion for the classification of herpes stomatitis is the severity of the course of the disease and the severity of the symptoms.
This allows us to distinguish three forms of this disease:
- In mild form there is a small local lesion and inflammation of the mucous membranes. Concomitant symptoms are mild, perhaps a slight increase in body temperature.
- With medium form inflammations occur more severely, there is a blistering rash on the affected areas of the mucous membranes.
The child's body temperature rises, a feverish state arises, and all the symptoms characteristic of him.
- With severe form The child’s condition is critical as the body temperature rises to maximum levels.
Inflammatory processes also occur in a more acute form and quickly spread to adjacent areas of the skin and mucous membranes.
Ways of infection
Infection with a virus that provokes the development of herpetic stomatitis, in most cases occurs in early childhood.
However, with good health and the immune system of the baby, he doesn’t manifest himself for any length of time.
Infection usually occurs in the following ways:
- Transmission of the virus from the mother during childbirth if she was infected.
- Transfer from other children during socializing and games.
- Transfer through the dishes.
- Infection through personal care products, if several people use them at once.
- The virus enters the mucous membranes.
Symptoms of herpes stomatitis in children
The incubation period most often is a few days to 2-3 weeks, after which there is pronounced symptoms of the disease.
Features of the clinical picture depend on the form in which herpes stomatitis proceeds.
In most cases, children have the following symptoms of this disease:
- Sensation of burning sensation in the mouth, which causes great discomfort.
- Increased activity of the salivary glands.
- Head and muscle aches.
- Increased body temperature.
- Loss of appetite.
- Weakness, severe fatigue, even in the absence of vigorous activity.
- Inflammation of the lymph nodes located in the submandibular region.
- The appearance of characteristic unpleasant smell from the mouth.
In the absence of measures taken at the initial stage of the disease, the main symptom occurs - a herpetic rash. It affects all mucous membranes of the mouth, lips, nasal sinuses, in rare cases eyelids.
A rash consists of a multitude of bubbles, inside of which there is a turbid liquid content, a touch and any mechanical effect leads to acute pain.
Principles of treatment of herpes stomatitis in children
Effective treatment of herpes stomatitis in childhood is as follows:
- Taking antiviral pills.
- The use of tools for the normalization of body temperature, the form of release is chosen individually depending on the child's age, recommendations of the pediatrician and personal preferences.
- Taking antihistamine medicines, if burning in the mouth and swelling of the mucous membranes cause severe discomfort.
- Reception of immunomodulators.
- Taking vitamins to stimulate local protection.
- Local antiseptic treatment of affected areas.
Pediatricians in fact always prescribe a comprehensive drug therapy, which includes the following medications:
- "Acyclovir" is one of the most common and effective antiviral drugs, sometimes replaced by "Gerpevir", showing excellent results in combating the herpes virus.
If it is impossible to receive these funds, they can be replaced by Virolex or Zovirax.
- "Efferalgan" and "Paracetamol" used to eliminate all the pain arising on the background of the disease.
To obtain an anesthetic effect, you can also use Panadol or use Lidocoin as a lotion solution.
- "Fenistil" is an antihistamine drug that is used to relieve increased swelling and eliminate burning sensation.
Instead, you can use "Erius" or "Diazolin".
- "Immudon" is included in the course of drug therapy as an immunocorector.
- "Askorutin" taken to enrich the body with vitamins and stimulate the immune system, which helps to increase the body's resistance to disease.
Most of the folk remedies for the treatment of stomatitis in children are only an addition to the prescribed course of treatment, their use must necessarily be coordinated with the pediatrician.
Some options taken from traditional medicine are discussed below:
- Local processing affected mucosa with sea buckthorn, peach, flax or rosehip oil.
- Rinsing the mouth with chamomile extractwhich has an antiseptic effect and stimulates the regeneration of damaged tissues.
For the preparation of means you need to dissolve one tablespoon of dry plant in a glass of water, brought to a boiling state.
- Lubrication of herpes rash or formed ulcers with natural bee honey. Practice this method is allowed only in the absence of a child's tendency to allergic reaction.
Physical therapy is prescribed for the transition from herpes stomatitis to the chronic form and frequent relapses of the disease.
With this diagnosis, the following techniques can help:
- The introduction of drugs through the mucous membranes under the influence of electric current.
- Passage of laser therapy.
- Exposure to ultraviolet rays.
An important part of complex therapy is providing the body with the necessary amount of vitamins.
This can be done in the following ways:
- Reception "Askorutina" in pill form.
- Reception of multivitamin complexes recommended by the attending physician.
- Vitamin supplement
- The use of vitamin A in liquid form for local treatment of the affected mucous membranes, which will positively affect the process of regeneration of soft tissues.
In case of herpetic stomatitis, it is recommended to give children the most crushed food, past heat treatment and brought to the optimum temperature, because too hot or cold dishes can aggravate the situation.
If possible, the following foods should be completely excluded from the diet:
- Fresh fruits, berries and vegetables. At the same time allowed to use puree of non-acidic types of fruit, as well as freshly squeezed fruit and vegetable juices.
- Dry bread.
- Cocoa, chocolate, any pastry sweets.
- Spices, spices.
- Products with high acidity.
Given the ease of transmission of the herpes virus in various ways, it is impossible to fully protect a child from herpes stomatitis.
However, compliance with some preventive measures will significantly reduce this risk:
- Weaning a child from bad habits sucking fingers or foreign objects.
- Maintain oral hygiene: It is necessary not only to brush your teeth regularly, but also to rinse your mouth after each meal.
- Maintain breast hygiene, if the baby is breastfed.
- Promoting the rules of personal hygiene: the child should wash his hands as often as possible, he must provide an individual towel.
- Timely referral to a pediatric dentist and treatment of milk teeth, if you have any problems with them.
- Insulation from other children and adults who suffer from herpes stomatitis.
- Ensuring clean air: a child should not breathe in wine vapors or tobacco smoke.
- Ensuring a complete and proper diet, which includes food rich in vitamins and useful trace elements.
Causes of disease
Mostly the virus affects children up to three years. The fact is that unformed immunity of a baby is susceptible to viral infections. Children of this age actively try the world "to the taste."
Thin mucous membrane of the child's mouth is easily injured. Protective forces do not have time to cope with all incoming microorganisms.
Baby saliva does not have the same powerful antiseptic properties as adult secrets.
Most often the infection occurs on the background of the prerequisites for it:
- weakening from other previous infections,
- reduced immunity of any nature
- deficiency of vitamins and microelements,
- antibiotic therapy
- contact with a person who has herpetic stomatitis,
- a serious violation of the integrity of the mucous membrane,
- lack of care for the oral mucosa,
- non-compliance with baby food standards.
Experts note that the older the child, the worse, as a rule, the disease is tolerated. The latent period of the disease lasts from two days to two weeks. At the prodromal stage, symptoms of general malaise are noted.
Worse sleep, decreased appetite, mood swings are observed, the child becomes moody and restless. Abundant salivation, nausea, sometimes vomiting, swollen lymph nodes are the first precursors of an impending affliction.
The disease itself, or rather its acute phase, begins with a sharp increase in body temperature (38-40 ° C).
The mucous membrane of the oral cavity is covered with small vesicular eruptions. Their size is about 2-3 mm. Inside they are filled with liquid, because of the thin walls the blisters easily burst and ulcers form in their place.
A rash is localized on the gums, on the inside of the cheeks, on the palate and on the tongue, around the lips and on the lips. Together with the rash, the gums can become inflamed, runny nose and cough, as well as conjunctivitis.
There is dry mouth, increased thirst. Vesicular rash is painful. In children, there are several stages of the rash, each of which is accompanied by fever.
It is important to prevent the addition of a bacterial infection. A characteristic sign that a viral disease is complicated by a bacterial component is a whitish coating on the surface of aft. Parents of children under one year should be especially attentive. Complications of stomatitis can cause a septic lesion of the body, inflammatory processes in other areas.
Even if the symptoms of the disease and the clinical picture of the patient coincide, the final installation of the diagnosis is performed exclusively by the doctor!
Classification of herpetic stomatitis
Herpetic stomatitis is distinguished from diseases of the oral cavity, along with fungal, candidal stomatitis. By the number of cases of herpetic stomatitis emit:
- acute stomatitis,
- chronic stomatitis.
The disease may occur once and no longer be felt. This form of the disease is called acute stomatitis.
If during the initial manifestation of the disease the proper treatment was not provided, then the stomatitis can turn into a chronic form.
Then the disease will periodically return as soon as favorable conditions arise for it. It is very important to follow the doctor’s instructions for primary lesions with stomatitis in order not to provoke a relapse.
Among the recommendations of a specialist are regular oral hygiene, general strengthening of the immune system, proper nutrition.
There are several degrees of virus infection: mild, moderate, severe. Depending on the level of spread of the virus, the intensity of the symptoms also changes. The most common first two forms of the disease are mild and moderate. In mild form, the number of ulcers is insignificant, the body temperature does not rise to critical levels.
The disease of moderate severity is characterized by the addition of nausea, vomiting, and headache. The number of lesions is greater, and the temperature is greater.
Severe form can be life-threatening toddler. High fever, rash spread to mucous eyes, area around mouth.
To make sure of the diagnosis, the doctor examines the patient and a number of examinations that will help not only confirm the problem, but identify the severity of the disease, determine the affected area, and identify possible complications. After all, the virus is not so bad as its consequences.
Herpetic stomatitis can be confused with other diseases with similar symptoms that require different treatment. This can be herpetic sore throat, measles, scarlet fever, diphtheria. The basic ones for making a diagnosis are:
- Virological examination. The fastest method to detect a virus, its cells or antigens in the blood.
- Cytological examination. Taking scrapings from the affected surface to determine the type of lesion.
- PCR analysis. Diagnostics allows to establish the genetic nature of the virus, determine the number of microorganisms in the blood plasma, the nature of their appearance. The method allows you to accurately select the desired drug.
- Immunofluorescence analysis. The study is based on the determination of the amount of antigens formed in the blood. This allows the doctor to prescribe and adjust the treatment.
The first symptoms of the disease should be the basis for treatment to the pediatrician. The doctor can assess the severity of the disease and recommend treatment at home or in a hospital. Other specialists may be involved - a dentist, a neuropathologist.
A child suffering from stomatitis is given bed rest, maintaining an optimal indoor microclimate (moist cool air), and abundant drinking.
It is better to limit food with a low level of acidity. It will not irritate the resulting brooms.
It is better to give the food in ground form, mush or mashed potatoes.
To protect against infection by other family members with a virus, it is necessary to follow standard hygiene rules. Wet cleaning and airing the room will ease breathing. Individual dishes, toys, personal hygiene products, towels should be in every patient. It is better to allocate a separate room to your baby.
Treatment of stomatitis is aimed at suppressing the virus, maintaining immunity and eliminating symptoms.
Combined therapy includes:
- Antiviral treatment. Interferon-based drugs are used that are able to block the reproduction of the pathogen and eliminate the virus that already exists in the blood.
- Sanitation and removal of inflammation in the oral cavity. Mucous thoroughly cleaned from food debris. Washed with a solution with antiseptic properties. Apply gels, ointments, solutions of local action for healing and disinfection.
- Stimulation of immunity. Recommended therapy to increase the body's resistance, immunomodulatory drugs. Also prescribed vitamin and mineral complexes.
- Antihistamine effect. To relieve swelling, reduce signs of intoxication, the doctor may prescribe drugs from allergies.
- Antipyretics. At body temperatures above 38 ° C, paracetamol or ibuprofen-based products are used. Usually for kids use a form of suspension.
- Antibiotic treatment. If the doctor detects signs of complications with a bacterial infection, then antibiotics are prescribed. Complications can join after 3-4 days of illness. The decision on such therapy is taken exclusively by the doctor!
It is very important to properly handle the oral cavity. After rinsing the mouth with a special solution, it is better to clean it additionally with a cotton swab. This should be done delicately so as not to damage the wounds. Ulcers are lubricated with gel with anti-inflammatory and wound-healing effect.
At the final stage of the disease, herpetic crusts can form. For them use lotions and applications. Additional therapy with homeopathic preparations is possible. It works well chamomile decoction, sea buckthorn oil.
Should be patient, because herpetic stomatitis can last from 7 to 14 days. However, if the doctor’s orders are fulfilled, the disease will recede quickly, and the child will once again make others smile.
They can get sick of people of any age, including adults, however, the peak of the incidence occurs in children under 3 years of age.
The provoking factors that can cause this pathology are:
- insufficient quality and irregular care of the baby’s oral cavity, which, due to age, is not yet able to do it on its own,
- poor nutrition, when the child’s body loses the required amount of trace elements, vitamins and minerals,
- severe diagnoses that can impair the defenses and reduce immunity,
- mechanical mucosal injuries,
- hormonal disruptions
- insufficient daily fluid intake, which leads to dryness of the soft tissues of the oral cavity,
- too long and uncontrolled medication, mainly antibiotics.
And yet, why, with so many different causes of the onset of the disease, do young children get sick of it?
Everything is simple - right after the birth, the baby is still immune to the mother, however, after a short time, he begins to develop his own. At the initial stages of this process, when the body's defenses are not yet properly formed, the child begins to ache.
And the eruption of the first teeth, which even in the state of normal, inevitably injures the soft tissues of the gums, only aggravates the situation.
Come here to find out what you need to do if your front tooth hurts after filling.
At this address http://dr-zubov.ru/krasota-i-uxod/sredstva/opolaskivateli/zashhita-ot-bakterij-listerin.html we offer detailed instructions for using the mouthwash for the oral cavity Listerine.
Causative Agent and Routes of Infection
The causative agent of the disease is the well-known herpes simplex virus, which is contained in the DNA cells of every second inhabitant of the planet. It reproduces mainly in the surface layers of the epithelium.
In the process of reproduction and as the inflammation progresses, the affected areas are reborn. Externally, this is manifested by single or multiple formation of bubbles under a thin layer of skin.
Pathology is distributed both by children with an acute stage of the disease, and adults suffering from the active phase of herpes simplex.
- by direct contact with an infected person,
- airborne drip,
Symptoms of anomalies, as well as the intensity of its manifestation is largely determined by the degree of development of the disease, the immune forces of the child’s body, the frequency.
Pathology, diagnosed for the first time, the disease will be more severe, in comparison with recurrent recurrences.
The peculiarity of this stage is visible processes of intoxication. As a manifestation - a higher temperature, which requires correction, inflammation of the lymph nodes, while significantly increasing in size.
In severe cases, vomiting, occasional headaches, skin rashes and bleeding in the gum area may appear.
Fortunately, this is a rare occurrence with the following symptoms:
- strong, uncontrollable headaches,
- heaviness and aching limbs, back and joints,
- indifference to what is happening and depression,
- sleep disturbance and loss of appetite
- causeless runny nose
- bad breath.
To eliminate the virus used drugs overwhelming spectrum of action. It is important to understand that only a doctor can choose and calculate the right course of treatment.
It is impossible to do this on your own, because it is about the child’s body.
Effectively affect the herpes virus Acyclovir and its derivatives. Normally, they are applied for about 5 days. In complicated cases, their introduction is justified by dropping.
In addition, appointed:
- painkillers and anti-temperature drugs - Paracetamol, Efferalgan,
- antihistaminesthat soothe the mucosa and reduce symptoms - itching, swelling, redness - Fenistil, Diazolin,
- immunomodulatory drugs - increase the resistance of infection, stimulate the growth of the protective forces of the child's body - Nucleinate, Immudon,
- vitamin complex, especially drugs of group B, Askorutin and multivitamins.
With particularly severe manifestations of lesions of the oral cavity, as well as with excessive poor tolerability, and in order to prevent the occurrence of complications and relapses, the attending physician may additionally prescribe the administration of antibiotics of the general spectrum.
It is almost impossible for a little person to explain that touching his hands to the lesions, and even more so, trying to comb blisters that continuously itch and bother. To eliminate such symptoms, Proposol and Ingalipt are ideal. In case of severe swelling, rinsing with solutions of these agents is effective.
Naturally, the baby will not cope with rinsing by itself - they can be replaced with lotions that are applied to the affected area.
One of the best damaging drugs of local importance is Miramistin - it is particularly effective for the herpes virus. Used as compresses, the frequency of which is regulated by the doctor.
The basis of traditional medicine based only on natural ingredients, so they can be recommended without fear to young children.
Rinsing and lubrication:
- Soda - frequent rinsing have antiviral and disinfecting effect. Preparation: in 200 ml of warm boiled water dissolve a teaspoonful of the product. Alternatively, treatment with the resulting mixture of lesions. In this case, you need to carefully monitor that the baby does not accidentally swallow the liquid.
- Cabbage and carrot juice - regenerates tissue repair processes at the cellular level. To get a composition suitable for rinsing, you need to mix the squeezed juice in half with water.
- Herbal decoction - To mix dry chamomile, sage and calendula plants in equal proportions to make a tablespoon of the mixture. Pour a glass of boiling water and insist half an hour. Wipe the oral cavity with the resulting composition before and after meals. This will help relieve itching and swelling, reduce inflammation.
- Onion Husk - pour a handful of boiling water over the contents of the container. Leave overnight. Use in the form of lotions and compresses. Perfectly removes painful symptoms.
- Aloe juice - Rinse the leaf well and let the child chew. The released juice is very useful in the treatment of infections of the mucous membranes, as it not only eliminates itching and discomfort, but also reduces inflammation and disinfects the area of herpes manifestations.
To prevent irritation of the mucous will help exclude from the daily diet of such products:
- spicy, sour and salty foods
- smoked and roasted,
- citrus and other sour fruits.
It is preferable to steam or boil. Fruits and berries wipe. Monitor the temperature of food served - they should not be very hot and too cold.
The process of treatment of herpetic stomatitis will go a little faster, if in addition to the cardinal measures described above, follow the following recommendations. And although they are more preventive than therapeutic in nature, their compliance is no less important than the time taken medication:
- strict compliance with the rules of personal hygiene and regular cleaning of the oral cavity - if a small child is not able to cope with it on his own, he needs help;
- limit any contact with probable carriers of the virus,
- to strengthen the defenses of a small organism in every possible way,
- create a child a full, varied, and most importantly, a balanced diet,
- in the season of lack of natural vitamins to replace them with pharmacy complexes,
- take immunostimulating agents
- provide the patient with a separate towel, dishes that are sanitized after each meal, rinsing in boiling water,
- monitor the cleanliness of the hands and prevent the baby from taking in the mouth foreign objects and toys,
- drink more liquid, warm tea - this will not allow the mucous to dry.
In the video, see the professional treatment of the acute form of herpetic stomatitis.
The duration of herpetic stomatitis
The average duration of herpetic stomatitis in children is from several days to three weeks. It all depends on the complexity of the degree of the disease:
- with a mild disease, the symptoms start to go away after three or four days,
- with a moderate degree, the disease can last up to two weeks,
- in severe cases, the treatment may be delayed for several weeks. In this case, the child must be hospitalized without fail.
Of course, the duration of the disease can directly depend on the correct treatment and on how soon it was started. Therefore, when detecting herpetic stomatitis in children, treatment should be started as early as possible.
Preparations for the treatment of children's herpetic stomatitis
An overview of the pharmaceutical preparations that the child may be treated for, following the recommendations of qualified specialists:
- Paracetamol and Ibuprofen - for lowering body temperature and for pain relief,
- Mebhydroline and Clemastine, as well as Hifenadine are antihistamines for complete removal of edema,
- Acyclovir and Interferon - systemic therapy aimed at eliminating the actions of factors that cause herpetic stomatitis in children,
- Thymus extracts, lysozyme and gamma globulin injections are prescribed for the purpose of immunocorrection,
- Vitamins C, B-12, fish oil - fortifying, high-calorie drugs for recurrent herpes stomatitis in children.
From the initial stage of infection with herpetic stomatitis in children, it is necessary to adhere to the prescription of the treatment plan of the sick child, due to the fact that the virus is quite infectious, so it can easily spread actively and vigorously.
Recommendations of specialists
For parents, there are elementary recommendations of child care professionals:
- effectively treat the affected area of the oral cavity in accordance with the recommendations of the attending physician,
- to allocate to the sick child separate household items and toys,
- strictly adhere to the rules of personal hygiene and oral care, in order to avoid the addition of a bacterial infection,
- It is imperative to adhere to the diet and medication,
- Stably provide the child with a balanced diet and abundant drinking,
- It is not recommended to use warming agents.
- Treatment of the oral cavity can be performed by rinsing decoctions of medicinal herbs, water-salt solution, medications prescribed by the attending physician.
- For babies who still do not know how to rinse their mouth, the mouth should be carefully irrigated by tilting the child's head over a large container.
- After the rinsing of the mucous membrane affected by herpetic stomatitis, it is necessary to treat both damaged and healthy areas with antiviral or analgesic, as well as wound-healing preparations. This is usually done with a cotton swab. It is necessary to carefully, very carefully, painlessly smear the points of defeat.
- In the formation of herpetic crusts and for the prolongation of the action of drugs, it is necessary to make lotions and applications. The processes of treatment with analgesic drugs or herbal remedies relieve pain and inflammation.
- And also at the stage of healing, it is strongly recommended to additionally use sea buckthorn oil, oil solutions of vitamins A and E, to significantly accelerate healing.
Summing up, it is worth noting that herpetic stomatitis responds very well to complex treatment. Especially if the treatment is started on time. Do not forget about the treatment of wounds not only by rinsing, but also with lotions and appliqués. Well, for the treatment of pharmacology, we strongly do not recommend to go to the pharmacy and independently choose drugs or trust the opinion of the pharmacy employee, it is better to show the child to the doctor.
The concept of herpetic stomatitis and its causes in children
The causative agent of the disease is the herpes virus type I. Once in the body of a child, herpes penetrates deep into the epithelium and lymph nodes, where it continues to multiply actively. After that, the virus spreads through the bloodstream to all internal organs, while not interrupting the reproduction process.
A characteristic feature of herpetic stomatitis is a rash on the mucous membrane of the mouth and throat, lips and face. If the treatment is carried out in a timely manner, the sores will disappear within 10-14 days from the moment of infection, but the child will remain the carrier of the virus.
In addition to rashes, acute herpes stomatitis is accompanied by high body temperature, digestive problems, weakness and poor appetite. In the absence of therapy, the illness becomes chronic, and the symptoms appear and then disappear.
Ways of transmission
Herpetic stomatitis is a contagious disease. The risk of infection is maximum during the exacerbation of the disease in the carrier. However, even in the absence of visible rashes and other manifestations, a person can infect people. Therefore, it is possible to get infected with a virus everywhere - at school, on the playground, in the clinic or in transport.
In addition, there is the likelihood of intrauterine infection of the fetus during passage through the birth canal. Methods of spreading herpetic stomatitis:
Varieties of the disease and associated symptoms
The duration of the incubation period for herpes stomatitis is from 2 to 21 days. How long the incubation period lasts depends directly on the baby’s immune system.
The disease in a newborn can occur only in the case of infection during childbirth or in violation of the hygiene rules of adults who have come in contact with it. In infants who have not a year, it is not easy to notice the onset of the disease.
The reason for referring to a pediatrician is the restless behavior and crying of the baby, loss of appetite, drooling, a strange smell from the mouth. To confirm the diagnosis, a cytological examination of the scrapings taken from aphthous ulcers will be carried out.
Acute and chronic forms
Herpetic stomatitis manifests itself in two forms - acute or chronic. Acute herpetic stomatitis indicates that the disease has appeared for the first time. In the case of the chronic form, this is a relapse of the disease.
The acute form of the disease is characterized by the sudden appearance and severe somatic signs of aphthous stomatitis. Symptoms:
- inflammation and swelling of the gums,
- increase in body temperature
- drowsiness and lethargy,
- enlarged submandibular lymph nodes
- lack of appetite,
- difficulty swallowing,
- rashes on the gums, cheeks, palate (first there are bubbles with liquid inside, after 4 days they turn into erosive wounds that heal within 2 weeks).
Mild, moderate and severe severity
The disease is characterized by gradual development and manifestation of symptoms. Depending on the severity of the course, herpetic stomatitis in children is divided into 3 degrees:
- Easy lasts no more than 7 days. It is manifested by a slight inflammation and hyperemia of the gums, an increase in body temperature up to 37.5, a rapid increase in the lymph nodes and a small number of sores - no more than 6 wounds (see photo). In the analysis of blood, there are no significant deviations from the norm, only the number of lymphocytes can be overestimated.
- The duration of the average degree is about 2 weeks. Symptoms of this form resemble SARS or catarrhal sore throat. It is characterized by headache, malaise, restless sleep, nausea, vomiting, high body temperature (up to 39⁰C), inflammation of the oral mucosa and the presence of ulcers on the gums, tongue and inside of the cheeks. Gingivitis may be accompanied by bleeding gums. With an average herpetic stomatitis, a blood test will show not only lymphocytosis, but also plasmacytosis, as well as an ESR figure of about 20 mm / hour. In the absence of proper treatment, the disease develops into ulcerative gingivitis.
- In severe form, it is recommended hospitalization of the baby and treatment under the supervision of physicians. Symptoms of severe herpetic stomatitis: a sharp deterioration in the child's well-being, excessively high body temperature, putrid breath, tachycardia, headache and muscle pain, nose bleeding, an increase in the cervical and submandibular lymph nodes, nausea with vomiting, large areas of lesions present not only on the oral mucosa, but also around it, as well as on the eyelids and conjunctiva of the eyes (see photo). The number of aft can reach hundreds. Diagnosis of blood will show expressed leukopenia, eosinophilia.
Initially, it is not easy to recognize aphthous stomatitis in children, since the symptoms are similar to signs of acute respiratory viral infections, allergic and fungal stomatitis, and infectious diseases. Herpetic stomatitis is diagnosed taking into account the history, local symptoms and signs of pathological processes, as well as the results of cytological, serological and virological studies.
Diagnosis consists of the following steps:
- the doctor performs a visual inspection and listens to the complaints of the parents,
- further, the history of the patient is studied, special attention is paid to the nature of the rash, the time of their appearance, cases of herpetic stomatitis by any of the relatives,
- To determine the type of herpes in a child’s body, not only his blood can be used, but also saliva, scraping or swabs from the oral mucosa (PCR or immunofluorescence is often used).
Features of treatment of herpetic stomatitis in children of different ages
It is impossible to cure herpes forever, but with the right therapy you can eliminate the manifestations of the disease. If the child is not treated properly, the virus will transfer to other organs of the baby, examples include eye and lip lesions, the appearance of herpetic sore throat.
It is unacceptable to treat a child by purchasing antiherpetic drugs at a pharmacy. Prescribe them should only doctor. The pediatrician will take into account the form of the disease and the immunity of the child. Outpatient treatment of children is possible only in the case of a mild illness, otherwise hospitalization will be recommended.
Systemic drug therapy
Antiviral systemic drug therapy is required for severe disease. To eliminate the virus, pediatricians most often prescribe a five-day intake of Zovirax or Acyclovir. In extremely severe cases, drugs are administered intravenously. In addition, the following groups of drugs are used in the treatment of herpetic stomatitis:
- painkillers and antipyretics - are used only with significant pain and heat in the baby (Nurofen, Efferalgan, Panadol, Cefecon),
- antiallergic drugs - especially important for late treatment of the virus and signs of intoxication, as well as swelling and itching (Fenistil, Suprastin, Aleron),
- anti-nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - these drugs not only relieve inflammation, but also cope with fever and pain (Ibuprofen, Phenylbutazole, Ketoprofen),
- vitamin complexes,
- immunomodulators are indicated in case of recurrence of the disease or in order to prevent them (Immunal, Imunoflazid, Amiksin, Anaferon, Imudon, sodium nucleinate).
To eliminate the pain in a child before visiting the doctor, it is allowed to use anesthetic drugs - Dentinox, Calgel, Holisal, Kamistad. It is impossible to burn the bubbles with iodine or other improvised means - this way you can burn the mucous.
In the treatment of aphthous stomatitis, lotions with interferon and antiviral ointments are used - Acyclovir, Zovirax, tefrofen ointment, Gerpevir, oxolinic ointment, Viferon. In addition, pediatricians prescribe other drugs local action:
- lidocaine or trimecain based anesthetic agents,
- regenerating sprays and ointments (Proposol, vitamin A, Tantum Verde, Ingalipt, sea buckthorn oil) (we recommend reading: how old can Tantum Verde be given to children?)
- antiseptics (brilliant green solution, Furacilin, potassium permanganate).
As with other types of stomatitis, an important element of the effective treatment of herpes type of pathology is dieting. Any food that irritates the oral mucosa is excluded from the baby’s diet. If you violate this rule, the wounds will heal longer. In addition, the child should not eat fried, spicy, sour, spicy, salty, sweet foods, food should be warm, liquid or semi-liquid consistency.
Possible complications in a child
Timely treatment of primary stomatitis has a good prognosis - the signs of illness disappear within 7-10 days. If left untreated, the disease can not only acquire a chronic form, but also faces severe complications - generalization of infection, dehydration, the development of herpetic encephalitis or keratoconjunctivitis, the consequence of which is blindness. To prevent complications, follow these guidelines:
- do not hesitate to visit the pediatrician
- treat the child according to the recommendations of the attending physician,
- watch that the baby drank enough water
- do not forget about washing your hands after treating ulcers,
- provide proper hygienic oral care for the child.
Since about 90% of the world's population are carriers of this virus, it’s impossible to fully protect your child from it. Preventive measures are to limit the contact of a healthy baby with a person with the acute form of the disease and in compliance with basic hygienic rules.
From an early age, babies should be taught that it is impossible to use someone else's dishes, a cup, a spoon and personal hygiene items. It is necessary to minimize kisses and not allow kissing the baby to people with a clear manifestation of herpes infection. Due attention is paid to hardening and strengthening the immune system of the child.
Compliance with these recommendations is necessary in relation to the baby, who has already been ill. Since he is a virus carrier, a recurrence of the disease is possible if these rules are violated.
How to treat herpetic stomatitis in a child
General recommendations include bed rest, abundant drinking, food, not irritating the oral cavity. A more specific treatment is prescribed by the dentist, taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient, the degree of the disease. Prescribed medications aimed at:
- elimination of pain,
- stopping of inflammatory processes,
- prevention of re-infection,
- restoration of the epithelium of the oral mucosa.
Antiviral, antihistaminic and antibacterial agents are taken on an outpatient basis for 5 days, in especially advanced cases hospital stays are required, intravenous droppers are prescribed. Sometimes babies are given physiotherapy activities, electrophoresis, infrared, ultraviolet radiation.
General and local treatment of herpetic stomatitis in children
Common effects include:
- antiviral: "Gerpevir", "Virolex", "Acyclovir", "Zovirax",
- antipyretic and analgesic: Panadol, Efferalgun, Paracetamol, Ibuprofen, Kalpol,
- antihistamines: "Fenistil", "Diazolin", "Erius", "Fenkarol", "Clemastin", "Tsetrin", "Zodak", "Loratadin",
- immunocorrective: "Immudon", "Lysozyme", "Taktivin", "Immunal", gamma globulin,
- mineral and vitamin complexes of group B.
Newborns and children who are breastfed are prescribed antibiotics in extreme cases.
- antiseptic treatment of the mouth with a solution of “Furacilin”, “Stomatoidin” or “Trypsin”,
- mouthwash decoction of chamomile, calendula, other herbal decoctions,
- overlay on the affected areas using a cotton pad or sticks of painkillers: "Lidocaine", "Trimecain", "Pyromecain",
- lotions for external therapy of the affected areas "Interferon", "Acyclovir"
- lubrication of ulcers with liquid vitamin A, E, sea buckthorn or rosehip oil,
- treatment of the oral cavity using aerosols: "Ingalipt", "Proposol", "Geksoral", "Stopangina".
Treatment of the mouth with iodine solution is strictly prohibited, as burns of the oral mucous tissue are possible.
If you exactly follow the doctor's instructions, stomatitis can be cured in 4-7 days. But there are a few more recommendations that parents often forget:
- drink plenty of water
- hygiene, personal belongings must remain individual (dishes, towels, bed linen),
- limiting the child’s contact with other people
- moderate humidity, fresh air in the apartment,
- observation of the child’s actions to prevent the spread of infection.
There are many popular methods to combat stomatitis, which proved themselves decades ago, are still relevant. This is gargling with herbal decoctions, treating ulcers with lotions with herbal ingredients that can be done at home:
- Soda. 1 tsp. soda stir in a glass of boiled water, rinse every 2-3 hours, using at once 250 ml of liquid.
- Chamomile or sage. 1 tsp. dried chamomile or 2 tbsp. l Sage pour a glass of boiling water and an hour later gargle this broth throat 5 times a day.
- Aloe. Aloe leaf for half an hour in the refrigerator, and then cut the damaged areas with a cut every 3 hours.
- Potatoes. Apply one potato-sized gruel to the affected areas for 15 minutes several times a day.
- Blueberries A decoction of blueberry leaves to insist for 2-3 hours, or just eat berries.
Any herbal preparation with antiseptic effect is suitable for rinsing. According to the same recipe, you can make a decoction of the bark of oak, eucalyptus, kalanchoe, calendula, St. John's wort. Remember that solutions containing alcohol, as well as brilliant green, potassium permanganate, blue can not burn the wounds. It is better to choose toothpaste at the time of treatment with a note “for sensitive teeth and gums”.
The duration of treatment by folk methods should not exceed more than 4 days. If they did not help at an early stage, ask for help at the clinic.
One of the important factors of recovery is a strict diet, which should exclude all irritating damaged oral cavity products. Food should be completely excluded from the child’s diet:
Food should have a liquid, mushy appearance, be stewed, boiled or steamed without spices. After each meal, rinse your mouth with soda.
The first causative agent of the disease is the presence in the body of the simplest herpes virus. The disease affects the mucous, nervous and cardiovascular systems. Bacteria associated with the virus tend to spread very quickly. Herpes is easily transmitted, so if one of the children is sick, then there is a rather high probability of infection of the others. It is for this reason that doctors recommend giving an individual child the dishes and personal care products for a sick child. The herpes virus is very tenacious, it is not always possible to cope with it in a short time, often the use of antibiotics or disinfecting ointments is required.
How to recognize herpetic stomatitis in a child in the earliest terms?
In order to start therapy as early as possible, parents should know the main symptoms of the disease. The incubation period for such a diagnosis will last up to 8 days, and the disease itself, as a rule, does not last more than 2 weeks. The initial stage of stomatitis is characterized by acute manifestations, which can often be confused with colds. Among them:
- weakness, drowsiness,
- increasing the child's body temperature,
- redness and sore throat.
But, do not forget about the following symptoms, which indicate the presence of herpetic stomatitis virus. It:
- the appearance of lesions on the mucous membranes of the mouth in the form of bubbles,
- itching and burning of the mouth,
- redness and sore gums,
- a significant increase in lymph nodes.
Since the disease can occur in several degrees of severity, the symptoms may be present in different quantities. In the presence of at least one of the above symptoms, it is better to immediately visit the pediatric dentist. This will help dispel fears or confirm alarming guesses and immediately begin appropriate treatment.
With a mild form of herpetic stomatitis, it is manifested only by rashes on the mouth of the child. As a rule, in such circumstances, the disease often retreats on its own, without the use of additional therapeutic measures. The temperature of the patient is normal, and other symptoms also do not make themselves known.
The average severity of the disease
The average degree is characterized by the appearance of several signs at once. This includes nausea, general weakness and fever. Bubbles on mucous membranes containing pus are counted in large quantities. This picture requires the intervention of several specialists at once to rule out other infectious diseases. Most often, a pediatrician and a dentist are called for a consultation. In more complex cases, do not exclude the intervention of an immunologist and a neurologist.
The severe form of herpetic stomatitis in children is more difficult to treat. There is intoxication of the whole organism, which is manifested by vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite. Pain increases with multiple eruptions of ulcers in the mouth. Most often, when establishing a similar diagnosis, doctors recommend immediate hospitalization of the child.
One of the most important tips of dentists in making a diagnosis of herpetic stomatitis is speed. Only with the immediate implementation of all necessary measures, there is a chance to get rid of the disease without serious consequences..
It is important to know that the herpes virus can not be removed from the body. Anyone who even once noticed a characteristic rash on his body becomes a carrier of the virus. Therefore, doctors recommend that young patients take fortifying vitamins to avoid relapses.
The disappearance of painful rashes from the oral cavity does not indicate the end of the disease. This is just the beginning of the fight against this virus. You must complete a full course of treatment. This seemingly innocent disease can lead to serious health problems, as herpes can affect any of the organs. In difficult and neglected situations, hardware treatment may be required.
The main groups of drugs involved in the treatment of herpetic stomatitis are:
Drugs for the treatment of this disease are most often produced in the form of sprays, ointments, solutions. Soda-salt solution has a good healing effect, as well as decoctions of medicinal herbs, strong tea brewing. To conduct rinsing with healing agents, experts recommend every 2-3 hours. For pain relief, sea buckthorn oil is the best fit. It is convenient to apply it with cotton swabs. Compliance with all prescriptions of the attending physician will speed recovery and relieve the child from discomfort much faster.
Do not forget about the diet, precluding the use of excessively cold, sharp and fatty foods. Experts also recommend give up honeywhich serves as an excellent breeding ground for bacteria.
Even after defeating herpetic stomatitis, be sure to follow the rules of oral hygiene to avoid relapses and pass a quarterly dental examination with your child.
Herpetic stomatitis in children
Herpetic stomatitis in children is a herpes viral infection that occurs with a primary lesion of the oral mucosa and symptoms of general intoxication. In pediatrics and pediatric dentistry, herpetic stomatitis is the first among inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity in children, accounting for almost 80% of cases. Herpetic stomatitis is considered as a manifestation of the first contact of the child’s body with the herpes simplex virus type I. Most often, herpetic stomatitis occurs in children from 1 to 3 years old, which is associated with their age and morphological features, a decrease in the level of transplacental antibodies and the immaturity of cellular and specific immunity. Herpetic stomatitis can be observed in children of the first year of life, from the first months of being on artificial feeding.
There are two types of herpetic stomatitis in children: primary acute and chronic recurrent. Children who have had acute herpetic stomatitis become asymptomatic virus carriers or suffer from a chronic type of infection. Herpetic stomatitis in children can be accompanied by damage to the nervous system and internal organs, suppression of immune reactions, therefore, requires serious attention from pediatricians, children's dentists, children's immunologists, children's neurologists and other specialists.
Causes of herpetic stomatitis in children
HSV type I is a DNA-containing virus belonging to the family Herpesviridae and clinically manifested by rashes on the skin of the face and oral mucosa. Once in the child's body, the HSV actively multiplies in the epithelial cells and surrounding lymph nodes (most often, the submandibular), penetrates the bloodstream (primary viremia), and from there to various organs (liver, spleen, etc.) with subsequent reproduction and secondary viremia . At the next stage, the skin and mucous lips, mouth cavity and pharynx are affected, with the development of symptoms of herpetic stomatitis in children. Herpes infection is able to pass into a latent form with a lifelong persistence of the virus in the nerve ganglia.
The source of the pathogen is children, patients with acute herpetic stomatitis, adults with recurrent herpes lips and virus carriers. Herpetic stomatitis is very contagious: HSV type I can be transmitted to household contact (through kisses, toys, household items) and airborne droplets (when coughing and sneezing), vertical transmission from mother to fetus is possible (when herpes recurrence with viremia pregnant).
Recurrence of chronic herpetic stomatitis in children occurs against the background of suppression of immunity under the influence of provoking factors: hypothermia, overheating, prolonged insolation, emotional stress, beriberi, receiving large doses of antibiotics, ARVI. Most often, herpetic stomatitis in children occurs in spring and autumn.
Symptoms of herpetic stomatitis in children
Depending on the clinical symptoms, herpetic stomatitis in a child can occur in mild, moderate and severe forms, there are incubation, prodromal periods, the height of the disease (catarrhal, rash period), extinction and clinical recovery in its development. Among children, more common are mild and moderate forms of herpetic stomatitis.
The latent period of herpetic stomatitis in children ranges from 2 to 14 days. In the prodromal period, the child becomes restless, capricious, crying, refuses food, does not sleep well. Drooling, nausea, vomiting, an increase and tenderness of the submandibular and cervical lymph nodes are noted.
Herpetic stomatitis in children, as a rule, begins acutely, with fever (up to 38-40 ° C), deterioration of the general condition. At the height of the disease, catarrhal phenomena join: acute gingivitis, runny nose, cough, and sometimes conjunctivitis. The gums of the child are hyperemic, swollen, bleed. On the mucous membrane of the mouth, single or grouped vesicular rashes appear in the form of thin-walled vesicles measuring 2-3 mm in size, which are easily broken to form painful erosions and aft (shallow ulcers covered with whitish bloom). Herpetic eruptions are most often located on the gums, hard and soft palate, back of the tongue, cheeks and lips.
The formation of vesicles lasts for 2-4 days and is accompanied by severe pain. At the same time, rash can be observed at different stages of development. Aphthae and erosion are gradually cleared and tightened without scarring. For herpetic stomatitis in children is characterized by a wave-like course: the appearance of lesions with fever ends with a short stable period, then a new wave of lesions begins with the next temperature jump.
With reduced immunity and the accession of a secondary bacterial infection, pustular lesions of the mucous membrane and skin occur. Acute herpetic stomatitis in children, depending on the severity of the course and the effectiveness of treatment, can last from 7 to 14 days. Dangerous course acute herpes virus infection can acquire in the first months of a child's life due to generalization of the lesion, the risk of developing a septic state, damage to internal organs, and the serous membranes of the brain.
Diagnosis of herpetic stomatitis in children
The diagnosis of herpetic stomatitis in children is made on the basis of the clinical picture, history, results of cytological, virological and serological studies.
Serum, saliva, swabs, swabs or scrapings from the oral mucosa can be used to identify the virus. It is possible to establish the causative agent of herpetic stomatitis in children by the method of immunofluorescence (RIF) and PCR. Serological identification of the titer of viral antibodies is carried out using ELISA and RAC.
Herpetic stomatitis in children must be differentiated from other types of stomatitis (allergic, drug, fungal), herpetic sore throat, specific infections (measles, scarlet fever, chicken pox, diphtheria), erythema multiforme exudative.
Treatment of herpetic stomatitis in children
In case of uncomplicated herpetic stomatitis, outpatient treatment, in complicated cases and in children of the first three years of life, hospitalization may be required. Children with herpetic stomatitis are shown bed rest, plentiful drink, mashed, warm, non-irritating food, use of separate dishes and hygiene items.
Comprehensive treatment of herpetic stomatitis in children (general and local) is selected depending on the period of the disease and the severity of symptoms. When fever and soreness prescribed paracetamol, ibuprofen, to relieve swelling - antihistamines (mebhydrolin, clemensin, hifenadine). Systemic etiotropic therapy (acyclovir, interferon) is more effective in the initial period. For the purpose of immunocorrection, lysozyme, thymus extracts, and gamma globulin injections are prescribed.
Local treatment of herpetic stomatitis in children is carried out by a pediatric dentist and pediatric periodontist. Daily oral mucosa is treated with antiseptics, anesthetics, herbal decoctions, and lubrication with antiviral drugs. In moderate form of herpetic stomatitis in children, solutions of proteolytic enzymes (trypsin, chymotrypsin) are used to clean the surface of the mucous membrane from necrotic masses.
During the epithelialization of erosion, keratoplastic agents are used (vitamins A, E, rosehip oil and sea buckthorn). Physiotherapy for herpetic stomatitis in children is prescribed from the first days of the disease (ultraviolet irradiation, infrared radiation). For recurrent herpetic stomatitis in children, courses of fortifying agents (vitamins C, B12, fish oil), a high-calorie diet are shown.
Prognosis and prevention of herpetic stomatitis in children
Herpetic stomatitis in children in most cases ends with clinical recovery in 10-14 days. In severe cases, there is a risk of complications in the form of herpetic keratoconjunctivitis, herpetic encephalitis, generalization of infection.
To prevent contact of children with herpes virus infection is impossible, because The carrier rate of HSV among adults is 90%. Prevention of herpetic stomatitis may include isolation of a sick child from healthy children, restriction of contact with adults in the active phase of infection, respect for personal hygiene, hardening, physical education.