We analyze the most popular tests that are conducted by school psychologists. How to interpret the results and whether it is worth sounding the alarm if you thought that something was going wrong?
It is known that school psychologists are testing children, which, however, you have the right to refuse. It happens, the test results are alarming and frightening parents. Let's dispel anxiety: we will explain the essence of the most popular methods.
Diagnosis reveals somatic problems: with its help, it is possible to determine which organ hurts and, through this, to “get out” to psychological problems. The child paints a little man, like a frog, and answers the questions of a psychologist. The invented story about an unprecedented creature and selected colors help define psychosomatic problems. Diagnosis is quite accurate.
One of the most popular diagnostics, every parent has probably heard about it. The child draws his family, and the psychologist analyzes the selected colors, the location and size of the figures. The results give reason to ask questions to parents. No more. Accurately analyze the situation in the family for this diagnosis can not, because the drawing tests are situational.
For example, a child had a falling out with dad in the morning and drew him less - this is not a reason to think of dad as a minor figure. Or, it happens that only a red or black pencil is at hand, this is no reason to talk about the schoolchild's excessive aggression and the tense situation at home. In general, the diagnosis requires clarification, do not blindly trust her. and strain on the psychologist's questions about the family environment.
Diagnose on revealing children's fears. The child is offered to build his country on the table, using all that is in the office. After the psychologist takes two elements, for example, caps from markers and asks for permission to come to visit this country. The psychologist asks about the borders, about how to protect the country, about who is in charge, who are the neighbors. The child plays with enthusiasm and tells a lot. This is a great way to recognize the cause of fear, work with it and even level it..
Sent to anxiety determination: high, moderate or low. According to him, psychologists are most often oriented, the student has adapted to the fifth grade or not. The test consists of questions, next to which you need to put a plus or a minus, that is, "yes" or "no."
With the test you need to be careful: anxiety is temporary, situational. Remember that your child is not “diagnosed,” but merely provides food for thought about looking at behavior, supporting, and communicating with a teenager.
The main distinctive feature of children of this age is the need for self-knowledge. This means that children, more than ever, are becoming interested in their inner world. The child asks the questions: “What am I? Am I a good friend? Am I better or worse than other children? Will I be a leader? ”
Psychological tests are a kind of tool for measuring the personality of a child. With their help, he will be able to learn a lot about himself, find answers to troubling questions.
Knowledge of the personal characteristics of a particular child will help improve relationships with him, simply by changing the approach to him. Using his strengths and weaknesses can help the child to become better himself. And finally, knowing the psychological problems of the child, you can timely refer to him to a specialist and personally support him.
What are the tests
There are psychological evidence-based, as well as entertaining tests. The latter do not carry reliable information, but serve simply to entertain children and their parents. Below is a list of the most well-known evidence-based psychological tests. All of them are suitable for children 10-12 years old. They are mainly used by psychologists, but parents and teachers can understand if they want to.
"My Family" Picture Test
The child is given instruction: "Draw your family." Only one phrase, without any explanation. After the child has finished drawing, you can assess how satisfied he is with family relationships.
The "good" signs are:
- the presence in the picture of all family members,
- all family members are located close to each other or are engaged in one business,
- the main part of the picture is occupied by family members, not things or objects
- all family members are smiling (but do not “stare”),
- no hatching and too little or strong pressure of the pencil.
Picture test "Non-existent animal"
Instructions for the child: "Draw an animal that does not exist in nature, and give it a name." This test allows you to know how well the emotional state of the child, how comfortable he is in the outside world.
The "good" signs are:
- the animal has something like a man’s mouth, eyes, ears, hands and feet,
- the animal combines the signs of various living things (but not inanimate objects),
- the animal is friendly, does not hide from the outside world, has no means of attack or defense (claws, teeth, armor),
- the animal has clear (but without pressure) contours,
- lack of hatching
- The name of the animal carries a positive meaning.
"My Tree" Picture Test
Instructions: "Draw any tree."
After the drawing is ready, the size and location of the tree are analyzed. For example, a large tree with a thick trunk may speak of vigor. A small tree at the bottom of a leaf may indicate a low self-esteem and a depressed state. Attention is also drawn to the constituent parts of the tree: roots, branches, leaves. A dried or broken tree may indicate a psychological trauma.
The test contains 57 questions, based on the child’s answers one of four types of temperament is determined: sanguine, choleric, phlegmatic, melancholic.
Temperament implies a type of human nervous system. It is innate and not amenable to change. The type of temperament is determined on the basis of such characteristics of the nervous system as strength, balance and mobility. Temperament can explain many of the behavioral characteristics of a person. Knowing the temperament, you can build the right approach to the child. Thus, for example, one cannot demand activity and energy from a melancholic, and quiet and calm behavior from a choleric person.
The test at the same time allows you to determine who the child is - an extrovert (sanguine and choleric) or an introvert (phlegmatic and melancholic). Extroverts prefer to be more often among people, while introverts prefer solitude. Although introverts also have a need for communication, and extroverts sometimes want to be alone.
Luscher color test (adapted children's version)
The child is shown 8 cards, each of them of a certain color. Instructions: "Choose the color that you like most at the moment." The selected card is delayed, then the instruction is repeated again. And so on until only one color remains.
Based on the selected colors, you can judge the emotional comfort of the child. It is possible to reveal a depressive state in time (in this case, he will first choose dark colors). An adult will be able to identify the causes of this condition and eliminate them.
Test for self-assessment "Ladder"
The child is shown a ladder of 5-7 steps drawn on paper. Then they say: “The most good (kind, intelligent, hardworking) people are on the topmost step, and the worst (evil, stupid, lazy) are on the bottom rung”.
This is how the child’s attitude to himself is determined. Low self-esteem can also be a sign of a depressed depression. Extremely high self-esteem - is no longer adequate for this age, it is also a reason to think.
Test questionnaire school anxiety
The child is asked 58 questions. Based on the answers, it is possible to determine not only the general level of school anxiety, but also specific fears. For example, the fear of an answer at the blackboard, the fear of a teacher, the fear of being revealed to other people and so on. Having identified a specific source of anxiety at school, it will be easier to help your child work through his fear.
Rosenzweig Frustration Test
The child in turn show 24 patterns. Each figure shows 2 people. One of them says another phrase causing frustration. (Frustration - a condition caused by an unmet need). The child needs to come up with an answer to this phrase.
All answers are analyzed by a psychologist, after which it can be concluded about the degree of social adaptation of the child. That is, you can see how he is in conflict with others in unpleasant situations for him.
Projective test "Birthday"
The child is shown a schematic representation of the table and chairs around it. Instructions: “Imagine that you have a birthday. Where are you sitting at this table? ”The chair is marked with a cross. - “Who will sit next to you? And on the other hand? "- Chairs are marked with the initials of the people chosen by the child. “Would you like to invite someone else?” Tell someone where you plant. "
The test helps to determine the most significant for the child people. Usually it is either a family or a group of peers. Sometimes it happens that a child calls only fictional characters. In this case, we can assume that the child is uncomfortable in the real world.
All presented tests are tested on a large number of people of several generations and are quite reliable. But still you can not judge a man by one test. To obtain a more accurate result, it is important to use several techniques at once. But even then it is impossible to say with absolute certainty that you know everything about the child. Not the last role here is played by the general impression about the child and the nature of communication with him. It is advisable to report test results to children. For them, this is an opportunity to get to know themselves and develop new qualities. This will be fertile ground for further personal development.
Diagnosis of the structure of educational motivation of the student
Scales: cognitive motives, communicative motives, emotional motives, self-development motives, student position, achievement motive, external motives
1. In order for me to study the subject well, I must like the teacher.
2. I enjoy learning, expanding my knowledge about the world.
3. It is much more interesting to communicate with friends, with a company at school, than to sit in class and study.
4. It’s very important for me to get a good grade.
5. Everything that I do, I do well - this is my position.
6. Knowledge helps develop intelligence, ingenuity, ingenuity.
7. If you are a schoolboy, you must study well.
8. If the situation of ill-will, excessive severity reigns in the lesson, I have no desire to learn.
9. I have an interest only in individual subjects.
10. I believe that success in school is an important basis for respect and recognition among classmates.
11. It is necessary to study in order to avoid annoying morals and separation from parents and teachers.
12. I have a feeling of satisfaction, recovery, when I myself solve a difficult task, I will learn the rule well, etc.
13. I want to know as much as possible to become an interesting, cultured person.
14. Studying well, not missing lessons is my civic duty at this stage in my life.
15. I don’t like to talk and be distracted at the lesson, because it’s very important for me to understand the teacher’s explanation, to answer his questions correctly.
16. I like it very much if the lesson organizes joint work with the guys (in pairs, as a team).
17. I am very sensitive to the praise of the teacher, parents for my school success.
18. I study well, as I always strive to be among the best.
19. I read a lot of books, except textbooks (on history, sport, nature, etc.).
20. Studying at my age is the most important thing.
21. At school, fun, more interesting than at home in the yard.
Processing and interpretation of test results
External (encouragement, punishment)
1. Marshmallow test (4–5 years old and older)
Other test name— test deferred satisfaction. It helps to understand which type of thinking is closer to your child - strategic or tactical. The strategist is ready to refuse a less profitable offer today if tomorrow the potential benefit from the agreement increases. The tactician does not wait for tomorrow and works with what he has today.
What is needed: a treat, a table, a chair and a room where nothing can distract the child’s attention (without toys, telephones and televisions).
What to do: treats on the table in front of the child (marshmallow, candy, chocolate bar or a small cake). We explain to the child that this sweetness is offered to him and he can eat it as soon as he stays alone in the room. But if he copes with temptation and waits 10 minutes, we will come back with another surprise, and then he will get twice as much. If there is no treat on the table for the return of the adult, he will not receive the second.
What to look for: some children eat sweetness immediately. Many struggle with temptation to the last: they close their eyes with their hands, pull at their hair, play with treats to divert their thoughts. But in the end they eat dessert. These are tactics. One third of the children wait for the adult to return and receive a double reward. This is a strategy.
2. Games with color constructor and colorings (from 3 to 7 years)
The test helps to recognize the features of an introvert or an extrovert in a child.
What you need: for young children, it is better to choose a color designer with great details, for children from 5 years old - children's coloring and pencils or felt-tip pens.
What to do: we give a small child a designer and offer to assemble a house. No matter what form it will turn out. Give the little architect complete freedom!
Older child give coloring and markers and explain that no need to hurry. Color the picture should be at a comfortable pace and the way he wants. The colors that he chooses to paint one or another part of the picture do not matter.
What to look for: If the child has assembled a house of colored parts, we will note whether there is an order in the choice of color. If during construction he folded cubes, combining with each other in color, or each part of the house has its own color, then we have a child with the features of an introvert. He pays attention not to the form itself, but to its content and signs of details.
If the child got a coloring, we look how diligently he painted over the drawing. If the details of the picture are shaded within the region, without going beyond the line, then we have an introvert.
3. Salty and sweet porridge test
The test helps to determine what type of behavior in society is typical for a child: agreeing with the majority, avoiding conflict, or upholding one's own position — a trait that speaks of leadership qualities.
What you need: several family members or friends (adults and children) and plates of sweet porridge (this is important!).
What to do and what to pay attention to: adults and children sit at the table and eat porridge. They say out loud that porridge is too salty, it is impossible to eat. At this point, it is important to draw the child’s attention to what is happening. Each of those present in turn once again clearly tastes porridge and confirms that it is too salty. Then the turn comes to the child. We ask him the same question: does it seem to him that porridge is salty? Children, for whom it is important to keep the peace within the team, who are not ready to “play against the rules,” will answer that the porridge is salty. They perceive this situation as a kind of game where rules have suddenly changed. And in order to keep up with others, they follow the new rules, even if they seem obscure to them. Their own opinion about the taste of porridge is not so important for them compared to the ability to "continue the game in the company." Suppose a child answers that his porridge is sweet, try porridge from his plate and confirm the former: “Salted porridge”. If a child continues to defend his own point of view, then leadership qualities are definitely inherent in him - for him it is not so important what others think about him, how much is the fact that he will express a thought that seems right to him.
4. Luscher test with flowers
Thanks to this test, in 5 minutes you can analyze the child's personality based on his choice of colors. The test was developed by the Swiss psychologist Max Luscher, who believed that color perception is objective and universal, but color preferences are subjective, reflect the psychological state of the subject, determine personality traits.
What to do and what to pay attention to: just follow the link and take the test with the child. An adult asks a question, the child indicates the color. At the end of the site appears the result.
5. Test “Right-handed or left-handed”
It is easy to determine if the child has an active hand, right or left, as early as 2 years. Right-handed imaging motor is located on the right, and logical - on the left. For left-handers - the opposite. Knowing this, it is possible to determine in which activities the child can more easily realize himself. Every second of us is left-handed and right-handed at the same time. Such people are called ambidexstra. Определение доминирующей руки у ребенка помогает родителям в воспитании: обучать левшу пользоваться активно правой рукой неправильно, так как это негативно сказывается на развитии ребенка. Левши чаще выбирают профессии артистов, художников, писателей.
Вариант для самых маленьких детей:
We pay attention to which hand the child uses more often: he holds the spatula, indicates the necessary thing, reaches for a treat or takes a toy.
Options for children from 3 years:
- We suggest to collect fingers of hands in the lock. Above is the thumb of the active hand.
- Please note what kind of hand the child unscrews the lid of the bottle - this is the dominant hand.
- We ask the child to cross his arms over his chest. That hand, which will be on top, is active.
6. Clara Davis Experiment
Dr. Davis suggested that even at a young age, the brain of a child independently determines how to eat properly. For the first test, Clara chose three children from 8 to 10 months who previously ate only breast milk, which means they did not determine their eating habits. Now, during each meal, up to 8 plates were placed in front of the little ones. They contain vegetables, fruits, eggs, cereals, meat, black bread, milk, water and juices. The children themselves decided what they had: if the baby put his hand in rice porridge, and then licked his hand, then he was given a teaspoon of rice porridge. Then they waited again for the baby to choose. He could wish porridge again or choose something else. So Davis discovered three things:
- Children, who chose their menu from simple dishes in this way, developed very well. None of them gained excess weight and did not become thin.
- Despite the seeming mess, the child for a certain period gained all the elements he needed, as if he were following a special diet.
- On different days and even time of day, the child's appetite changed. But this did not affect the final result. One of the kids ate a couple of days eating only vegetables, and then suddenly became interested in meat or fish. The share of a product could also change: at some point, the child wanted a lot of milk, immediately after that for a while could have forgotten about it. Thus, the child's brain independently determined, depending on the needs of the organism, what is necessary to eat. The same experiment, Clara Davis repeated with older children, separately studying the behavior of absolutely healthy and sick children, but the results were similar.
What to do and what to pay attention to: The experiment can be easily repeated at home, dividing the diet by type of product: vegetables, meat, fish, fruit, black bread, cereals, dairy products, children's juices and tea. A child can, together with an adult, formulate a diet for 1–2 days ahead. Some scientists have noted the importance of selecting products on the principle of seasonality. For example, in June to offer the child among the fruit strawberries, and in August - melon or watermelon.
Models: Samira Yunusova, Alir Vagapov
Photographer: Roman Zakharchenko
The concept and role
In order to find an individual approach to a child, to know its strengths and weaknesses, to most effectively train and educate both at home and in educational institutions, to provide psychological assistance in time, a child’s diagnosis is necessary. This implies a comprehensive study of psychological characteristics, personality assessment, forecast of further development.
Types of research
Types of diagnosis set. For ease of use, they are usually classified according to various criteria.
The most functional classification is the selection of species depending on the subject of study:
- Personality diagnostics - determination of temperament, type of self-esteem.
- Diagnosis of the emotional sphere. The ability to master oneself, experiences, attitude to moral norms is investigated.
- Diagnostics of the cognitive sphere is the diagnosis of the development of children intellectually, the study of mental abilities, the study of lateral preferences (the definition of a leading hand, a leading eye, etc.).
- Diagnosis of behavior.
But even this division is very conditional, as often there is a complex diagnosis of the child, when there is a comprehensive examination and assessment of the developmental characteristics of all or several areas.
For practice, the classification by type of nervous activity (diagnostics of attention, thinking, memory, speech, and learning skills) is also interesting. It is carried out depending on age (diagnostics of children of preschool age, diagnostics of children of primary school age).
Methods of diagnosis of children are very diverse and each of them depends on the type of research. At present, group methods are losing their value, giving way to individual testing. But in order for the diagnosis of the child to succeed, it is important to choose the right tool to be used in the future. In practice, psychologists most often use the following set of tools:
- Observation - the study of the mental properties of the child in normal conditions. This observation of behavior, play, interaction with others.
- Conversation - gives an idea about the child as a result of establishing contact and direct communication.
- The method of studying the results of children's activities - the analysis of drawings, crafts.
- The method of experiment - involves the study of the actions of the subject in specially created, modeled conditions.
- Tests for children is the most common method widely used by psychologists today.
The testing method can be called a complex, complex diagnostic method, since during testing a wide range of tools for studying and observing the test person’s behavior, analyzing the results of his activity and experimental conditions are used. Therefore, tests for children are of different types - tests, questionnaires, tests, tasks, tests, actions.
Test-questionnaires are often used in the diagnosis of personality, the questionnaire works well in determining the type of temperament. Test tasks are usually aimed at studying the emotional and intellectual spheres and are especially relevant when it is necessary to diagnose a child's readiness for school. Action tests are used when studying behavior.
Diagnosing a child on the subject of constitutional personality traits: temperament, balance, mobility of nervous processes, etc., is important, as it answers many questions about the behavior of the child. The features of the four main types of temperament are most clearly manifested in childhood and, if used correctly, the program for diagnosing children is easily amenable to pedagogical correction.
Of course, when determining the type of temperament of the child, the questionnaire is offered to his parents. For older children are allowed and independent tests with questions. The analysis of the answers obtained as a result of testing allows us to call the child choleric, sanguine, phlegmatic or melancholic.
Test "Transfer cubes"
In the process of research, a different number of cubes are laid on a small blade and the task is given to the child to carry cubes approximately three meters apart and return with them. Then put this burden on the table so that no cube falls. The spatula must be held in one hand.
According to the test results, equilibrium is evaluated (what kind of behavior does the child show if it fails, does it express dissatisfaction), ability to work (how long does the child succeed in completing the task), mobility of nervous processes (how quickly does the child understand and accept the task, does he adapt to work, is distracted ).
Program for determining the type of self-assessment: test "Ladder"
To learn how a child evaluates himself allows a very common test, during which the child is given a drawing with a picture of a ladder of seven steps, where the middle step is more than the others. They explain to the child that there are good children on the top three steps, and the best children are at the very top, on the seventh step. Bad children are located on the bottom three, on the lowest - the worst. On the middle rung are the children who can not be attributed to either the bad or the good. The tested person should mark his place on this ladder and explain why he placed himself there. When the child chooses the step, he is asked to tell whether he really is or wants to be like that? If he considers himself to be so, let him mark the step on which he would like to stand. Let him choose where his mother would have placed.
The test allows you to find out how the child assesses his personal qualities, as well as his opinion about how he appears to others (mother).
At the end of the test, the psychologist makes the following conclusions:
- Self-esteem is inadequately overpriced - the child instantly positions himself at the very top as an indisputable fact, without giving any reason, without thinking.
- Self-esteem is overstated - thinks and chooses the very top, talking about some shortcomings, but explaining this by factors beyond his control.
- Self-esteem is adequate - after thinking, he marks himself on the second or third step, explaining his choice.
- Self-esteem underestimated - puts itself on one of the lower steps without argument.
Diagnosis of the emotional sphere
Diagnosing a child is impossible without an examination of the emotional-volitional sphere. In preschoolers, it is predominant over the intellectual sphere. The world is known more with the help of feelings than of the mind.
The diagnosis of 6-year-old children is very important and informative for parents (tutors). Since at this age such feelings as anxiety, fears, constraint appear, for the six-year-olds the environment in which the examination is carried out, the personality of the tester is of great importance.
Ask your child to draw a cactus on a piece of paper. Do not help or suggest. It is advisable to answer any questions evasively: "Think a little, you will succeed." Do not give your vision and do not express your ideas.
The picture will tell about the emotional features of the child. Examine the result in detail:
- The size and position of a drawn flower in space indicates how a child defines himself in the surrounding world. A large flower in the center of the leaf indicates egocentrism and leadership qualities. The small cactus, painted below, speaks about the insecure, dependent personality of the artist.
- Stunted lines, strong pressure on the pencil give an impulsive child.
- The spiny cactus personifies aggressiveness. The more needles, the longer they stick out of the flower, the higher the degree of aggressiveness of the child.
- Cactus, planted in a flower pot, draw "home" children, seeking family protection.
- Cactus growing in the desert indicates a feeling of loneliness.
Test "Inclusion in a row"
Disassemble a six-place matryoshka in the presence of a child and place six twins, differing in size, in a row in size. Then remove one of them and align the distance between the rest. Invite a child to find her place in the row. If the assignment is successful, complicate the test: remove the two dolls of the row.
The test is aimed at assessing the level of the cognitive-orienting sphere, orientation by size.
Test "Classification of pictures"
You have two groups of pictures in your hands. Eight depict dishes, eight - clothes. Show the child a spoon card and place it on the table. Now - a card with the image of a jacket, put on the table at some distance from the spoon. The spoon and jacket are arranged in such a way that it is possible to continue the row from one and the other picture.
After that, in a different order, show the child pictures of items of dishes or clothes with a request to put another card in the desired row. Do not correct if the clothes are in the wrong group. At the end of the test, ask the subject to explain why he arranged the cards this way.
The purpose of this test is to identify the skill to carry out a synthesis of the essential features, explores visual-figurative thinking.
Test "Find Differences"
Before the test put two plot pictures, similar at first glance, but upon careful consideration having a number of differences.
The child seeks and names the differences. The test explores the attention and ability to compare.
The study of mental abilities becomes particularly relevant when it requires a diagnosis of a child's readiness for school.
Willingness to learn in school implies the presence of certain skills and the necessary level of development of thinking, memory and attention.
Test "Exclusion from the series or who is superfluous?"
Presenting a series of four objects (images of objects), the child is asked to find an extra one and explain why. When the person being tested excludes a plane from a row that includes a truck, a passenger car, an airplane and a cart, ask him to argue the answer, ask which one word you can call all items, which mode of transport is superfluous, and which ones.
The test reveals the ability to group objects according to the main feature, the level of formation of ideas about the world.