Gynecology

As for men, ureaplasma is treated: drugs, treatment regimen and terms, consequences

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Ureaplasma urealytikum (in Latin Ureaplasma urealyticum) is a conditionally pathogenic microorganism that is a type of ureaplasm that lives in the genital tract and, under certain circumstances, causes infectious-inflammatory processes in the genitourinary system.

Despite the fact that ureaplasma is classified as a sexually transmitted infection, it can be part of the normal microflora of the genital tract. Asymptomatic carriage of ureaplasma is characteristic of 70-80% of sexually active men and women.

While maintaining the normal microflora of the genital tract, reproduction of ureaplasma is suppressed by a natural physiological barrier, which is provided by representatives of the useful flora. For asymptomatic carriage, antibiotics and other drugs for ureaplasma are not prescribed.

Antibiotics for ureaplasma in women and men are prescribed only if, due to disruption of the normal microflora or reduced immunity, ureaplasmas begin to actively multiply, causing inflammation.

Antibiotics for ureaplasma

Infection with causative agents of ureaplasmosis can be carried out:

  • sexually,
  • contact-household way (through personal hygiene items),
  • vertical way (in childbirth from mother to child).

Normally, ureaplasma does not cause inflammation, since its activity is suppressed by normal microflora. However, in the presence of immunodeficiency states, vaginal dysbiosis and bacterial vaginosis in women, chronic prostatitis in men accompanying STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, etc.), reduced immunity, depletion after a long illness, etc., ureaplasmas can begin to actively multiply, causing a variety of inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system.

Indications for the appointment of antibiotics

Antibiotics for ureaplasma in men are prescribed if the microorganism has caused:

  • urethritis (inflammatory lesion of the urethra),
  • prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland),
  • orchitis (inflammation of the testicles),
  • epididymitis (defeat of the epididymis).

Ureaplasmas can be fixed and parasitic on sperm membranes, reducing their number and mobility and, accordingly, worsening the quality of sperm. In some cases, this microorganism can lead to male infertility.

In women, ureaplasmas can cause:

  • urethritis,
  • vaginitis (inflammatory process in the vagina),
  • cervicitis (inflammatory lesion of the cervix),
  • endometritis (damage to the uterus),
  • adnexitis (inflammation of the ovaries).

Endometritis and adnexitis rarely develop, as a rule, against the background of immunodeficiency states.

Further, the transferred inflammation of the uterus and ovaries increases the risk of ectopic pregnancy or infertility.

Cystitis (inflammation of the bladder) ureaplasmas are rarely caused. In rare cases, the microorganism can lead to the development of reactive arthritis.

In pregnant women, ureaplasmosis can cause cervical insufficiency, spontaneous abortion, fetal stillbirth, and development of chorionamnionitis. Children born to mothers with ureaplasmosis, as a rule, are lightweight (up to 2.5 kilograms). In severe cases, bronchopulmonary infections, bacteremia and meningitis of the newborn are possible.

What drugs are prescribed?

It should be borne in mind that as the main cause of the inflammatory process, ureaplasma is considered when excluding other pathogenic microorganisms. In some cases, inflammation may be caused by the association of microorganisms.

Prescribe antibiotics for ureaplasma infection should the attending physician, taking into account the localization of the inflammatory process and its severity, the presence of concomitant diseases or the association of ureaplasma with other microorganisms.

Preparations are selected taking into account the sensitivity of the pathogen. Beta-lactam antibiotics are not prescribed for ureaplasmosis. This is due to the fact that cephalosporins and penicillins affect the cell wall of pathogens, and it is absent in ureaplasmas. Also against this pathogen are ineffective sulfonamides.

Antibiotics are most active against ureaplasma ureliticum. They have a bacteriostatic mechanism of antimicrobial activity and act on the synthesis of proteins and deoxyribonucleic acid in the pathogen.

The most effective against this pathogen have drugs group:

  • tetracyclines (tetracycline, doxycycline),
  • macrolides (clarithromycin, roxithromycin, azithromycin, josamycin, etc.),
  • fluoroquinolones (ofloxacin, pefloxacin, moxifloxacin).

Preparations of other groups are practically not used.

The most proven efficacy against ureaplasmas have drugs clarithromycin and doxycycline.

Doxycycline with ureaplasma

Doxycycline in the treatment of ureaplasmosis is the drug of choice. Due to the improved pharmacokinetic properties, doxycycline is better tolerated than tetracycline and causes less undesirable effects from use. The main complaints after taking sr-w are associated with disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. In order to prevent the occurrence of abdominal pain or nausea after taking the capsules, it is recommended to use an antibiotic during a meal.

Doxycycline 100 mg

Doxycycline cost in pharmacies:

  • Unidox Solutab (produced by the Astellas campaign in the Netherlands - 10 tablets of 100 milligrams -350 rubles),
  • Doxycycline (Belarusian pharmaceutical company Belmedpreparaty - 20 caps. 100 milligrams each - 20 rubles)
  • Doxycycline (Russian pharmaceutical company Synthesis AKOMP - 10 caps. 10 milligrams each - 20 rubles),
  • Doxycycline (Russian pharmaceutical campaign Ozone - 10 caps. For 100 milligrams - 33 rubles).

Doxycycline with ureaplasma take 1 capsule (100 milligrams) 2 times a day. The course of treatment is from seven to 14 days.

The antibiotic is effectively used to treat women with infertility or habitual miscarriage associated with infection with ureaplasmas and mycoplasmas.

The drug is not prescribed:

  • during pregnancy (tetracycline drugs are in the group of Wed-in, it is strictly contraindicated for use in this period),
  • during breastfeeding,
  • up to eight years old
  • in the presence of individual intolerance to tetracycline drugs,
  • with severe renal and liver dysfunctions.

Adverse effects from the use can be associated with a violation of the gastrointestinal tract, thrush, intestinal dysbiosis, allergies and photosensitization.

Azithromycin for ureaplasma - treatment regimen

Of macrolide antibiotics, clarithromycin, azithromycin, josamycin, midecamycin and erythromycin can be used to treat ureaplasmosis.

Clarithromycin for ureaplasma is considered the most effective drug after doxycycline. Josamycin (Vilprafen) is the antibiotic of choice for treating ureaplasmosis in pregnant women.

Azithromycin in ureaplasma is somewhat inferior to clarithromycin in its efficacy, but less commonly causes gastrointestinal disorders.

Azithromycin can be used on 1 capsule containing 0.25 grams of antibiotic once a day for six days or once in a dose of 1 gram.

Cost of azithromycin in pharmacies for packaging 6 caps. At 0.25 grams:

  • Sitrolide (produced by the Russian pharmaceutical campaign Valenta Pharma - 300 rubles),
  • Azitroks (Russian pharmaceutical company Pharmstandard - 320 rubles),
  • AzitRus (Russian campaign Synthesis AKOMP - 75 rubles),
  • Azitral (Shrey's Indian pharmaceutical company - 310 rubles)
  • Azithromycin Ecomed (Russian AVVA RUS campaign - 150 rubles),
  • Zi-factor (Russian pharmaceutical company Veropharm - 210 rubles),
  • Hemomitsin (Hemofarm Serbian campaign - 200 rubles).

Sumamed with ureaplasma is often prescribed, if necessary, a single dose of 1 gram of the drug. The cost of 1 tablet of Sumamed (pharmaceutical company Pliva Hrvatska doo) is 620 rubles.

Sumamed

Azithromycin is taken one hour before meals or two hours after.

Contraindications to the use of the drug are:

  • individual intolerance macrolide Wed-in,
  • severe arrhythmias and antiarrhythmic drugs,
  • violation of the QT interval,
  • severe renal and liver dysfunctions,
  • age up to 12 years (for capsules of 250 milligrams, for young children it is necessary to use a suspension or, from three years - tablets of 125 milligrams).

Azithromycin is generally well tolerated and rarely causes side effects from treatment.

Macrolides are on the list of drugs approved during pregnancy; however, if there is an alternative, azithromycin is not recommended. It is preferable to replace it with josamycin. Prescribing medications should be done exclusively by the attending physician, after careful examination and comparison of benefits and risks.

Vilprafen with ureaplasma

Wilprafen (the trade name of josamycin) is produced by the Dutch Astellas campaign. Packing cost 10 tab. 0.5 grams to 340 rubles.

Vilprafen Solutab (josamycin)

Vilprafen should be taken 1 tablet (0.5 grams) three times a day. The course of treatment is from seven to 14 days.

The drug is contraindicated in the presence of individual intolerance to macrolide antibiotics and severe liver failure. With caution josamycin used in renal failure.

Josamycin is the drug of choice for the treatment of ureaplasma, as well as chlamydial infection in pregnant women. Reception of an antibiotic is possible only after consultation with the attending physician.

Vilprafen, as a rule, is well tolerated by patients and practically does not cause side effects from treatment. The undesirable effect of the antibiotic can manifest itself as a violation of the gastrointestinal tract, allergies, dysbiosis or thrush.

Clarithromycin in ureaplasma

Preparations of clarithromycin for ureaplasmosis should be taken at 0.25 grams twice a day. The prolonged form of CP (Klacid CP) is taken once a day at a dose of 0.5 grams. The duration of treatment is determined by the attending physician and ranges from 7 to 14 days.

Klacid SR 500 mg (clarithromycin)

  • Klacid CP Abbot Campaign, USA - 650 rubles. For 7 tablets of 0.5 grams,
  • Clarithromycin SR (Vertek, Russia) - 420 rubles., For packaging 14 tab. at 0.5 grams
  • Clarithromycin of 0.25 grams (14 tab.) Of the Czech campaign Zentiva c. -270 rubles,
  • From each 0.5 gram (14 tab.) Of the Slovenian pharmaceutical company Krka - 540 rubles.

Drugs of clarithromycin are not used in the first trimester, with porphyria, severe renal and hepatic dysfunction, individual intolerance. Tablets are contraindicated for up to 12 years (from six months use a suspension).

Metronidazole with ureaplasma

Metronidazole has a bactericidal mechanism of action, and for the treatment of ureaplasma it is necessary to prescribe bacteriostatic antibiotics. Metronidazole is not included in the list of antibiotics used to treat pure ureaplasma infection, and is used only in cases where inflammation is caused by the association of microorganisms.

Metronidazole 250 mg

Most often, metronidazole is used to treat trichomoniasis. When a Trichomonas vaginal specimen is detected in the analyzes, the drug is taken 0.25 grams twice a day for 10 days, or at a dose of 0.4 grams twice a day in a course of five to eight days.

It is recommended for women to additionally use metronidazole in the form of vaginal suppositories.

  • Metronidazole of the Russian pharmaceutical company Pharmstandard-40 tab. 0.25 grams - 170 rubles,
  • Klion of the Hungarian campaign Gedeon Richter - 20 tablets of 0.25 grams each - 90 rubles,
  • Flagil (20 tab. 0.25 g each) of the French campaign of sanofi-aventis - 130 rubles,
  • Trichopol Polpharm Polish Campaign (20 tablets of 0.25 grams each) -98 rubles.

Metronidazole is contraindicated in the first trimester (in the 2nd and 3rd months only for health reasons, as prescribed by the attending physician), during breastfeeding, leukopenia, individual intolerance to the drug, severe impaired renal function and liver. Tablets are contraindicated in children up to 3 years.

Article prepared
infectious diseases doctor Chernenko A. L.

Description of the disease

What is such a pathology as ureaplasma in men, the symptoms and treatment of which require special attention?

This is an infectious disease that is transmitted sexually. The disease is caused by a specific microorganism called Ureaplasma urealyticum. It does not have its own cell walls. This allows the pathogen to penetrate into human cells, in which it multiplies.

Thanks to this mechanism, the immune system practically does not act on ureaplasmas. Many antibiotics are powerless.

These pathogens are capable of staying in the man’s body for a long time without any indication of their presence. They live on the mucous genital organs, urinary tract. In this case, they do not provoke unpleasant symptoms. Therefore, doctors refer to ureaplasma to conditionally pathogenic flora.

Causes of pathology

The main route of transmission of ureaplasma is sexual. However, infection is possible during childbirth, from mother to child. At the same time, due to physiological features, boys are much less likely to become infected than girls.

It is impossible to get infected in domestic conditions with ureaplasmosis. After all, microorganisms live exclusively in human cells. Thus, it is the sexual way - the main source, as a result of which ureaplasma is found in men.

Causes for infection:

  • sex life started at an early age
  • unprotected sex,
  • random change of partners
  • sexually transmitted diseases.

Predisposing factors

Very often a man is a carrier of ureaplasma. However, no unpleasant symptoms are observed. The causative agent is parasitic for a long time in the body. In this case, the person does not even suspect that he has ureaplasma. And, accordingly infects their partners.

But in some cases, the pathogen begins to attack the body, causing inflammatory processes in it. In this case, it is important to know how men are treated with ureaplasma and it is necessary to understand how such symptoms are provoked.

The main factors triggering the development of the disease are:

  • recent viral diseases
  • nerve overload
  • unbalanced diet (lack of nutrition of unsaturated fats and vitamins),
  • bad habits (alcohol abuse, smoking),
  • frequent stress
  • treatment with hormonal drugs, antibiotics,
  • effects on the body of ionizing radiation,
  • hypothermia.

However, men who observe hygiene, leading an orderly sex life do not experience the appearance of urephlasmosis. After all, they do not have favorable conditions for the development and reproduction of the pathogen.

Characteristic symptoms

The disease is quite insidious. It can be asymptomatic, turning into a chronic form. Pathology can make itself known 4-5 days after infection. But most often the disease manifests itself much later. As soon as immunity decreases under the influence of any factors, the male ureaplasma immediately begins to progress.

Symptoms and treatment of the disease, unfortunately, the majority of patients are simply ignored. This leads to serious complications. Doctors ascertain that very often men seek help only when the disease is complicated by severe pathologies.

That is why it is important to understand the signs of ureaplasma in men:

  • the occurrence of clear secretions
  • temperature rise,
  • burning, itching
  • impaired urination,
  • discomfort in the perineum and groin.

In this case, the symptomatology of the pathology often proceeds latently or blurred. Accordingly, timely treatment is absent, and the disease quickly takes a chronic stage.

Possible complications

Pathology is extremely dangerous for its complications. If you do not start to fight in time, then ureaplasma in men begins to progress in the body.

The consequences of such ignoring often lead to inflammatory diseases of the urethra, prostate gland, and epididymis. Sometimes male infertility develops against the background of pathology. However, with proper treatment and the absence of other consequences, the reproductive function of the stronger sex is usually restored.

Doctors say that men can face such complications of ureaplasmosis:

  1. Urethritis. For the disease is characterized by pain, cramps, burning in the urethra during urination. When urethritis becomes chronic, each exacerbation is manifested by more severe symptoms.
  2. Epididymitis. The inflammatory process occurring in the epididymis. Often the disease does not cause painful or unpleasant sensations. However, the appendage is significantly compacted and increases in size. This is what forces the patient to come to the urologist for consultation.
  3. Prostatitis. A man is having difficulty urinating. His pain in the perineum. Such symptoms are accompanied by frequent urge to urinate. Further, an erection disorder develops, which can lead to impotence.

Diagnostic methods

In order to choose the right therapy, the patient will be recommended a medical examination.

Diagnostics includes the following laboratory and instrumental measures:

  1. Bacteriological seeding. Thoroughly studied material taken from the urethra.
  2. PCR. The most accurate analysis of ureaplasma in men. According to the study of scrapings from the urethra identify the nucleotide sequence of pathogens.
  3. The way gene probes.
  4. ELISA.
  5. The method of activated particles.
  6. RPGA. The analysis on a ureaplasma at men, revealing antigens in blood serum.
  7. REEF.
  8. RSK.

If a ureaplasma infection is detected in a man during the examination, then this is sufficient reason to assume the presence of a pathogen in the body of a sexual partner. That is why, in order to eliminate the risk of repeated infections, adequate treatment will be necessary for both patients.

Ways to combat illness

How do men treat ureaplasma? The key to successful treatment is the correct treatment tactics. That is why it is important to contact a competent specialist who will select the appropriate methods of dealing with the pathology on the basis of the conducted examination of the organism.

Based on the test results, a group of antibiotics that can affect microorganisms will be determined. Without such a survey is extremely difficult to identify the most effective drugs.

The treatment regimen for ureaplasma in men usually includes the following measures:

  1. Antibiotic treatment.
  2. Purpose of the drugs normalizing intestinal microflora.
  3. The use of multivitamin complexes.
  4. The use of immunomodulators.
  5. Dieting.

Antibiotic use

Therapy is etiotropic. In other words, the treatment is aimed at the destruction of the ureaplasma in the urogenital system. Antibiotics do an excellent job with this task. But it should be remembered that only the competent specialist can diagnose the most effective drugs and explain how men are treated for ureaplasma, after diagnosis. Therefore, it is extremely careless and wrong to self-medicate.

Therapy can be based on the following types of medications:

  1. Tetracyclines. Most often, the patient is recommended medication: "Tetracycline", "Doxycycline". Such medicines are prescribed in a course of 10 days. The use of these drugs should not be accompanied by a long stay of the man in the sun. Because tetracyclines can lead to photodermatitis (burn the skin).
  2. Macrolides. Such drugs have a higher safety. But, unfortunately, also not without side effects. They can provoke the development of allergic reactions. The most effective drugs for the treatment of ureaplasmosis are Azithromycin, Rovamycin, Josamycin. They are appointed, as a rule, for 14 days.
  3. Fluoroquinolones. This is not really antibiotics. These chemical compounds perfectly kill ureaplasma in the body. These drugs are: "Levofloxacin", "Norfloxacin". The duration of therapy with these medicines is 7 days. They are recommended to patients only if tetracyclines and macrolides were ineffective. These drugs can have a damaging effect on the kidneys, liver.

Medicines normalizing microflora

It is important to remember that antibiotics can adversely affect the functioning of the digestive tract. That is why the doctor will prescribe appropriate medicines that protect the patient from dysbiosis and ensure the normalization of the functioning of the intestine.

What drugs can be recommended if ureaplasma is diagnosed in men?

Treatment (drugs must be prescribed by a doctor) may include such means:

Use of immunomodulators

A special role in therapy is assigned to this group of drugs. They are aimed at restoring immunity.

In the treatment of ureaplasmosis often include drugs:

The patient may be recommended natural immunomodulators, such as:

  • lemongrass,
  • Echinacea extract,
  • syrup or broth hips.

Additional recommendations

For the entire duration of ureaplasma treatment in men (on average, it is 7-14 days), it is recommended to adhere to the following rules:

  1. Avoid sex or use a condom.
  2. Follow the diet. Give up alcohol. Exclude spicy, fried, salty, fatty foods from the menu.
  3. Strictly follow all the recommendations of a doctor.

And remember, ureaplasmosis is not an infection that you can fight on your own, using the advice of friends or acquaintances. This is a pathology that requires proper and adequate therapy prescribed by a doctor. Only in this case, you can count on a cure.

Antibiotic properties

Drugs based on antibiotics have a direct effect on ureaplasma. Drugs cause:

  • violation of the protein synthesis of bacteria
  • DNA destruction of microorganisms
  • disruption of the intercellular walls of microbes,
  • destruction of the cell membranes of bacteria.

The active ingredients of antibiotics are antibacterial chemotherapy drugs that have different patterns of effects on ureaplasma.

These medicines have a very wide scope. They are prescribed in the following cases:

  • against inflammatory processes caused by ureaplasma
  • if necessary, along with the suppression of ureaplasma, have an immunomodulatory effect on the body,
  • with a comprehensive fight against tumors.

Ureaplasmosis refers to opportunistic diseases, since the causative agent of an illness can last for years in the human body without causing disturbances. If the microflora in the body is balanced, it inhibits the development of ureaplasma. In case of violation of human microflora, the activity of pathogenic microorganisms increases.

Antibiotic treatment methods

Treatment of the disease depends entirely on the type of pathogen. Ureaplasma refers to the types:

  • ureliticum - has a destructive effect on blood cells and sperm,
  • parvum - lives in the mucous membranes of the urinary system of men and women, provoking the formation of stones,
  • Specialist - is an integral part of normal microflora, which is activated in violation of its balance and long parasitic and causing infertility.

This classification allows you to decide which antibiotic drugs should be drunk to eliminate the disease. As a rule, therapy includes antibiotics for the treatment of all types of ureaplasma, but the schemes differ depending on the type of microorganism.

What antibiotics are taken in the treatment of ureaplasma? It must be remembered that all medicines can be used for the reception only as prescribed by the attending physician. Recommendations are for informational purposes only and cannot be taken as a guide to self-treatment.

Antibiotics for ureaplasmosis are an essential part of its therapy. To eliminate the disease, take the following medications:

  • Azithromycin,
  • Doxycycline,
  • Josamycin,
  • Lincosamide,
  • Aminoglycoside,
  • Fluoroquinolone.

These drugs are prescribed individually, based on the individual characteristics of patients and taking into account their associated diseases. In medicine, there are a number of characteristic actions that have these drugs on the body.

Doxycycline is recognized as one of the best preparations of the tetracycline group for its ability to effectively treat ureaplasma. In addition, it is most safe to take it with this pathology, since it does not harm the intestinal microflora too much.

The most resistant to the acidic environment of the stomach have drugs Josamycin and Erythromycin. They are recommended to take with high acidity. In addition, they are not contraindicated in pregnancy.

Clarithromycin not only kills microorganisms, but also fights against inflammation.

However, these drugs can also increase the resistance of the microorganism. Like any bacterium, ureaplasma can mutate. Due to this, its sensitivity to antibiotics is increased.

According to studies, ureaplasma is the least resistant to the following drugs:

For successful treatment of ureaplasmosis, an adjusted treatment regimen, accurate dosage and strict compliance with the recommendations of doctors are needed.

Contraindications

Take antibiotics for ureaplasma in women and men should be with caution, taking into account the following contraindications: pregnancy and breastfeeding. Some drugs are dangerous in the first trimester of gestation, and taking them in the second and third trimesters is possible only on the recommendation of doctors. In cases of acute need for taking medications from ureaplasmosis during breastfeeding, lactation is stopped.

In case of hypersensitivity to drugs, therapy is canceled.

Side effects of antibiotics:

  • nausea, vomiting, pain and other disorders of the digestive system,
  • headache, insomnia, tinnitus, fainting and other manifestations associated with the central nervous system,
  • skin itching, redness and other allergic reactions.

Antibiotics are an effective component of the treatment of ureaplasmosis in adults, which is necessary to carry out exclusively for the purpose and under the supervision of a doctor.

Indications for use

Ureaplasmas are representatives of conditionally pathogenic microflora, microorganisms that doctors find in the bodies of healthy people with the same frequency as those with ureaplasmosis. Characteristic manifestations of activated infection are infectious diseases of the urinary and reproductive systems. Carriers of pathogens are most often representatives of the fair sex, although the disease develops equally in women and men. The main route of transmission of microorganisms - sexual, domestic infection is excluded. People at risk of developing the disease are immunocompromised.

Ureaplasma is amenable to antibacterial drugs that are chosen and prescribed by the attending physician for a specific patient.

The indications for prescribing antibiotics are the first clinical manifestations of inflammatory and infectious processes in the urogenital system. Often, the symptoms of ureaplasmosis resemble signs of other sexually transmitted diseases, as well as urinary tract inflammations, and even if they are not treated, the manifestations quickly disappear:

  • men notice slight discharge from the penis, mild pain accompanying urination, other symptoms of inflammation in the bladder and urethra,
  • women find not too intense discharge without color and smell, discomfort during emptying of the bladder, increased urination, pain in the abdomen when the process spreads to the uterus and ovaries,
  • during oral-genital sexual contact, ureaplasmas can affect the throat, which is manifested by redness of the tonsils, swelling and patches on the larynx, and foci of local inflammation.

All these symptoms are indications for seeking medical attention and the beginning of effective antibiotic therapy for ureaplasmosis. Also, treatment against these pathogenic microorganisms is prescribed to women who are planning a pregnancy, if they have revealed an infection.

Contraindications for antibiotics

Each person can take antibiotics from ureaplasma (if they are prescribed by a doctor after a thorough examination of the patient). The list of contraindications to these drugs is relatively small:

  • individual intolerance to a particular drug,
  • age under eight years old
  • state of pregnancy (different for different medicines) and lactation.

All these conditions are taken into account by a specialist during a diagnostic examination, self-treatment with such means is not allowed.

Types of antibiotics

During antibacterial treatment, ureaplasmas are exposed to etiotropic effects, for which drugs are selected that are able to penetrate cell membranes. The choice of drugs is made by a specialist, since microorganisms are resistant to certain types of antibiotics, therefore, sometimes it is necessary to change treatment regimens and conduct additional bacteriological tests to detect the vulnerability of pathogens to the active substances of various medicines.

The main types of antibacterial agents that successfully help to get rid of ureaplasma are classified into three groups:

Fluoroquinolones

Fluoroquinolone antibiotics are very effective in affecting pathogens. They provoke the death of intracellular bacteria, which include ureaplasma, although their concentration in the body rather quickly decreases. Contraindications to the use of drugs is the pregnancy of patients. Specialists are constantly developing new generations of fluoroquinolones, the benefits of which increase, and the likelihood of side effects decreases.

Tetracyclines

Medications of a number of tetracyclines in modern medicine are used less and less often, since their effectiveness is low compared to drugs of other groups. The advantage of these antibiotics is their low cost, as well as a certain versatility, which allows the therapy to be carried out with the manifestation of symptoms and to obtain specific results with the identification of the "culprit". Contraindications - age up to 8 years, pregnancy.

Macrolide preparations are the strongest and at the same time safe means to combat ureaplasma. The course of treatment with such medicines is considered the “gold standard” - the active components quickly accumulate in the body to achieve the optimal therapeutic concentration, which is maintained for 72 hours. This effect allows the death of pathogenic microflora to be achieved by a single drug intake, and this prevents a prolonged negative effect on the internal organs.

Vilprafen

Drug experts Wilprafen experts call one of the safest and effective antibacterial drugs. The active ingredient josamycin, on the basis of which the medicine was created, successfully copes with microbial and bacterial infections, inhibits the growth and development of microorganisms causing inflammatory processes. The component penetrates through the cell membrane, after which it is concentrated in tissues affected by inflammation.

The drug treatment regimen (dosage and duration of the course) Vilprafen prescribed by the attending physician. In addition, aids are usually prescribed:

  • for men - washing the urethra with Hexicon solution, for women - the introduction of suppositories (candles) to restore the vaginal microflora and antifungal effects (for the prevention of thrush that develops on the background of antibiotic)
  • drugs that can help the functioning of the liver, to which an additional burden falls during treatment,
  • probiotic drugs for the restoration of the gastrointestinal microflora (its antibacterial therapy can also be suppressed),
  • vitamins and immunomodulators.

The indications for taking Vilprafen are cases of infection with Ureaplasma and other pathogens. Contraindications - hypersensitivity to the components of the drug, age younger than 8 years, with caution, treatment is prescribed for hepatic and renal failure, for diabetes, premature babies and babies weighing less than 10 kg.

The list of side effects that may be accompanied by the medication Vilprafen, is quite wide:

  • disorders of appetite, heartburn, nausea, diarrhea, dysbiosis, in the most advanced cases - inflammation of the intestinal mucous membranes,
  • disorders of the liver and kidneys,
  • failure of a healthy bile flow,
  • allergy (expressed by urticaria, swelling of the larynx),
  • hearing problems

Doctors do not combine treatment with Vilprafen with antibiotic therapy, penicillins, a number of cephalosporins, antihistamines. Due to the unpredictability of the final result, only the attending physician should conduct all prescriptions for additional drugs.

Drug Macropen from a number of macrolides is an antibiotic with the active substance midecamycin. The drug is taken orally, and literally within 1-2 hours, its absorption and concentration in the gastrointestinal tract occurs. The greatest amount of the active component is found in the foci of inflammation of the affected internal organs of the urogenital system, so that not only the activity of ureaplasma in the body of the sick person is suppressed, but the consequences of the disease - infectious and inflammatory processes are eliminated.

The drug Makropena must be taken daily before meals in exact dosages determined by the attending physician. The duration of treatment is 7-10 days. Contraindications to therapy are individual component intolerance and severe disruption of the liver. The state of pregnancy is not considered a factor in which taking the drug is prohibited, however, specialists in this case have to carefully calculate the dosage, as well as weigh the effectiveness of a woman’s health and the risks to her unborn child.

Improper use of Macropen can lead to side effects, including:

  • problems with appetite
  • nausea (vomiting),
  • failure of the liver,
  • allergic reactions (with manifestations on the skin).

Macropen is a drug whose action is based on the product of the inhibitory effect, due to which the synthesis of proteins is disturbed in the cells of the pathogenic microorganisms, which leads to their death.In minimal dosages, the drug provides a bacteriostatic effect, that is, it temporarily inhibits the ability of the ureaplasma to reproduce, with prolonged treatment, it exhibits bactericidal (destroying pathogens) properties.

Treatment mapping

To cure ureaplasmosis if it engulfs the urogenital system with inflammatory processes, it is possible only with complex therapy. To determine the optimal treatment, doctors conduct a number of diagnostic activities and make up a special course, including preparations of several groups. Important: the impact should be made on the organisms of both partners at once, since ureaplasma is sexually transmitted, therefore the risk of infection of a still healthy person is extremely high.

The course of therapy lasts up to 14 days, during which the patient receives antibacterial drugs as the main therapeutic agent, aimed at suppressing the activity of pathogens and eliminating the inflammatory processes caused by them. Ancillary medications that supplement antibiotic use:

  • for men, uroseptics (for insertion into the urethra),
  • for women - vaginal suppositories (to restore the vaginal microflora, antifungal and anti-inflammatory effect),
  • immunomodulators (to strengthen the body's defenses and accelerate the restoration of health after ureaplasmosis).

The treatment course against ureaplasma also includes physiotherapy procedures aimed at eliminating stagnation in the pelvic area, suppressing inflammation and promoting recovery from a long illness, especially if it was accompanied by complications.

The course of treatment, as recommended by the doctor, is supplemented by a special diet, due to which long-term use of antibiotics does not so much affect the internal organs (especially the liver and kidneys). Additionally, patients should exclude any sexual contact until ureaplasmosis is defeated.

Side effects of antibiotics

The course of antibiotic therapy has a significant therapeutic effect on ureaplasma and inflammation of the urinary system caused by it, however, some drugs may have a negative effect on the internal organs. Taking antibiotics can cause the following side effects:

  • problems with the intestines and the entire gastrointestinal tract as a whole, leading at least to frustration, diarrhea and nausea, and a maximum to the “starvation” of the body without enough vitamins and minerals,
  • increased load on the liver, provoking a violation of its functioning,
  • renal failure, which in combination with malfunctioning of the liver leads to intoxication of the body by metabolic products.

In order to avoid these health problems it is necessary to take all the medicines correctly, on the recommendation and under the supervision of a physician. Drugs can not be prescribed for themselves, and the prescribed funds should be taken in a specific dosage. Only in this case, therapy will be successful and without negative consequences.

Which drugs are most effective?

In the early stages of the development of the disease, preparations of the penicillin and cephalosporin groups can provide effective treatment. May be administered as an injection or in pill form. From penicillin antibiotics, it is possible to isolate preparations with such active ingredient as amoxicillin. It is characterized by a wide spectrum of action and is indicated for use in a variety of chronic diseases. Effective against fungi, as well as staphylococci and streptococci. It affects ureaplasma, but is not able to completely suppress this microorganism.

In some cases, ampicillin may be prescribed as a doctor. This antibiotic is particularly effective in resisting infections of the urogenital system in women. In the early stages of the development of the disease may have a suppressive effect on ureaplasma, however, in the chronic form of the disease is practically useless. This is due to the absence of the cell wall of the pathogen.

With pronounced symptoms, use of stronger antibiotics, such as tetracyclines or macrolides, is recommended.

Doxycycline can be distinguished among the tetracycline group (it does not adversely affect the organs of the gastrointestinal tract), and sumamed has an overwhelming effect among macrolides from ureaplasma. Its high cost is due to potent properties. Through the drug almost during the first three days of therapy significantly reduces the activity of the pathogen. Contraindicated in children under 8 years. It is recommended to use in combination with vitamins.

Drug macropene

Special attention also deserves the drug Macropen. The active ingredient is midecamycin. It is administered predominantly orally, which ensures a high concentration of the active ingredient in the affected areas. The maximum concentration is observed within two hours after administration. It is processed by the liver. To avoid adverse effects, long-term use of this substance is not recommended. Contraindicated in children weighing less than 30 kg. Each tablet contains 400 mg of active ingredient.

In the treatment of acute inflammatory and chronic diseases, in most cases, it is shown three times a day for half an hour before or after meals, one tablet each. A standard course of treatment lasts no more than 10 days. Breaks in the admission are not allowed. In some cases, patients may experience the following adverse reactions:

  • the level of enzymes in the liver is much higher than normal
  • decrease or complete lack of appetite,
  • diarrhea and gagging,
  • manifestation of an allergic reaction in the form of a red rash on the outer layers of the epidermis.

If any adverse reactions occur, it is imperative that you consult with your doctor. Before you start taking an antibiotic, you must ensure that there is no individual intolerance to the active ingredient or one of the auxiliary components of the drug, as well as to the normal functioning of the liver. Macropen can be used during pregnancy and lactation, but this does not mean that the active substance will be harmless to the fetus. It is necessary to check with the attending physician all possible risks and draw the right conclusions. Usually in these cases, physicians try to achieve positive dynamics in the treatment of ureaplasmosis with more conservative methods, so as not to jeopardize the health of the mother and baby.

What is better for women

What drugs need to treat ureaplasma in women? The sensitivity to antibiotics in women is greater than that in men, so when treating ureaplasmosis, doctors most often prescribe such drugs as:

  • Vilprafen (well eliminates possible symptoms and has a destructive effect on the pathogen in a short time),
  • Unidox Solutab.

Before use, be sure to consult with your doctor.

For the treatment of ureaplasma in women alone, one should pay attention to one of the most highly concentrated drugs - Azithromycin. Its action does not extend to the cellular structures of bacteria, which makes it highly effective in the fight against ureaplasmas. It leads to the regeneration of harmful microorganisms and prevents their reproduction inside the body.

Symptoms for which antibiotics are prescribed

As mentioned earlier, such radical treatment is not always required. In most cases, the immune system is able to overcome the ailment on its own. The presence of the disease may not manifest itself at all (Parvum Ureaplasma). However, in certain situations, taking these drugs is mandatory. Antibiotics for ureaplasmosis should be prescribed by a doctor when ureaplasma is detected using laboratory methods and the presence of a combination of the following symptoms:

  • frequent urination,
  • the appearance of a transparent, odorless discharge,
  • pain when urinating in men and pain in the groin or lower abdomen in women,
  • general malaise and a slight increase in body temperature,
  • swelling of the mucous membrane of the genital organs.

These symptoms will not necessarily indicate an exacerbation of ureaplasmosis. Such manifestations can be observed in other diseases of the genitourinary system. But if the doctor diagnosed ureaplasmosis, treatment should begin immediately. Otherwise, the disease may become chronic.

Consequences of overdose

When treating ureaplasmosis with antibiotics, it is extremely important not to exceed the dosage set by a specialist. The consequences of this can be divided into three groups:

  • Anaphylactic shock as a result of an unexpected and intense allergic reaction to one of the components of the drug,
  • Lesions of the urogenital system and the gastrointestinal tract (possibly with excessive and prolonged use),
  • Antibiotics for ureaplasma in women during pregnancy can provoke a teratogenic effect - the penetration of the active substance beyond the placental barrier, which in particularly severe cases can cause congenital abnormalities in the unborn child.

The most common method of eliminating the effects of overdose is gastric lavage with special medical equipment.

Side effects can also be caused by poor-quality drugs that have become unusable for the following reasons: improper storage (dampness, direct sunlight, unacceptable temperature at the place of storage), mechanical damage to the packaging, the expiration of the shelf life declared by the manufacturer.

Before taking should pay attention to the above aspects.

It is important to understand that effective treatment of ureaplasmosis is carried out exclusively by means of antibiotics. Other methods, such as physiotherapeutic procedures or folk recipes, should be used only as ancillary, and only after consulting a doctor. It should be remembered that the best and most effective methods of treatment can only suggest a qualified specialist.

The sensitivity of ureaplasma to antibiotics

In 2008, American scientists conducted a series of studies and found that not all antibiotics for the treatment of ureaplasma produce the necessary therapeutic effect, and some cause rapid adaptation of microorganisms to active substances. Summary table of the sensitivity of bacteria to popular antibacterial drugs:

What is ureaplasma

Ureaplasma is a membrane parasite, which is a cross between a virus and a simple unicellular organism. In total, scientists identified 7 species of these microorganisms, but only 2 of them are clinically important, which are found in the human body:

  • Ureaplasma parvum,
  • Ureaplasma urealyticum.

According to various sources of medical statistics, more than half of adult women, as well as a third of newborn girls, have ureaplasma parvum. This fact makes scientists doubt the aggressiveness of these microorganisms and their pathogenicity, because they can live on the mucous membranes of a person throughout their lives and not cause any signs of pathology.

Both types of ureaplasma are conditionally pathogenic for the human body, i.e. they may be present in a small amount in the natural microflora, without causing any painful symptoms. However, if immunity is disturbed and the microflora is shifted towards uncontrolled reproduction of ureaplasma, a serious disease of the urogenital system can occur, which threatens both women and men.

An antibiotic with ureaplasma is not required if this pathogen was simply detected in tests, without any complaints and signs of inflammation in the patient. Prescribed antibiotics in cases where there is a clear clinical picture of infectious inflammation of the urogenital system.

Ureaplasmosis, on the one hand, is the most common sexually transmitted infection. On the other hand, such statistics themselves are subject to great doubt, since ureaplasmosis was not included in either ICD-9 or ICD-10, i.e. the corresponding diagnosis simply does not exist in modern medicine.

Signs of ureaplasmosis can determine the localization of the center of intensive multiplication of bacteria. Depending on where exactly the inflammation is located, the clinical picture of the disease may vary significantly.

Women usually have the following signs of indisposition:

  • discomfort or pain in the abdomen,
  • discomfort and pain during intercourse,
  • bleeding between menstruation,
  • copious mucous yellowish discharge, possibly with streaks of blood,
  • itching and burning in the vagina,
  • violation of urination - increase or decrease the frequency of urge,
  • fever, malaise, signs of intoxication,
  • on examination - swelling and redness of the vaginal mucosa.

The symptoms of ureaplasma in women are similar to gardnerella, but the treatment is carried out with other antibiotics. Gardnerella vaginalis is another possible causative agent of genital infections, which is a conditionally pathogenic bacterium that is constantly present in the body and reproduces rapidly with a decrease in immunity.

Antibiotics for Gardnell and Ureaplasma are used by completely different groups, therefore, before prescribing drugs, it is necessary to conduct a differential diagnosis of the disease through laboratory tests. Whether it is possible to cure ureaplasma without antibiotics will be discussed further in the article.

In men, Gardnerella infection is practically non-existent. When ureaplasmosis, they most often have signs such as frequent urination, discharge from the urethra, discomfort and burning in the urethra.

Diagnostics

Diagnosis of ureaplasmosis occurs in several stages. First of all, it is necessary to examine a specialized physician: a gynecologist or an andrologist, who must establish signs of inflammation and other symptoms of an infectious disease.

The doctor usually immediately, on examination, takes a smear from a patient to analyze the microflora. The next stage is laboratory tests, during which the presence or absence of pathogens is established.

Serodiagnosis is one way to find out if there is ureaplasma in the patient's body. For this analysis, the patient is taken blood from a vein and examined for the presence of antibodies produced against these pathogens.

PCR is a more reliable, but durable and expensive analysis. For the study, you need to take a smear, the DNA or RNA of the pathogen will be searched for in the sample of mucus. PCR is a polymerase chain reaction, which allows you to detect even the minimum concentration of the genetic material of a pathogen in a sample.

Bacteriological examination can also be done by smear or urine analysis. It consists in seeding the sample in an environment favorable for the growth of bacterial cultures. If in its course a large number of colony-forming units of ureaplasma is found, then this is an indicator by the beginning of treatment.

In the course of bacteriological analysis, an antibiotic sensitivity test of ureaplasma can also be performed. The fact is that ureaplasma may not be sensitive to antibiotics if the patient is a carrier of mutated flora that has become resistant to certain types of drugs. This happens after taking antibiotics of the same group. The question of the antibiotic sensitivity of a particular strain is the basis of effective treatment.

Treatment of ureaplasmosis with antibiotics in women

After the patient has been diagnosed, Antibiotics against ureaplasma can be included in different groups. Effective in the treatment of the disease can be drugs in the following categories:

  • tetracyclines,
  • lincosamides,
  • fluoroquinolones,
  • macrolides
  • aminoglycosides.

As mentioned earlier, the antibiotics used to treat ureaplasma in women should be determined as a result of bacteriological laboratory analysis. In addition, for the treatment of ureaplasma in women, antibiotics should be selected taking into account the state of pregnancy and lactation. Some of the antibiotics are too toxic to take the drug during the reproduction period.

Among tetracyclines today, doxycycline is the most effective. It is a broad spectrum antibiotic, and is also safer than tetracycline. Taking this drug to a lesser extent adversely affects the intestinal microflora, but it has teratogenic and ototoxic effects, so its reception is possible only by women outside the state of pregnancy and children over 8 years old.

Among linkozamidov most often used Klindomitsin and Lincomycin. The use of the above means can be combined with other antibiotics, because Lincosamides are only effective against gram-positive flora. Lincosamides are relatively safe in terms of toxic effects, but can cause side effects in the form of allergic reactions.

Fluoroquinolones are effective means of fighting ureaplasma.Ofloksacin is most often used from this group - this drug is highly active against bacteria, quickly gains the necessary concentration in the tissues of the body and has an effect. Tablets are contraindicated in pregnant women.

Macrolide drugs are one of the most modern and safe antibiotics today. For example, Erythromycin can be used even by pregnant women in the early stages.

Among aminoglycosides against Ureaplasmosis effective drug Clindamycin. The medicine should be selected only after the antibiotic sensitivity test, since some bacterial strains may have cross-resistance with macrolides. In such cases, the treatment of ureaplasma in women may include several drugs in the regimen.

Treatment of ureaplasma in men

Antibiotics from ureaplasma in men are no different from those in women. Used drugs of the same groups. It should be borne in mind that when planning a family, both partners should be treated for the disease at the same time. The duration of treatment is determined by the doctor depending on the dynamics of the disease, but the minimum course of treatment is 5 days for antibiotics. Throughout the treatment, until confirmation of full recovery is obtained, partners should use barrier contraception to avoid reinfection.

Men are less likely to become infected with ureaplasmosis. Most often they are passive vectors of the disease. Due to the anatomical features of the genitalia, ureaplasmas almost never multiply to such an intense degree as to cause inflammation of any tissue or organ.

Prevention

Treatment of ureaplasmosis is justified only in case of inflammation or related problems with reproduction. With asymptomatic detection of ureaplasma therapy can only harm - for example, doxycycline with ureaplasma of a pregnant woman can harm an unborn baby.

It should be borne in mind that ureaplasmosis is transmitted only during childbirth from mother to child, or sexually. The household contact path is theoretically possible, but practically impracticable, because Ureaplasmas do not live outside of the human body for quite a long time.

However, the source of the disease can be public baths, swimming pools, latrines. At home, each family member must have clean towels and underwear, and the sleeping set and pants must be ironed with a hot iron after washing and replaced daily.

You must maintain your overall immunity - for example, avoid bad habits, hypothermia, eat well and regularly engage in physical activity. Regular sex life with hygiene and a constant partner also contributes to the normalization of microflora.

Prevention of ureaplasmosis is barrier contraception and regular hygiene of the genital organs. For women, a regular visit to the gynecologist and maintaining healthy immunity and microflora. For men - examination by an andrologist and careful attention to their reproductive health.

Without antibiotics

Treatment of ureaplasma is possible without antibiotics if the concentration of microorganisms has not yet reached the pathological level. Then this is not technically a treatment, but a prevention of the disease, which is to maintain a healthy microflora and immune defense of the body.

For this purpose, eubiotics can be used to restore vaginal microflora, vitamins of groups B and C, hepatoprotectors (which are necessary for antibiotic therapy to protect the liver from overload), anti-inflammatory drugs (which also usually accompany antibiotic therapy), as well as immunomodulators and various physiotherapy.

Ureaplasmosis is rather difficult to treat, since it is easy to get infected again, and along with antibiotic treatment, the natural microflora of the body suffers, which needs patient recovery. Therefore, more often meet with your doctor for preventive examinations, observe sexual hygiene and have a limited number of proven sexual partners.

Thus, ureaplasmosis quite rarely causes reproductive health problems, but the pathogen itself is found in the vast majority of patients. In order that the carriage of ureaplasma does not lead to the development of the disease, it is necessary to observe personal hygiene, to be selective in intimate relationships, and also to trust the treatment to a proven specialist and effective methods. If the disease has already begun, then only antibiotics can be effective. You do not need to ignore concomitant medications.

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