Thyroid

7 signs of iodine deficiency in a woman’s body

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For the normal operation of the human body requires many trace elements. Iodine is one of the most important. It is not synthesized independently, and therefore its stock must be constantly replenished from the outside.

Iodine is needed for normal functioning of the thyroid gland, which is responsible for the production of thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine and thyroxin). They are involved in metabolic processes, regulation of oxygen absorption by tissues, the formation and development of the skeleton, the central nervous system. In addition, the thyroid gland performs disinfecting functions, passing blood through itself, and iodine in this case acts as an antiseptic.

It is believed that the chemical element helps to restore the vital energy expended during the day. The trace element is responsible for the normal functioning of the nervous system, providing a calming effect. Mental abilities also depend on the amount of iodine.

Indications for prescribing iodine

A greater amount of iodine (about 90%) enters the body along with food of plant and animal origin, seafood. Another part - with air. But this applies only to those areas that border the sea coast. If there is a deficiency of trace elements in the body, drug therapy is required. Iodine-containing drugs help prevent the development of such severe pathologies as hypothyroidism, atherosclerosis, cretinism, endemic goiter.

With a slight iodine deficiency, lethargy occurs, accompanied by drowsiness and constant fatigue. In more serious cases, Besedov’s disease - a diffuse toxic goiter or thyroid adenoma - develops.

The increase in thyroid occurs due to the fact that the body is trying to establish the production of hormones with an acute shortage of microelement. Gradually, the thyroid gland ceases to function normally, as the body signals with the following symptoms:

  • there is overweight, which is hard to get rid of,
  • mental activity is disturbed,
  • there are problems with concentration,
  • disorientation in space
  • there is growth retardation and mental retardation (in children),
  • inability to carry a pregnancy.

To correct the micronutrient deficiencies, nutritional adjustments and medication effects will be needed. Good iodine-containing drugs quickly restore thyroid activity and have a positive effect on metabolic processes in the body.

Best tools

Medicinal products containing iodine help to return the thyroid gland to normal size. It is usually recommended to take them within six months. However, they can only be prescribed by a specialist - endocrinologist, who will preliminarily examine the patient.

In the early stages of pathology development, vitamin complexes and iodine-containing preparations will be effective. For the thyroid gland, the following medications are best:

The trace element is also found in vitamin complexes: Vitrum, AlfaVit, Multi-tabs Classic, and Unidgex. Usually these drugs take at least a month. After that, a break is made, and the course of therapy (if necessary) is repeated.

"Yodomarin": instructions for use

Highly effective medicine is "Iodomarin" - a product of the German pharmaceutical company "Berlin Chemie". Potassium iodide is used as an active substance. The drug is released only in the form of tablets, which may contain 131 ("Iodomarin 100") or 262 µg ("Iodomarin 200") component. Lactose monohydrate, colloidal silicon dioxide (highly dispersed), magnesium stearate, gelatin and magnesium carbonate are used as auxiliary substances.

Inorganic iodine, which is the basis of the drug, helps to get rid of the micronutrient deficiency and to establish the production of thyroid hormones that are necessary for the functioning of all systems and organs. After oral administration, the substance is rapidly absorbed in the intestinal tract and begins to accumulate in the thyroid, kidneys, mammary glands, and stomach. Excess iodine is mainly excreted in the urine.

Indications for appointment

A person needs at least 150 micrograms of iodine per day. Most people get half the dose at best. To avoid the development of a pathological condition will help the drug "Iodomarin". Instructions for use recommends taking pills with iodine deficiency, including during pregnancy and lactation to prevent the development of severe illnesses in the baby. The drug is used in the treatment of endemic and euthyroid goiter. In order to prevent pills are prescribed to people who are in places with increased radiation.

Many iodine-containing drugs, including “Iodomarin”, are used in pediatric practice with an element deficiency in newborns and young children.

Dosage and method of use

The dosage of tablets is selected individually and depends on the patient's age, the severity of the condition. So, for children under 12 years old it is recommended to give 50-100 mcg of iodine per day. Tablets are allowed to crush and, if necessary, dissolve in milk or juice. This is the most convenient way to give the drug to the baby.

Adults and children over 12 years old are shown to take 100–200 mcg of potassium iodide per day. Taking the medication can be done at once. It is advisable to do this in the morning, because the active ingredient has a slight invigorating effect and can cause difficulties with a night's sleep.

“Iodine-Active” or “Iodomarin”: which is better?

"Iodine-Active" - ​​a dietary supplement that allows you to fill the lack of trace elements in the body. The cost of the medicine is 130-170 rubles. The active ingredient in the preparation is contained in the form of iodcasein, which is well absorbed in case of deficiency and is excreted in excess, without falling into the thyroid gland. This happens due to the fact that the active substance is cleaved from the milk protein by the action of liver enzymes. The enzymes themselves begin to be produced only in cases of iodine deficiency in the body.

For diseases of the thyroid gland, a specialist may prescribe such drugs as Iodine-Active or Iodomarin. What is the best of these medications to take to eliminate iodine deficiency can only decide a doctor. It should be borne in mind that dietary supplements have a less pronounced therapeutic effect. In addition, these drugs do not pass clinical trials and therefore can cause a number of side effects.

How to take "Iodine-Active"?

The dosage of the drug is determined individually. For babies up to 12 months, 50 mcg of iodocasein is prescribed, and children up to 7 years old should be given 90-100 mcg of the active substance per day. Patients from 7 to 12 years old tablets should be taken at a dosage of 120 micrograms. Adults - 150-200 mcg of iodasecase per day.

Iodine-containing drugs often cause tachycardia. After taking the pills, an unpleasant taste may appear in the mouth. It is recommended to take a dietary supplement during pregnancy only after consulting a gynecologist.

"Jodbalans": a description of the drug

Drug "Yodbalans" instruction recommends taking in case of iodine deficiency and for the prevention of thyroid abnormalities. The drug is available in tablets with a dosage of 100 and 200 μg of iodine. For the prevention of iodine deficiency should take 100 µg of iodine per day. The tablet is allowed to dissolve in a spoon with water. During pregnancy, the dose is increased to 200 mg per day.

The drug "Yodbalans" instruction prohibits the appointment of hyperthyroidism, thyroid tumors, nodal toxic goiter, intolerance to galactose and lactase deficiency, increased sensitivity to iodine.

Iodine and its consumption

This element was first isolated and studied by French chemists: Napoleon Bonaparte needed enormous reserves of gunpowder for his endless wars. The best scientists of France tried to start production of components of this explosive from algae and as a result enriched science with the discovery of iodine.

Iodine very actively reacts with a wide variety of chemical compounds, which makes its high concentration dangerous to human health. Fortunately, the quantities of this element that help the body maintain health are measured in millionths of a gram.

To find out if you have a lack of iodine, you must perform a urine test. Here is a table that will help you to understand whether you need to urgently add additional amounts of this trace element to your diet:

During pregnancy and breastfeeding, the rate of admission of this element increases:

Category

Iodine intake
(µg / day)

The role of iodine in the body

The trace element iodine is largely consumed by the thyroid gland, which with its help produces the hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4). These substances are involved in almost all systems of the body and are involved in a huge number of processes, among which are:

  • Development and growth
  • Normalization of blood pressure
  • Intellectual brain function
  • Cleavage of fat in the liver

In addition to the thyroid gland, iodine is concentrated in the mammary glands, eyes, gastric mucosa, salivary glands and cervix. Obviously, for women's health, this element is especially important - the slightest lack of it very quickly manifests itself in the beautiful half of humanity. So how to recognize iodine deficiency in a timely manner?

Hypothyroidism (lack of thyroid hormones)

Hypothyroidism can have a variety of manifestations: weight gain, despite loss of appetite, feeling cold in the body, constipation, digestive problems, fatigue, depression, difficulty concentrating and memory, dizziness, eye swelling, muscle pain and increased cholesterol blood. If these symptoms are familiar to you, you need to urgently change something in your diet!

Dry skin and difficulty sweating

Incredibly, but a fact: almost twenty percent of iodine in the body is concentrated in the skin - especially the sweat glands are rich in it. As soon as there is a shortage of this substance, the skin becomes dry and cracked, and the sweating decreases sharply. The nails are deprived of life-giving moisture and easily broken, and a clod of hair on the brush after the morning combing becomes normal.

Pain and heaviness in chest

In this condition, such as iodine deficiency in a woman's body, the symptoms often include a particular soreness and feeling of severe chest severity on some days of the menstrual cycle. It has been hypothesized that iodine deficiency may be one of the factors that contributes to breast cancer. According to statistics, iodine deficiency is often detected when a woman has cysts in the breasts or ovaries.

What can lead to iodine deficiency?

Iodine deficiency - still remains an acute problem for both developing countries and economically prosperous countries. For example, in the US, iodine deficiency is noted in every seventh woman, and in total in the world this condition is noted in about two hundred million people. Along with the lack of this trace element in the diet, lifestyle factors are also very important, because of which iodine can be eliminated from the body at almost the same rate as it does.

Main risk factors for the development of iodine deficiency are:

  • Lack of nutrition of another important for the health of the thyroid gland substance - selenium
  • Pregnancy - a woman should be provided with this substance both herself and the child
  • Increased background radiation
  • Smoking and drinking alcohol
  • Use of oral contraceptives
  • Excess iodine antagonist substances in the body: for example, calcium and lithium
  • Certain types of food that contribute to the accelerated removal of iodine: soybeans, pine nuts, flaxseed, pears, peaches, spinach, sweet potatoes, various types of cabbage (among them the most popular - white, Brussels, broccoli, color)

If you are experiencing the symptoms described above, and are also affected by these risk factors, it makes sense for you to consult a doctor for an examination for iodine deficiency.

Remember: self-treatment can be hazardous to health, and home diagnostic methods (the notorious “three strips of alcoholic iodine solution on the skin for the night”) cannot be trusted at all. Assign tests and decipher the data obtained in the laboratory should an experienced doctor.

Interesting facts about iodine

The discovery of the trace element occurred at the beginning of the 18th century by the chemist Bernard Courtois, who was engaged in the manufacture of nitrate - later on it was used to make gunpowder. Saltpeter was mined from seaweed, where iodine was discovered, becoming an accidental and such an important find. The name was assigned due to the color of the microelement (“Yodos” in Greek means purple). The source for industrial iodine excretion is:

  • brown oil waters
  • seaweed
  • solutions of sodium nitrate.

Iodine deficiency disorders

What is dangerous iodine deficiency in the body:

  • Children's creatinism is one of the forms of congenital hypothyroidism caused by a deficiency of thyroid hormones and characterized by a decrease in its functions, a delay in the mental and physical development of a child.
  • Myxedema - manifestations of hypothyroidism in adults: mucosal edema, decreased metabolic processes, general weakness, accelerated aging.
  • Endemic goiter - hypofunction and a sharp enlargement of the thyroid gland, the nodes of which are visible through the skin, even visually. Endemic - this means that the pathology is associated with a lack of natural iodine in a certain area (mountains, territories far from the seas, the Far North). An enlarged thyroid gland is regarded as a precancerous disease.
  • Iodine deficiency during pregnancy, which can lead to fetal deformity, stillbirth, intrauterine growth retardation. Babies born to iodine deficiency have an increased risk of developing thyroid cancer.

Home way to diagnose iodine deficiency

There is a simple test that suggests a lack of iodine in the body. For the diagnosis, you will need the usual alcoholic iodine tincture for external use. A cotton swab is dipped into iodine and 3 lines are drawn on the inside of the forearm:

  • 1 - one draw
  • 2 - hold the line twice
  • 3 - three times draw the iodine line.

The procedure is performed before bedtime, and the result is assessed in the morning: the first line that has disappeared only indicates a sufficient amount of iodine in the body, the first two lines that have disappeared signal a hidden microelement deficiency, and the three disappeared lines indicate an obvious iodine deficiency - it's time to go to the doctor!

How to eliminate iodine deficiency in the body

To eliminate the imbalance of the microelement in two ways:

  • by rationalizing nutrition with the inclusion in the daily diet of foods and liquids containing iodine in the required quantities
  • by using artificially synthesized iodine preparations.

Illiterate self-treatment is a big mistake when people, even without seeing the doctor, begin to heal themselves with various dietary supplements, trying to eliminate what is possible and not!

If there is a suspicion of iodine deficiency, contact a general practitioner who, if necessary, refer you to an endocrinologist for examination: ultrasound of the thyroid gland and blood for hormones. The doctor will help you adjust the food and prescribe the drug if necessary.

What foods are rich in iodine

Products containing large quantities of iodine are representatives of the marine flora and fauna.

  • For example, 100 grams. dry kelp (seaweed) completely covers the daily dose of iodine for humans. This does not mean that every day should be eaten just such an amount, because iodine is contained in other products. But it is possible and necessary to flavor any salads and ready meals with dry seaweed, the main thing is not to subject the product to heat treatment.
  • From animal food iodine is rich in sea fish and other seafood of animal origin (mussels, shrimps, etc.). They should be present in the diet at least 2-3 times a week.
  • Red meat, eggs, milk, vegetables and fruits - peas, spinach, tomatoes, potatoes, bananas, black currant, black chokeberry - are rich in iodine products that we are used to.
  • Popular wisdom says that 5 grains of apple (seed) completely replenish the daily rate of iodine, the main thing is to thoroughly chew them. Some official sources confirm this information, but it is definitely not worthwhile to misuse this method - in addition to a useful trace element, the grains contain dangerous hydrocyanic acid.

Based on the presented table (the amount of mcg per 100 g. Of product), it is possible to formulate a diet in such a way that the standard amount of the microelement comes from food. It should not be forgotten that during heat treatment, about 50% of iodine volatilizes. If the doctor has prescribed an iodine-containing drug, this should also be taken into account, not being very zealous with iodine-containing food.

Trace element in the human body

Йод синтезирует гормон щитовидной железы, который обуславливает обмен веществ, преобразовывает пищу в энергию, влияет на рост и развитие органов.

Этот микроэлемент участвует в:

  • энергетическом обмене и регулирует температуру тела,
  • обмене белков и жиров, водно-электролитном обмене,
  • growth processes, neuropsychological development and development of all organs,
  • metabolism and rate of biochemical reactions.

In addition to all of the above, iodine has a beneficial effect on the body's consumption of oxygen, burning of excess fat, brain function, and healthy skin, teeth, nails, and hair.

So that excess iodine in the body does not create problems, you should be aware that the average daily consumption of this trace element should be from one hundred twenty to one hundred fifty micrograms, but not more than three hundred micrograms.

In order for the body to get the necessary amount of it, seafood (kelp, cod, herring, shrimp, etc.), iodized salt, milk, eggs and beef liver, onions, white cabbage, carrots must be included in the diet. As for vegetables, there is one condition: they must all be grown on soil with a sufficient amount of iodine.

Causes and symptoms of excess microelement

The situation when iodine is too much is quite rare. Most often, this problem threatens production workers, where frequent element emissions occur, or those who do not control its intake with iodine-containing vitamins and supplements.

These people have the following signs of excess iodine in the body:

  • Changes in appearance: thin hair that turned gray early, tremor in the hands, heavy sweating, weight loss, heat intolerance, constant hunger.
  • Health condition: cough, frequent headaches and dizziness, poor digestive tract, conjunctivitis and lacrimation.
  • Psycho-emotional state: thirst, frequent urination, sleep disturbance, anxiety and irritability.

Symptoms of an excess of microelement can also be attributed to an increased body temperature without any inflammatory processes occurring in the body, pumagne, swelling of the thyroid and parotid glands.

If the poisoning is severe, then diarrhea and vomiting may occur.

Excess iodine in the body of a woman is still accompanied by a violation of the menstrual cycle, and in the case of pregnancy can provoke premature birth and miscarriage.

Forms of the disease and its consequences

Excess iodine in the body causes iodism disease. It has two forms: acute and chronic.

Acute poisoning occurs when a large amount of a microelement is consumed over a short period of time or is accidentally inhaled.

The second form - chronic - develops gradually. It is most commonly diagnosed in people associated with a particular production, or in those who have been incorrectly prescribed a regimen of drugs with iodine. Chronic stage of the disease is difficult to determine, its symptoms coincide with signs of other ailments.

If the diagnosis of an excess of iodine in the body is not made on time, the consequences can be unpredictable. When two grams of this microelement get into the body, death occurs.

The consequences of iodism can still be attributed:

  • mucosal burns,
  • a change in the functioning of the liver and kidneys,
  • violation of the central nervous and cardiovascular systems,
  • swelling of the tissue
  • allergies.

Diagnosis of the disease

To make a diagnosis of "excess iodine in the body," a specialist conducts a survey:

  • first, a person’s medical history is studied and analyzed,
  • at the second stage, the professional activity of the patient is studied,
  • then, an external examination of the patient is carried out: the doctor checks for lesions on the mucous and acne on the chest and face, determines whether the smell of iodine is felt,
  • Laboratory tests are prescribed: blood and urine analysis, ICP-AES method is used.

For accurate diagnosis, additional studies will be assigned on various parameters, depending on which organ (thyroid gland, skin, liver, kidneys, salivary glands) detected iodine accumulation.

A blood test determines the composition of thyroid hormones, pituitary.

Urinalysis - sets the amount of iodine in the urine.

The ICP-AES method helps to determine the amount of iodine on a small part of the nail.

The analysis is carried out on a special device. The principle of operation is the determination of the wavelength of light that emits a specific trace element.

You can not ignore the excess iodine in the body, treatment should be prescribed by a specialist and take place under his supervision.

Acute poisoning:

  • skin is washed using a two percent soda solution,
  • Sodium thiosulfate solution (5%) is used for washing the stomach - this drug is used as an anti-toxic agent,
  • When poisoning with iodine salts, sodium thiosulfate is administered intravenously.

There may be adverse reactions in the form of allergies and blood pressure surges.

For the treatment of chronic iodism is necessary:

  • prevent the entry of trace elements into the body,
  • refuse to work in hazardous work,
  • take a salt-free diet
  • It is mandatory to exclude the use of vitamin complexes and supplements containing iodine,
  • if there is a violation of the water-salt metabolism, infusion therapy is carried out.

Folk remedies for the treatment of iodism are complementary. In order to neutralize the effects of microelement, used milk, butter, eggs, jelly on starch.

Prevention and prognosis

Disease prevention begins with the administration of medicines containing iodine. When using them, be sure to drink plenty of alkaline carbon dioxide, milk, sodium carbonate. The patient should know that during the period of taking medications with iodine, it is necessary to abandon spicy seasonings and alcoholic beverages. At the first symptoms of intolerance of this element, it is necessary to stop its use.

Children under five years can not prescribe drugs with iodine. For treatment of wounds, it is desirable to use "Iodinol".

As for the forecasts, they are favorable. After compliance with the recommendations of the doctor, the symptoms that signal that there is an excess of iodine in the human body disappear after some time. There may be difficulties with the healing of wounds obtained by contact of iodine crystals with the skin.

The relevance of iodine deficiency problems

Iodine is necessary for children and adults for the normal functioning of the thyroid gland, which is known to regulate the processes of metabolism and energy throughout the body.

In Russia, almost the entire territory, and especially the European part, is endemic for iodine deficiency. This is due to the lack of trace elements in the environment: in water, soil, air, as well as in food. Daily consumption of iodine by Russians is 40–80 mcg per day, with the required 100–150 mcg. As a result, the thyroid gland suffers, its enlargement occurs (endemic goiter), mental retardation develops.

The greatest risk of iodine deficiency is for pregnant women. There is a risk of miscarriage or premature birth, as well as the probability of stillbirth. A newborn child may have abnormalities or malformations of organs, and later may be stunted in growth and neuropsychic development (decrease in intellectual abilities). Food products, iodized salt and water can not always provide the body with the necessary amount of trace elements, so iodine prophylaxis is needed (taking multivitamins and iodine preparations).

Normal values ​​of daily iodine requirements

  • Infants (from birth to 2 years) - 50 mcg,
  • preschool children (from 2 to 6 years old) - 90 mcg,
  • children of primary school age (from 7 to 12 years old) - 120 mcg,
  • adolescents (over 12 years old) and adults - 150 mcg,
  • pregnant and lactating women - 200 mcg.

According to the anatomical structure of the thyroid gland, 3 types of goiter are distinguished:

  • nodal,
  • diffuse,
  • diffuse nodular (mixed).

If the thyroid gland is of normal size, and the level of thyroid hormones is slightly reduced, the symptoms of the disease will be nonspecific and mild. This is a headache, malaise, restriction of physical activity, discomfort behind the sternum.

If the thyroid gland is enlarged to degree І – ІІ, characteristic symptoms associated with goiter pressure on the larynx and trachea area (tickling and a feeling of a lump in the throat, difficulty swallowing, dry cough, periodic asthma attacks) appear.

In severe cases in children, goiter is complicated by the development of endemic cretinism.

Treatment for moderate-sized goiter and a diffuse-nodular form of drug. Iodine preparations are prescribed (Antistrumine, potassium iodide solution 0.25%) before clinical recovery. If, after 3-5 months of continuous therapy, goiter does not decrease, use synthetic thyroid hormone preparations. Surgical treatment is used for malignant forms, rapidly progressive process and large size of the thyroid gland.

Hypothyroidism

This disease is characterized by insufficient production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland (organ hypofunction). Hypothyroidism can be congenital and acquired. The causes of the various: genetic predisposition, infectious-inflammatory and immune processes in the body, anomalies and malformations of the thyroid gland.

Congenital hypothyroidism may also be associated with insufficient iodine intake in the body of a pregnant woman. Acute iodine deficiency in the process of embryogenesis provokes hypoplasia of the thyroid gland, and consequently hormonal disorders. A deficiency of T3 and T4 in the period of formation and subsequent development of the brain in a child leads to serious consequences from the nervous system and psyche.

The main symptoms of congenital hypothyroidism

  • a large child at birth (from 4 kg) with signs of immaturity,
  • prolonged jaundice in the neonatal period,
  • late fall of the umbilical cord,
  • decrease in physical activity of the child in the first year of life (he does not sit for a long time, does not crawl, does not walk),
  • late teething and closure of a large spring,
  • lethargy, drowsiness, poor reaction to surrounding events,
  • the voice is hoarse, rough,
  • decreased muscle tone in the limbs,
  • skin is dry, thick,
  • hair brittle, dull,
  • swollen face, hands and feet,
  • lag in physical and neuropsychic development.

If hypothyroidism in a newborn is not diagnosed, a serious condition develops - cretinism.

The main symptoms of cretinism in children

  • lag in growth (dwarfism is possible),
  • speech delay,
  • violation of coordination movements ("precarious gait" - children can not stand, not walk),
  • wrong skeleton structure (big head and short limbs),
  • short neck, big belly with an umbilical hernia,
  • chronic constipation
  • hearing loss (hearing loss is possible),
  • chronic conjunctivitis (swelling of the lacrimal gland),
  • anemia,
  • decrease in arterial pressure (hypotonia) and heart rate (bradycardia),
  • chronic fatigue, lethargy, apathy,
  • skin is rough, on the forehead is old folds,
  • puffy face with a blunt expression: wide-set eyes with narrow slits (ocular hypertelorism), breathing through the nose is difficult due to edema, mouth parted, tongue sticking out (large, edematous with imprints of teeth), excessive salivation, in the area of ​​the nose bridge retraction (“saddle nose").

In congenital hypothyroidism and cretinism, it is important to start life-long replacement therapy with synthetic thyroid hormones (thyroidin, thyroid, thyrocomb, etc.) in a timely manner. It is better that the treatment is applied in the first year of the child's life. When late treatment is started, children develop significant developmental abnormalities: physical activity and performance decrease dramatically, puberty is delayed, memory and intellect (poor performance in school) worsens with mental retardation (from mild retardation to idiocy), and bone growth slows down. Infertility may be observed in girls in the future. In addition, there is a decrease in immunity, a high incidence of disease and a tendency to chronic pathology.

The main causes of iodine deficiency

  1. Unbalanced nutrition: limited consumption of foods rich in iodine (shrimp, fish, seaweed, buckwheat, etc.).
  2. Violation of the processes of absorption in the gastrointestinal tract (iodine is poorly absorbed).
  3. Accommodation in an area endemic for iodine deficiency (low trace element content in water, soil and air).
  4. Hereditary predisposition (violation of the production of thyroid hormones).

The main symptom of the disease is an increase in the size of the thyroid gland. This is the body's compensatory response to a thyroid hormone deficiency.

Food Sources of Iodine

To compensate for iodine deficiency, it is necessary to eat foods with the maximum content. It is important to remember that the trace element is a volatile chemical compound. In the process of cooking, its content decreases sharply (when cooking - by 30–50%, when frying - by 50–70%). It is advisable to cut the vegetables into large chunks or cook whole. The preferred treatment method is steaming.

List of foods rich in iodine

  1. The leading position is kelp (seaweed). The iodine content per 100 g of the product is 500–700 μg. Salad of seaweed in the amount of 30 g fully meet the daily need for a trace element.
  2. A fish. The first place in terms of iodine content per 100 g of the product is hake (430 mcg), in the second place - cod liver (370 mcg), in the third - haddock (245 mcg). Freshwater raw fish (240 mcg), pollack (200 mcg), salmon (200 mcg), flounder (190 mcg), a smaller amount in codfish (130 mkg) and fresh herring (90 mkg) are also rich in trace elements.
  3. Seafood. The highest iodine content in squid is 300 mcg per 100 g of product, in fresh shrimp it is 190 mcg (boiled is 110 mcg), in raw oysters it is 60 mcg.
  4. Milk products. The maximum amount of trace element in whole milk is up to 19 µg per 100 g, in fermented milk products and hard cheeses up to 11 µg.
  5. Chicken eggs. One egg (weighing about 50 g) contains up to 18 μg of iodine.
  6. Meat. Most of the trace element in pork (up to 16.5 µg per 100 g of product) and beef (up to 11.5 µg). Ham sausage is leading in meat delicacies (up to 54 µg iodine per 100 g of product).
  7. Vegetables and fruits, berries. Among the vegetables, broccoli cabbage (up to 15 µg iodine per 100 g of product), any greens (green onions, dill, parsley, salad, sorrel - up to 15 µg, in spinach - up to 12 µg) and legumes (beans - up to 12.5 mcg, peas - up to 10.5 mcg). The rest of the vegetables (potatoes, carrots, beets, onions, eggplants, tomatoes, etc.) contain on average up to 10 μg of trace element. Among the fruits, the leader is the tropical feijoa fruit (70 mcg of iodine per 100 g of product), followed by persimmon (60 mcg), pineapples, melons, bananas, apples (especially their seeds), citrus fruits, plums, and strawberries among the berries are also rich in iodine. and grapes.
  8. Cereals. The largest amount of trace element in millet (up to 4.5 µg per 100 g of the product), oats (up to 4 µg) and buckwheat (up to 3.5 µg). In wheat and rye flour - up to 10 mg.
  9. Mushrooms The most rich in iodine - champignons (up to 18 micrograms per 100 g of product).

Also, to replenish iodine deficiency, one can eat iodized salt (5–10 g per day eliminates the necessary need for a trace element - 150–200 µg).

Causes of iodine deficiency

Pregnant women have an increased need for iodine, and the deficiency of this trace element is very dangerous for the fetus.

Lack of iodine in the body is not always a consequence of poor nutrition, because food is not the only source of this trace element for our body. We receive iodine with water and air; therefore, the problem of iodine deficiency is relevant in areas where the soil and water are poor in this substance (European part of Russia and European countries). Increased need for iodine in children, pregnant women and nursing mothers.

Symptoms of iodine deficiency

Iodine deficiency primarily affects the functioning of the thyroid gland, since iodine is part of the hormones it produces.

A lack of iodine signals the condition of the skin, it becomes dry, loses its elasticity, becomes waxy. Due to a metabolic disorder, in which thyroid hormones are also involved, overweight appears. There are violations in the bowels, manifested in the form of constipation. In cases of severe iodine deficiency, the cardiovascular system suffers, arterial pressure decreases, arrhythmias occur. In women, the menstrual cycle can be broken, infertility is often diagnosed, in men - impotence.

Due to the lack of iodine, the brain also suffers, the intellect, the ability to concentrate, the memory decreases. A person whose body suffers from iodine deficiency, complains of fatigue, weakness, becomes sluggish, indifferent to what is happening, sometimes even depression occurs. Over time, lack of iodine can cause an enlargement of the thyroid gland (endemic goiter), which begins to squeeze the organs located nearby, thereby causing coughing, difficulty swallowing, and asthma attacks.

Signs of iodine deficiency in children

In a growing body, the need for iodine is increased. Children experiencing a deficiency of this trace element often suffer from colds, they have reduced appetite, they quickly get tired of physical exertion, school performance in these children is poor. The lack of iodine in children often proceeds hidden. Увеличение щитовидной железы в размерах и развитие зоба свидетельствует о том, что детский организм давно испытывает йододефицит.With the development of severe hypothyroidism due to lack of iodine, the child begins to lag behind in physical, mental and mental development, in the most severe cases cretinism develops.

If signs appear above, you should consult a doctor. The first symptoms of iodine deficiency are not specific, therefore, it is difficult to establish the true cause of the deterioration of health.

In order to eliminate iodine deficiency in the body, it is necessary to enrich the diet with foods containing this trace element. Seafood such as sea kale, squid, shrimp, caviar, hake, pollock, cod, etc. are considered to be the most useful products with iodine deficiency. , green onions, asparagus, eggplants, beets, tomatoes, radishes, garlic, potatoes). This microelement is present in berries and fruits (bananas, oranges, lemons, melons, pineapples, persimmon). When cooking, it is recommended to use iodized salt. In addition, a number of food products are produced that are additionally enriched with iodine (milk, bread, eggs, mineral water, etc.). For children, dry milk mixes are produced, which include iodine.

In addition to the diet for the correction of iodine deficiency, it is recommended to take vitamin-mineral complexes (Vitrum, Alphabet, etc.), as well as iodine preparations (Iodomarin, Potassium iodide, Jodbalans, etc.).

Prevention of Iodine Deficiency

Iodized salt should be replaced with ordinary salt for people living in the regions of iodine deficiency.

For the prevention of iodine deficiency in the body, it is necessary to include in the diet foods rich in iodine, as well as periodically take medications containing this trace element, in a prophylactic dose.

For the prevention of iodine deficiency during pregnancy and lactation, all women doctors recommend taking medications containing iodine in a dose of at least 200 μg / day. Antenatal prophylaxis will help prevent future moms from avoiding the appearance of this trace element in the body. At the planning stage of pregnancy, it is recommended to take iodine preparations in a prophylactic dose six months before its occurrence. This will help prevent iodine deficiency disorders in a newborn baby.

Which doctor to contact

If you have symptoms similar to signs of iodine deficiency, you should consult an endocrinologist. After researching the hormonal background, the doctor will be able to conclude that there is a shortage of this trace element. An endocrinologist should tell future mothers about the prevention of iodine deficiency. A child with iodine deficiency symptoms is usually detected by an observant pediatrician. For proper nutrition, for the prevention of this condition, it is helpful to consult a dietitian.

Video version of the article

Iodine deficiency in the body: symptoms, treatment, prevention

The first symptoms of thyroid problems that should not be ignored

Lack of iodine in the body

Iodine in the human body plays one of the most important roles, as it supports its health. First of all, it is necessary for normal functioning of the thyroid gland, support of hormonal balance, preservation of immunity and brain function.

Signs of a lack of iodine in the human body - problems with blood vessels and the heart, muscle pain, impaired emotional stability, skin problems. What you need to do to avoid iodine deficiency in the body? Let's learn about everything in more detail.

Thyroid and iodine

Thyroid hormones in women and not only consist of 65% of iodine. They are necessary for regulating energy exchange in cells, releasing harmful substances from them, they are responsible for the intensity of respiration and heat exchange, they can cope with various human infections, control the work of the pancreas.

A lack of iodine in the body can lead to serious consequences, and the symptoms can be very diverse. The main signs of a lack of iodine in the human body are manifested in the form of an increase in the size of the thyroid gland. This way she tries to provide the body with the necessary amount of iodine.

Consequences of iodine deficiency

To determine the lack of iodine in the body is quite simple, since the symptoms are more similar. If women do not have enough iodine in the body, then it can manifest itself in the form of irritability, drowsiness, lethargy, apathy, blues, forgetfulness, bad mood that occurs for no apparent reason.

Determine the lack of iodine in the human body can by deterioration of memory and decrease in attention, the occurrence of headaches and decrease in sexual desire, an increase in intracranial pressure. Such symptoms in women can be aggravated during stress and weather changes.

When iodine anemic insufficiency in the blood decreases the level of hemoglobin, which can lead to a number of serious diseases. The symptoms of the cardiac manifestation of iodine deficiency in a person are expressed as an increase in lower pressure, arrhythmias, atherosclerosis, and the usual treatment does not bring results. In women, it is also possible to determine the lack of iodine in the body by the resulting edema around the eyes, on the hands and face, muscle pain, general weakness, lumbar and chest radiculitis.

Long-term iodine deficiency in children can lead to mental or physical retardation in the development of the brain and bone system, lack of iodine during pregnancy in women can cause cretinism, adversely affect the work of the internal organs of the baby and the development of its skeleton. In the early stages of iodine deficiency increases the likelihood of regression of pregnancy and miscarriage. During breastfeeding, this can lead to the disappearance of milk.

The most popular manifestations of iodine deficiency in the body are the following symptoms:

  • bad mood, lethargy, fatigue,
  • decreased appetite
  • tooth decay, dry skin, hair loss,
  • frequent headaches, memory impairment, hearing loss,
  • frequent infectious and catarrhal diseases as a result of decreased immunity,
  • shortness of breath, pain in the heart.

How to calculate iodine deficiency?

In order to finally make sure that your poor health arose as a result of iodine deficiency in the body, it is necessary to make an iodine net on the skin of the thigh or forearm. If it disappears within two hours, your body needs iodine, but if it lasts for about a day, then there is no shortage. You should also visit the endocrinologist who can make the correct diagnosis without delay.

Iodine deficiency in children

In children, the need for iodine is higher due to its growth. Children experiencing a shortage of this substance in the body are more likely to suffer from various colds, they quickly get tired of physical exertion, their immunity is reduced, poor performance in school. Most often, the lack of iodine in the child's body is hidden. The development of goiter and an increase in the size of the thyroid gland say that the children's body has been in need of iodine for a long time.

During the occurrence of strong hypothyroidism as a result of a lack of iodine in the children's body, the baby begins to lag behind in mental, mental and physical development, cretinism may develop in the most advanced cases. If you notice the symptoms described above in your child, you should immediately consult a doctor. The first symptoms of iodine deficiency in the body are not specific, therefore, it is very difficult to determine the real reason for which the child's condition worsened.

To compensate for the lack of iodine in the body, you can use a variety of iodine-containing drugs. Depending on the degree of disruption of the thyroid gland, the doctor may prescribe supplements and medications in the form of solutions and tablets.

The duration of such a course can range from several months to two years. In this case, iodine inorganic additives are often used (Iodine-Active, Iodide, Iodomarin), which are distinguished by the many drawbacks associated with the difficulty of selecting the correct dosage and many side effects.

Prevention

In order that you do not have problems with health and health in general, it is necessary to eat those products that have a lot of iodine in their composition. These products can be considered:

  • milk products,
  • fish (herring, flounder, mackerel, cod, mackerel) and seafood (squid, oysters, mussels, shrimp), as well as fish oil,
  • sea ​​kale
  • cereals (millet, buckwheat),
  • iodized salt
  • walnut, lemon, honey,
  • black chokeberry.

Iodine and thyroid.

Thyroid hormones are 65% iodine. They regulate energy exchange in the cells, contributing to their release from harmful substances, are responsible for heat exchange and respiration rate, help fight infections, control the activity of the pancreas. In the thyroid gland is more than 50% iodine contained in the body of an adult. Removing iodine compounds from the blood, it synthesizes various hormones that support mental and physical health. With iodine deficiency in the body, the thyroid gland enlarges, trying to give it the right amount of hormones.

What causes iodine deficiency?

Iodine deficiency can be different and manifest in the form of various symptoms. Emotional failure in iodine deficiency is characterized by drowsiness, irritability, apathy, lethargy, forgetfulness, blues, unreasonable bad mood. It also manifests itself in decreased attention and memory impairment, decreased libido, headaches, and increased intracranial pressure. Changing weather conditions and stress exacerbate the condition.

When anemic iodine deficiency in the blood decreases the level of hemoglobin, which causes many serious diseases.

Cardiac manifestations of iodine deficiency are expressed in arrhythmias, increased lower pressure, atherosclerosis, while traditional treatment does not give positive results.

Signs of a lack of iodine in the body are also swelling around the eyes, face and hands, weakness, muscle pain, chest and lumbar sciatica.

Long-term lack of iodine in children leads to a lag in physical and mental development, in the development of the skeletal system and brain, the lack of iodine during pregnancy causes cretinism, adversely affects the work of the internal organs of the child and the growth of its skeleton. In the early stages, an insufficient amount of this element increases the risk of regression of pregnancy and miscarriage. During lactation, this can lead to a decrease in milk production.

Symptoms of iodine deficiency

The most common signs of iodine deficiency are:

fatigue, lethargy, bad mood,

hair loss, dry skin, tooth decay,

hearing loss, memory loss, frequent headaches,

weakening of the immune system, frequent colds and infectious diseases,

heart pain, shortness of breath.

How to determine the lack of iodine?

To finally verify that iodine deficiency is the cause of poor health, make an iodine mesh on the skin of the forearm or thigh. If it disappears within two hours, your body experiences an acute element deficiency, if it does not disappear in a day, there is no shortage. It is also urgent to consult an endocrinologist who can accurately diagnose.

Treatment of iodine deficiency.

Iodine deficiency is compensated by taking various iodine-containing drugs. Depending on how badly the thyroid function is impaired, the doctor prescribes medications and supplements in the form of tablets and solutions. The course can range from several months to two years. Often used for this inorganic iodine supplements (Iodomarin, Iodine, Iodine-Active), which have several disadvantages associated with the complexity of dosing and vivid side effects.

Klamin as a means of preventing and treating iodine deficiency

For the correction and prevention of iodine deficiency is recommended to use the drug Clamin. The drug has several advantages compared with inorganic iodine compounds:

iodine enters the body in an organic form that is more beneficial for the body,

This form of iodine is easy to dose.

the possibility of toxic and adverse reactions due to the intake of organic iodine is much lower than when taking potassium iodide,

Clamin can be taken for a long time and even constantly in some cases,

iodine properties are preserved during storage of the drug.

Klamin is a safe and high-quality product that has undergone various clinical trials and is manufactured in modern production in compliance with international standards. Admission Klamin will prevent iodine deficiency and help maintain good health and well-being.

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Iodine is needed primarily for the synthesis of the major thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine. They affect all types of metabolism, but most importantly - the growth and development of organs and systems, in the first place - the central nervous system.

With food and water, we get only about 50 micrograms of iodine, which is 3-4 times less than necessary. For example, in 1 kg of vegetables 20-30 mcg of iodine are contained, in 1 kg of grain - 50 mcg, in 1 liter of milk - 35 mcg, in 1 kg of fish - 100-200 mkg.
In our country, a sufficient amount of iodine in the biosphere is observed only in coastal regions. Even Moscow belongs to the regions of iodine deficiency, albeit an easy one.

Manifestations of iodine deficiency

The effect of iodine deficiency can be compared with ionizing radiation - we do not feel its lack of any of the senses. However, the longer the body experiences iodine deficiency, the more pronounced changes in it develop, and not always we associate them with iodine starvation.

It is believed that the only manifestation of iodine deficiency is endemic goiter (an increase in the size of the thyroid gland). In fact, goiter is only a small visible part of the disease. There are other iodine deficiency states, and much more serious in their consequences.
The younger the child, the more unfavorable iodine deficiency affects its health.

Iodine deficiency in fetal development

Especially heavy and irreversible consequences develop when the body experiences iodine starvation during its prenatal development. The fetus begins to live at the expense of the mother's thyroid gland, but even its iodine reserves are not enough to satisfy the needs of the developing organism. Sometimes iodine deficiency turns out to be so severe that pregnancy ends in a spontaneous miscarriage.

From the very first days of pregnancy, hormones of the thyroid gland, the formation of which is impossible without a sufficient amount of iodine, are necessary for the proper formation of all organs and systems, without exception, primarily for the central nervous system. Disruption of the thyroid gland of the mother and fetus leads to a violation of the laying of organs and the formation of congenital malformations. It is not by chance that in iodine-deficient regions in the structure of child disability, the first place is occupied by malformations, among which are gross violations of mental development and pathology of the nervous system. All these pathological changes are practically not treatable, but they are easy enough to prevent.

Iodine deficiency in newborns

Adequate provision of the body with iodine during the neonatal period is extremely important. The first days and weeks after the birth of a child are the most responsible for the further formation of the nervous system, and in this the main role is played by thyroid hormones, which are not accidentally called intelligence hormones. In the future, children with iodine deficiency suffer attention and memory, it is harder for them to go to school.

The fact that the problem of iodine deficiency in newborns is a serious, as evidenced by the results of screening. This analysis is carried out in all newborns to determine the level of thyroid hormones. In this regard, mothers need to indicate to the maternity medical staff the address at which she will be with the child after discharge, and the phone number so that in case of detection of thyroid disease, you can quickly call a specialist for further evaluation.

Iodine deficiency in adults

Although in adults the need for iodine is somewhat less than in children, they are also not immune from the adverse effects of its shortage. They also quite often have endemic goiter, but unlike children, the frequency of nodular lesions, benign and malignant tumors of the thyroid gland significantly increases.
In women of childbearing age, a decrease in thyroid function due to iodine deficiency can provoke miscarriage, spontaneous miscarriage, and as already mentioned, the formation of fetal malformations and the birth of children with mental retardation.

Chronic fatigue

Drowsiness, drowsiness, and breakdown are the first things that people pay attention to when the concentration of thyroid hormones in the blood decreases, whose tasks include including providing the body with energy. The peculiarity is that these signs can occur without any prerequisites and do not disappear after a rest. Хроническая усталость наблюдается в 99% случаев йододефицита и нередко сопровождается мышечной усталостью без причин. Это первый тревожный звоночек, означающий, что стоит обратиться к врачу и сдать анализ на уровень тиреотропных гормонов в крови.

Слабость иммунитета

The weakness of the immune system is manifested in the form of frequent and recurring colds, viral, parasitic, fungal diseases, and slow healing of wounds. The use of general measures to strengthen the body (setting the day regimen, hardening, taking immunomodulators), as a rule, helps poorly. In this case, it is possible to get rid of immunodeficiency only by eliminating its prime cause by taking agents containing iodine (“Iodomarin”, potassium iodide, etc.), or thyroid preparations.

Edema is an obvious symptom of iodine deficiency. The most frequent localization of edema in this condition is under the eyes, swelling of the legs and arms can also be observed. Moreover, the use of diuretics to eliminate edema will not only be useless, but also dangerous: useful substances are flushed out of the body, including trace elements, and the water-salt balance is disturbed.

Menstrual disorders

The unstable menstrual cycle is a symptom of the initial stage of iodine deficiency, since a lack of iodine directly affects the functioning of the hormonal system. The state of iodine deficiency in women can be fraught with infertility and premature menopause. No less dangerous is the lack of iodine even with the onset of pregnancy: the absence of a vital element can adversely affect the fetal development of the fetus and lead to spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, and congenital pathologies.

Due to a decrease in metabolic activity, iodine deficiency is often accompanied by iron deficiency anemia, a disease associated with iron deficiency in the blood. In this case, anemia is usually unexpressed and, as a rule, appears already in the mature stage of hypothyroidism. The main symptoms of iron deficiency anemia are tinnitus, dizziness, weakness, pallor.

Overweight

Uncontrolled weight gain is one of the symptoms of severe iodine deficiency in the body. Overweight in this case is due to a greater extent not the presence of fat mass, and edema caused by metabolic disorders. Connective tissue becomes more susceptible to fluid, and, in addition to being overweight, iodine deficiency is manifested by thickening of the skin, puffiness of the face, limbs, swollen tongue and lips. Due to extensive edema in severe hypothyroidism, hearing loss, nasal breathing difficulties, hoarseness can occur.

Disorders of the cardiovascular system - a sign of hypothyroidism developed on the background of iodine deficiency, and to a large extent. Due to circulatory disorders in people with hypothyroidism, a complication can occur in the form of hypotension - lowering blood pressure. This condition is characterized by weakness immediately after waking up, dizziness, headache, shortness of breath, palpitations, sweating and fatigue. It is important to remember that hypotension often accompanies other endocrine diseases, is the result of stress, uncontrolled medication, sedentary lifestyle, having nothing to do with iodine deficiency.

Reduced intelligence

Problems in the brain, manifested in the form of reduced attention, ability to intellectual activity, memory impairment, can also signal a lack of iodine in the body. As a result of the weakening of the metabolism of brain cells, a person worse remembers dates, events, faces, hardly solves complex problems, ceases to be engaged in creativity. If iodine deficiency is not eliminated at this stage, the next stage is deep depression.

Bad mood and depression

Brain disorders that have not passed without a trace serve as a starting point for the development of psychological problems. There is a deterioration of the emotional background, apathy, passivity, dejection, a negative outlook on events, which in 5-12% of cases turn into severe depression, appear. A distinctive feature of this condition in iodine deficiency is weak-headedness, the absence of any desire to improve their condition, which should be known to the relatives of the patient. It is necessary to help him, to encourage him to seek treatment.

Preventing iodine deficiency is always easier than curing it. The average daily rate of iodine for an adult is 120-150 mcg. It can be obtained mainly from sea fish, algae, fish oil, iodized salt, meat, fruit and dairy products.

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Education: First Moscow State Medical University named after I.М. Sechenov, specialty "Medicine".

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