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Ultrasound rates at 16 weeks gestation

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16-17 weeks of pregnancy - a wonderful time for the future mother. During this period, women are usually not bothered by anything, and especially sensitive ones may feel the movement of their baby for the first time. This event moms perceive very emotionally. And those who have not yet experienced it, from this period almost every day with the hope of listening to themselves, to feel at least momentarily the movement of the baby. And so, the woman who is immersed in the thoughts about the child, the attending physician prescribes an additional ultrasound at 16-17 weeks of pregnancy. What goals does the doctor pursue?

Who is shown

Ultrasound examination is mandatory for all women three times. For the first time, the expectant mother is offered an examination in the period of 11-14 weeks of pregnancy. This is the period of the first screening, during which gross fetal malformations and chromosomal abnormalities can be determined, the baby’s vitality is assessed, the gestation period is specified, and the pathology of the reproductive organs is detected.

The second time a pregnant woman is prescribed an ultrasound scan at 18-21 weeks. During this period, the second screening takes place. A more in-depth study of the development of the baby is being carried out, malformations of organs and other features of the fetus and genitals of the mother, which were not visible in the previous examination, are identified. The third time ultrasound is performed in 32-34 weeks.

What is the purpose of ultrasound at 16-17 weeks? What is special doctor can see in this period? The indications for ultrasound in week 16 are the following cases:

  1. If a pregnant woman for some reason failed the first screening. This may be in the case of late diagnosis of pregnancy during lactation or due to personal circumstances in a woman. With this variant of events, the time for the second screening remains the same despite the apparent small time difference between the studies.
  2. If you suspect the presence or existence in previous pregnancies in this period of isthmic-cervical insufficiency. The goal here is the timely diagnosis and treatment for successful pregnancy.
  3. An examination may be prescribed by a geneticist with questionable or insufficient results of the first screening. This may be a suspicion of the presence of pathology, which can be registered not earlier than this period.
  4. To determine the sex of the fetus. This period is the earliest to establish the fact of the sex of the baby. This knowledge is necessary at risk of inheriting sex-related diseases.
  5. For follow-up examination in the identification of pathology in the first ultrasound. This takes place in the diagnosis of ovarian neoplasms in order to determine the tactics of pregnancy and the indications for possible surgical treatment.

How is the

Special training before the ultrasound at 16 weeks is not required. It is only necessary for the convenience of the procedure to empty the bladder. In the overwhelming majority of cases, an ultrasound scan is performed on the back in a transabdominal fashion when the sensor is on the abdomen.

However, transvaginal access is required to diagnose isthmic-church insufficiency. During the procedure of ultrasound diagnosis in this case, the sensor is inserted into the vagina. Fearing pregnant is not worth it, this method can not harm the baby and does not give him discomfort. It is also impossible to infect with an infection, since a condom is put on the sensor.

Evaluation of the development of the baby in the period of 16-17 weeks

Decoding the results of ultrasound in the period of 16-17 weeks includes many parameters. For this period, the coccyx parietal size loses its relevance and informativeness. Specifying the duration of pregnancy in the absence of data in the first trimester is made according to the biparietal size of the fetal head. To obtain its value, the distance between the extreme contours of the parietal bones is measured. However, due to various diseases, this size may vary; therefore, the second ultrasound scan is used to clarify the duration of pregnancy only in the absence of other data.

The following indicators are measured by ultrasound at 16 weeks:

  • biparietal head size (normal 31-37 mm),
  • frontal occipital head size (normal 41-49 mm),
  • abdominal circumference (normal 88-116 mm),
  • head circumference (normal 112-136 mm),
  • thigh length (normal 17-23 mm).

The average weight of the fruit is 100 grams, an increase of about 11.6 cm.

At 17 weeks, an estimated fetal weight of about 140 grams is calculated by ultrasound. Height is about 13 cm. Regulatory indicators for ultrasound in 17 weeks:

  • biparietal head size –34-42 mm,
  • frontal-occipital size - 46-54 mm,
  • abdominal circumference –93-131,
  • head circumference - 121-149 mm,
  • hip length –20-28 mm.

Also on the ultrasound indicates the baby's heartbeat. Its normal values ​​range from 140-160 beats per minute. Recorded motor activity of the fetus. Measured amount of amniotic fluid, the thickness of the placenta. The umbilical cord is described. During this period, three vessels passing through it are clearly defined: two arteries and one vein. Quite often, an ultrasound scan reveals that only one artery is present. You should not be afraid of this, the only umbilical artery is a variant of the norm, but it requires frequent ultrasound tests with dopplerometry.

What pathology of the fetus can be detected

If during the first screening the results turned out to be doubtful or it was not carried out at all, in the period of 16-17 weeks with ultrasound examination of the fetus is carried out for the presence of developmental anomalies and chromosomal pathology. The thickness of the collar space loses its information content in this period in contrast to 11-14 weeks of pregnancy. The brain (cerebral ventricles, cerebellum), face, spine, heart, lungs, stomach, liver, bladder, kidneys, upper and lower limbs are described.

In the period of 16-17 weeks, organ defects such as the back of the bifida, Fallot's tetrad, anencephaly, renal hydronephrosis and others can be detected. Absence or hypoplasia of the nasal bone on ultrasound may occur in Down syndrome.

If a pregnant woman is suspected of having a chromosomal pathology, a biochemical study can be offered as part of the second screening ahead of schedule. The blood test includes determining the level of alphafetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin and free estriol. In the period of 16-18 weeks, with poor screening results or the presence of risk factors, amniocentesis may be offered.

Norms of ultrasound 16 week

4 Month Pregnancy.

Until the expected date of birth + 24 weeks.

Mommy Features of the week.

Weight gain depending on the duration of pregnancy - per week

The total average weight gain for this week of pregnancy is only 300 grams per week

Depending on the body mass index. For 16–17 weeks gestation.

The body mass index is calculated = weight (kg) / (height m2) 2

With a BMI of less than 19.8 graceful women, frail physique - 3.2 kg

When, BMI is equal to 19.8-26 women of average build - 2.3 kg

When, BMI is more than 26 large women, strong build - 1.4 kg

The height of the uterus floor - 14-19 cm, the bottom of the uterus is approximately midway between the pubic bone and the navel

Baby Features of the week.

A child the size of a large pear.

Between 16 and 22 weeks, mothers begin to discern the movements of the baby. It all depends on whether you have the first pregnancy, how the placenta is attached, and your constitution.

The child studies everything around him, if the umbilical cord falls under the rug, picks it up and sips it, and then lets it go.

The child inhales and exhales the amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is updated every three hours, you need to regularly use clean water at least 30 ml per kg of body weight.

The length (height) of the fetus is 16.4 mm.

Fruit weight 146 grams. The average value of 146. rate from 121 to 171

Fetometry by ultrasound

for a term equal to the full sixteen weeks of intrauterine development

BPR (BPD) Biparietal size 36 mm +/- 5 mm. Average value 36, norm from 31 to 37

LZR (OFD) Frontal-occipital size 46 mm +/- 3 mm. Average value 46. norm from 43 to 49

(OG) Head circumference 128mm +/- 15 mm. The average value is 128, the norm is from 113 to 143

DB (FL) Hip length 22 mm +/- 4 mm. The average value of 22. rate from 18 to 26

(DG) Length of a shin is 18 mm Average value 18. norm from 15 to 21

(DP) The length of the shoulder 21mm +/- 4mm. The average value of 21. rate from 17 to 25

(DPR) The length of the forearm 15 mm The average value of 15. rate from 12 to 18

J (TBD) Diameter of the abdomen Average 102. norm from 88 to 116

Coolant (AC) Abdominal circumference 106 mm +/- 10 mm. Average value 106, norm from 96 to 116

Nasal bone 5.4 mm. The average value of the size of the nasal bones is 5.4, the norm is from 3.6 to 7.2

Ultrasound on week 16 during pregnancy

Ultrasonography at 16 weeks of pregnancy is prescribed quite rarely - the first planned screening has already been carried out, and before the second planned ultrasound and screening another 2-3 weeks. But in some cases it is required to repeat the scan or conduct a second screening study a little earlier. How does the baby develop at this time and what do they look at during 16 weeks ultrasound?

What happens to a baby at 16 weeks?

On the 16th week of pregnancy, the baby in the womb of the mother is already the size of a small grapefruit: it weighs about 90 grams, 110-116 mm in length. His muscles are growing stronger, his neck is confidently holding the head, and the baby is trying to turn it from side to side. He also trains the rest of the muscular system: jerks with legs and arms, trying to roll over. The legs of the fetus are becoming longer, full-fledged nails appear on the fingers.

It is at this time that the first mother can hear for the first time the baby's stirring in the stomach. Especially these chances are increased during the second pregnancy. The woman already knows what to expect, and when the child is pushed for the first time, she will not confuse this feeling with anything. Mimicry of the fetus develops: if a beam of light falls on the abdomen with an ultrasound, the baby may try to cover the eyes with handles. He is already moving for centuries, making faces, making faces, trying to express joy or outrage.

Already fully functioning internal organs. The heart pumps up to 25-28 liters of blood per day, the stomach and intestines work. The kidneys work like a clock: every hour urine is released, and the volume of amniotic fluid can reach 200 ml. Sometimes the baby hiccups, and then mom can feel a slight twitch in the tummy.

At this time, the formation of the genitals in the crumbs. Girls already have a uterus and fallopian tubes, ovarian development is nearing its end. The son of the future son of the ultrasound will clearly show the penis, although the testicles have not yet descended.

Indications for ultrasound on the 16th week

16 weeks of pregnancy is a kind of intermediate stage between the scheduled ultrasounds of the first and second trimester. The main studies during this period are traditional urinalysis, pressure measurement, special blood tests for hormones, infections, etc. Sometimes a doctor may shift the planned screening from the 18th week to the 16th. In this case, the conclusion of the screening results is usually prepared on the basis of an ultrasound scan of the first trimester.

In what cases can the attending physician send the patient to an ultrasound at 16 weeks of pregnancy?

  • If not passed ultrasound in 11-14 weeks. When the patient for any reason failed to undergo the first planned ultrasound, the doctor will definitely send her to scan in 16-17 weeks. The next ultrasound will take place within the time limits set by law.
  • If there is a threat of cervical insufficiency (ICN) at this time. ICN is a premature cervical dilatation. It happens absolutely painlessly, but it can lead to dangerous consequences. In the second trimester, it is sagging of the fetal bladder and rupture of the amniotic fluid.
  • To determine the sex of the child. At 16 weeks, an ultrasound scan is guaranteed to show the sex of the child if the baby allows himself to be seen, and does not turn back to the monitor. Sometimes such a diagnosis is needed to exclude hereditary pathologies along the father's line. For example, hemophilia.

The main indicators and standards of ultrasound on the 16th week

Decoding ultrasound scanning on this period includes a lot of different parameters. These are the size of the baby, the state of the internal children's organs, the length of the bones, the size of the placenta in the mother, etc.

Basic standards and their values ​​for ultrasound of the 16th week:

  • the biparietal size of a children's head is 31-37 mm,
  • frontal-occipital head size - 41-49 mm,
  • head circumference - 112-132 mm,
  • abdomen circumference in the baby - 88-116 mm,
  • thigh length - 17-23 mm,
  • shoulder and calf size - 15-21 mm,
  • the length of the forearm in the fetus is 12-18 mm,
  • child's weight - 90-100 g,
  • the volume of amniotic fluid of the future mother - 73-200 ml,
  • size of the placenta - 13.8-24.3 mm.

At the period of 16 weeks of pregnancy, the placenta is already fully formed. In the umbilical cord - three large vessels.

Possible pathology on ultrasound of the 16th week

An important task of the first planned ultrasound at 11-14 weeks is the timely diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities in the baby and any congenital abnormalities. If the results of this ultrasound were inaccurate or the analysis was missed, at 16 weeks the doctor will first of all assess the risks of disease in the unborn child.

An ultrasound examination of chromosomal pathologies may indicate such an indicator as the excessive thickness of the collar area of ​​the fetus. This is one of the main signs of Down syndrome in the future fetus. If the nasal bone is not visible on ultrasound, it may signal Down syndrome or Edwards.

At the 16th week of pregnancy, some dangerous anomalies of the neural tube can already be detected by ultrasound. For example, the rarest anencephaly is the absence of a baby's cranial vault and brain. During this period with ultrasound scanning, it is also possible to clearly see the spine in the baby and identify some pathologies of its development.

Often, ultrasound at this time becomes an additional study if the main analyzes have shown controversial results. To study the condition of the future mother and baby at this time, a blood test is prescribed for ACE (alpha-fetoprotein), hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) and ne (unconjugated estriol). If there is a suspicion of a genetic disease in a baby, spend amniocentesis - analysis of amniotic fluid on the ACE.

Ultrasound scanning at 16 weeks of pregnancy is not a mandatory ultrasound scan, but in some cases it is just necessary. So, if the patient missed the planned ultrasound of the first semester, it is necessary to have the procedure on the 16th week. This is necessary to assess the development of the baby and the presence of all its internal organs, excluding the risk of serious diseases. Also, scanning for a period of 16 weeks may be necessary to determine the state of the very future mother.

16 week of pregnancy: fetal ultrasound at week 16

The cost of ultrasound in the second trimester in the period from 14 to 26 weeks is 300 hryvnia. The price includes prenatal screening, biometrics by protocols, 3D / 4D visualization. The cost of complex prenatal screening for PRISCA (ultrasound + free estriol + alpha-fetoprotein + beta-HCG with the calculation of the individual risk of chromosomal abnormalities (for example, Down's syndrome or Edwards syndrome) and developmental defects (for example, neural tube defect) - UAH 735.

Changes in the child with fetal ultrasound at 16 weeks of pregnancy

Fetal growth with ultrasound of the fetus at 16 weeks of gestation is 15 centimeters, its weight is approximately 85 grams.

The fingernails and toenails form and grow in the fetus, some newborns need to trim their nails already in the first days of life!

A fetus from the 16th week of pregnancy is able to open its eyes in order to actively explore the world in the future. During fetal ultrasound at 16 weeks of gestation, see how the fetus opens its eyes only with the use of a 3d 4d ultrasound during pregnancy. But most of the time the fruit still holds with closed eyes. The fruit is able to distinguish between day and night. With a strong bright light directed at your belly, for example, direct sunlight, the child covers his eyelids with his palms.

The child’s mother begins to memorize the voice of the mother from the 16th week of pregnancy; he also remembers the voices of other family members who often speak to you.

From this period, a child has a first hiccup in utero. Somewhat later, you can feel it in the form of rhythmic pushes in the stomach.

Boy or girl On ultrasound of the fetus at 16 weeks of pregnancy, you can quite clearly determine the sex of the child, but it must be remembered that ultrasound is not always unmistakable.

The fruit is able to drink up to 0.5 liters of amniotic fluid per day!

The placenta is already fully formed and works independently to maintain and develop pregnancy, producing pregnancy hormones. With fetal ultrasound at 16 weeks, the size of the placenta is on average 18 mm.

Measurements with fetal ultrasound at 16 weeks gestation

When ultrasound of the fetus at 16 weeks of pregnancy, the main measurements for diagnosing normal fetal development are:

  1. BPD (biparietal size) is the transverse size of the fetal head. With fetal ultrasound at 16 weeks gestation, biparietal size averages 34 mm (31-37 mm).
  2. OG (fetal head circumference) is also an important size for the diagnosis of pregnancy during fetal ultrasound during pregnancy. При УЗИ плода в 16 недель беременности окружность головки в среднем соответствует 124 мм (112-136 мм).
  3. ОЖ (окружность живота плода)- при УЗИ плода в 16 недель беременности составляет в среднем 102 мм(88 -116 мм).
  4. DB (length of the thigh) - with ultrasound of the fetus at 16 weeks of pregnancy averages 20 mm (17 - 23 mm).
  5. DP (length of the humerus) - with ultrasound of the fetus at 16 weeks of pregnancy averages 18 mm (15-21 mm).
  6. The length of the leg with ultrasound of the fetus at 16 weeks of gestation averages 18 mm (15-21 mm).
  7. The length of the forearm with ultrasound of the fetus at 16 weeks of pregnancy averages 15 mm (12 - 18 mm).

The evaluation and measurement of bones on both limbs is necessary to exclude malformations. Normally, the right and left limbs are symmetrical, long bones are even. When ultrasound of the fetus at 16 weeks of pregnancy, the long bones have the appearance of smooth, clear, not intermittent lines.

Changes in your body during pregnancy 16 weeks

You may feel light tremors or swaying in the lower abdomen. This is not gas, this is your baby so grown up that you start to feel it! If you do not hear a stir in 16 weeks of pregnancy - this is also normal. Most women who are pregnant for the first time feel perturbations at 20-22 weeks. From 16 weeks of fetal movement, they feel either women who already have children or rather thin ones.

The chest continues to grow. You need to wear a special knit bra in order to avoid excessive pressure on the mammary glands, preparing for breastfeeding. The ideal option is cotton bras for nursing. Do not worry much that the breast will suffer greatly after feeding the child. Far from it. If you keep track of your weight, do not gain over the pregnancy and during those feeding extra pounds - the breast practically does not change, will retain its attractiveness. And your baby will receive the first most valuable contribution to his health - breast milk, rich in antibodies, which form the immunity of the crumbs, and other beneficial substances.

Many pregnant women continue to suffer from constipation. This is due to the effect of pregnancy hormones, with the mechanical pressure of the growing pregnant uterus on the intestines. These factors contribute to the fact that the digestive tract becomes slower. It is important to drink a sufficient amount of fluid (at least 2.5 liters), use vegetable fiber, to prevent the absence of stools for more than two days.

The amount of vaginal discharge increases. They are necessary to protect the birth canal from pathogenic bacteria and infections. Despite the fact that the discharge gives you discomfort, do not be tempted to use daily disposable pads, contributing to the development of thrush. Gaskets create a greenhouse environment, a greenhouse for the growth of "bad" bacteria and the death of "good".

Varicose veins can be prevented if you do not gain more than the prescribed weight. Overweight creates an additional load on the vessels. In addition, try to keep your legs at the pelvic level or higher whenever possible, do more walking if the doctor is in charge of the pregnancy. did not recommend you another.

Pregnancy hormones affect mucous membranes, causing swelling. No exception and nasal mucosa. Nasal congestion is a common problem in pregnant women. Salt sprays for the nose (aquamaris, humer) can somewhat alleviate the situation, removing the swelling. With the ineffectiveness appointed pharmacological vasoconstrictor nasal drops, but they can be used only under the supervision of a physician.

The abdomen grows, the angle of inclination of the pelvis gradually changes, which can cause lower back pain. Also, back pain can be one of the symptoms of a threatened miscarriage. Be sure to tell your doctor about this pain, especially if lower back pain accompanies lower abdominal pain.

To relieve pain in the lower back with a changing angle of inclination of the pelvis, you can use a light massage of the problem area, a warm shower.

Have you noticed that blood appears during brushing? This effect on the gums of the same pregnancy hormones - progesterone and human chorionic gonadotropin. Hormones make the gums more vulnerable to bacteria, so the gums become inflamed. It is necessary to carefully monitor oral hygiene.

Sources: http://familymagazine.ru/16-week-pregnancy/, http://uzigid.ru/beremennost-nedely/uzi-na-16-nedele.html, http://ultraclinic.com.ua/diagnostika /uzi/uzi-pri-beremennosty/16-nedelj-uzi-ploda.php

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The standards of ultrasound 16 weeks of pregnancy. Ultrasound during pregnancy. beremennost9m.ru

4 Month Pregnancy.

Until the expected date of birth + 24 weeks.

Mommy Features of the week.

Weight gain depending on the duration of pregnancy - per week

The total average weight gain for this week of pregnancy is only 300 grams per week

Depending on the body mass index. For 16–17 weeks gestation.

The body mass index is calculated = weight (kg) / (height m2) 2

With a BMI of less than 19.8 graceful women, frail physique - 3.2 kg

When, BMI is equal to 19.8-26 women of average build - 2.3 kg

When, BMI is more than 26 large women, strong build - 1.4 kg

The height of the uterus floor - 14-19 cm, the bottom of the uterus is approximately midway between the pubic bone and the navel

Baby Features of the week.

A child the size of a large pear.

Between 16 and 22 weeks, mothers begin to discern the movements of the baby. It all depends on whether you have the first pregnancy, how the placenta is attached, and your constitution.

The child studies everything around him, if the umbilical cord falls under the rug, picks it up and sips it, and then lets it go.

The child inhales and exhales the amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is updated every three hours, you need to regularly use clean water at least 30 ml per kg of body weight.

The length (height) of the fetus is 16.4 mm.

Fruit weight 146 grams. The average value of 146. rate from 121 to 171

Fetometry by ultrasound

for a term equal to the full sixteen weeks of intrauterine development

BPR (BPD) Biparietal size 36 mm +/- 5 mm. Average value 36, norm from 31 to 37

LZR (OFD) Frontal-occipital size 46 mm +/- 3 mm. Average value 46. norm from 43 to 49

(OG) Head circumference 128mm +/- 15 mm. The average value is 128, the norm is from 113 to 143

DB (FL) Hip length 22 mm +/- 4 mm. The average value of 22. rate from 18 to 26

(DG) Length of a shin is 18 mm Average value 18. norm from 15 to 21

(DP) The length of the shoulder 21mm +/- 4mm. The average value of 21. rate from 17 to 25

(DPR) The length of the forearm 15 mm The average value of 15. rate from 12 to 18

J (TBD) Diameter of the abdomen Average 102. norm from 88 to 116

Coolant (AC) Abdominal circumference 106 mm +/- 10 mm. Average value 106, norm from 96 to 116

Nasal bone 5.4 mm. The average value of the size of the nasal bones is 5.4, the norm is from 3.6 to 7.2

Uzi on the 17th week of pregnancy

Based on the All-Russian pregnancy management program, a full examination (screening) of a woman takes place in the perinatal period three times. In the absence of atypical manifestations, the following terms are established in each of the three trimesters:

  • primary - from the tenth to the fourteenth week,
  • again from 20 to 24,
  • the last screening is from 32 to 34.

Planned ultrasound in the 17th week of pregnancy is not performed. If desired, the expectant mother can take the study on their own. Ultrasound is absolutely safe for the baby, so the frequency of ultrasound diagnostics has no limitations. The gynecologist prescribes an additional (unscheduled) procedure for symptomatology, which may indicate a standard deviation in the development of the fetus.

Ultrasound at 16 weeks: first baby tremors

4 months have passed since the beginning of pregnancy. The fetus at 16 weeks of its development stretched to 110 - 116 millimeters, and its weight is about 80 grams. With the help of an ultrasound, Mommy sees the chaotic movements of her baby for the first time. When a bright light hits the tummy, the baby is already trying to close his eyes with his small hands.

3D ultrasound allows you to see how the fruit lowers and lifts its eyelids, although most of the time, they are with him, of course, still lowered. The neck muscles have strengthened in the baby, and now the head is holding more confidently, even turning from side to side. Legs are lengthened and sharp nails appear on the fingers.

At the 16th week of pregnancy, the fetus begins to actively develop facial expressions. The kid makes a face when eating spicy or unpalatable food eaten by mommy. During this period, for the first time a baby can have hiccups, and a pregnant woman will feel a twitching tummy. At 16 weeks on ultrasound, you can already accurately determine the sex of the baby, if you are lucky and he does not turn his booty to his parents.

During this period, starting from the 16th to the 20th week of pregnancy, the woman begins to feel the first shocks of her child. They occur very rarely, since the baby is still very small and invisible to the hand of the father, but the sensitive mother clearly knows that this is her baby. The future girl’s development of the ovaries ends, the uterus and fallopian tubes are formed, up to 5 million eggs are released. The boy has a clearly visible penis, although the testicles have not yet descended. The fetus increases the amount of daily excreted urine. In this regard, the amniotic fluid is increased by about 250 milliliters.

Survey methods

At 16-17 weeks, the study can be conducted in two ways:

  1. transabdominal - using a sensor that the doctor moves across the surface of the tummy, a special gel is used to improve wave conductivity. This method is used to evaluate the condition of the unborn child.
  2. transvaginal - the sensor is inserted into the vagina, which allows to assess the condition of the cervix. often used at 16 weeks.

Indications for examination

Three ultrasound examinations are usually prescribed - 11–14, 18–21, and 32–34 weeks. Ultrasonography at 16-17 weeks of pregnancy is carried out according to several indications:

  • with the threat of cervical insufficiency, transvaginal examination is conducted at 16 weeks.
  • since, starting from week 16, an experienced specialist will be able to determine the sex of the child, ultrasound diagnosis is prescribed in order to exclude hereditary pathologies transmitted through the father (such as hemophilia).
  • at 17 weeks, an examination is scheduled for women who missed it in the first trimester.

Preparation for the procedure

Special preparation for transvaginal ultrasound diagnosis at week 17 is not needed, and for transabdominal diagnosis it is necessary:

  • refrain from taking heavy meals on the day of the examination
  • you may need to do a study with a full bladder (because the folds of the empty can interfere with an adequate assessment of the condition of the unborn child).

Ultrasound readings (normal)

At week 16, the development status of the child’s internal organs and its size are assessed. Fetal measurement values ​​are normal:

  • head diameter (biparietal) - from 31 to 37 mm
  • head circumference - from 112 to 132
  • tummy circumference - from 88 to 116
  • thigh length - from 17 to 23
  • shoulder size - from 15 to 21
  • calf size - from 15 to 21
  • forearm size - from 12 to 18
  • fruit length - from 120 to 150
  • weight - about 90 grams.

Ultrasound diagnosis of cervical insufficiency

In the period of 16-18 weeks of pregnancy produce cervicometry for the diagnosis of cervical insufficiency. It is a method of ultrasound, which is determined by the length of the cervix and the degree of disclosure of the cervical canal. Normally, the length of the cervix should be 30 mm or more, and the internal opening of the cervical canal should be closed. On ultrasound, a funnel-shaped expansion and deepening of the internal os can be determined, although when examined by a gynecologist, the external os can be closed. Therefore, the diagnosis of cervical insufficiency must be carried out using ultrasound.

When performing cervicometry, the bladder must be empty, since its fullness may distort the real picture. A shortening of the cervix of more than 2 cm, a funnel-shaped deepening of the internal os and a prolabation behind the orifice of the fetal bladder are signs of a pronounced threat of miscarriage and require urgent hospital treatment. It is the period from week 16 to week 18 that is most favorable for suturing the cervix to correct the cervical insufficiency, and long-term results with timely treatment are much better.

Conclusion

Ultrasound examination at 16-17 weeks is extremely important for the timely diagnosis of cervical insufficiency and the start of its treatment, which significantly improves the favorable prognosis for this disease. Screening in this period with doubtful results of the first examination or lack thereof is sufficiently informative to detect malformations and chromosomal abnormalities of the fetus.

Changes in week 16

At this time, the mimic muscles begin to form in the baby. Now he can quite successfully frown, blink and even open his mouth. Moreover, it can capture ultrasound screening.

Begin to grow and harden the bones of the baby. The surface of his body is covered with a light, almost transparent fuzz, which is called "lanugo." At the same time, the skin remains thin and even transparent, so much so that through it the baby’s vascular system is visible.

A unique skin pattern and small fragile marigolds appear on the baby’s fingers. The movements of the baby are quite coordinated.

He can swallow amniotic fluid, suck on his fingers, twist his head in different directions and even have a chance to sip.

The nervous system is formed at a brisk pace, and every second there are about five thousand more neurons in it. The adrenal cortex is almost formed and begins to produce the hormones necessary for independent living.

The pituitary gland joins the work, and hemoglobin is produced in the blood. In the male fetus, at 16 weeks, the genitals are fully formed, but the testicles are still in the abdominal cavity.

In the female fetus, the ovaries are lowered into the pelvic cavity. There is already a uterus, vagina and fallopian tubes.

UZ testimony at week 16

Ultrasound in the 16th week of pregnancy is most often not performed. Exceptions are direct indications for this procedure, in cases where genetic screening shows unsatisfactory results.

Also, ultrasound screening is performed to check the uterus tone of the mother if she has persistent nagging pain in the lumbar region. However, in such a situation, ultrasound screening does not provide a complete picture of the study, but only confirms or refutes the intended diagnosis of the doctor.

The hypertonus of the uterus as such does not mean anything, since most often the uterus is strained due to indirect contact with the ultrasound sensor. This happens not only at 16, but at 17, 18 and 19 weeks.

Ultrasound screening at week 16 allows us to determine how well the size of the child corresponds to the gestation period. In theory, this week you can even find out the sex of the child, but only in those cases if the child’s genitals are well visualized on the monitor.

And although this week the fetus, both female and male, forms genitals - everything is not so simple. Their dimensions are extremely small, so ultrasound screening can't always fix them on the monitor.

Changes in week 17

By the beginning of the seventeenth week, the average blood volume of the mother will be increased by 40%. Because of this, the load on the heart and on the vessels will increase quite strongly. Even in healthy and physically developed mothers with this condition, frequent nosebleeds are observed.

The reason is that the thin capillaries of the nasal cavity simply do not withstand the increased pressure. You should not be afraid of this, as nasal bleeding in this case is a variant of the norm.

The uterus begins active growth and gradually becomes elongated. Because of this, it squeezes and slightly raises the internal organs. Because of this, the mother may have visible problems with digestion, sometimes heartburn.

Most often, these symptoms appear on weeks 18-23, but their appearance on the seventeenth week is also a variant of the norm. In order to prevent it, it is necessary to switch to a fractional diet in advance, this will reduce the likelihood of these symptoms.

In the same period, the formation of the placenta is completely completed. At the same time, its functioning was started a long time ago, but only by the seventeenth week the placenta reveals its full potential.

UZ testimony at week 17

Ultrasound in the 17th week of pregnancy in most cases is not required. Screening is carried out only in cases where there are deviations from the norm, both in the mother and in the child.

Also, screening is carried out to determine how the formation of the body of the baby corresponds to the duration of pregnancy. To determine the sex of the baby is still too early. The reason for this is the low accuracy of visualization of the genitals of the child (regardless of his sex).

Ultrasound screening becomes almost useless for this, although in some cases there are exceptions. If the formation of the child is not deviated from the norm, then the baby's mother will be able to feel and even observe the movements of the fetus using an ultrasound monitor.

If the child is awake, and at the same time ultrasound monitoring will be performed, then there is a great chance to see his hands moving with legs and arms, playing with the umbilical cord and grimacing.

Changes in week 18

Week 18 is marked by active growth of the fetus. The adipose tissue is formed at its accelerated pace, due to which the body of the fetus acquires a certain roundness.

Baby develops, already resembles the constitution of a newborn. Also, the baby at week 18 has the following changes:

  • the bone system is actively being formed and strengthened,
  • on the hands and feet of the fetus the phalanges of the fingers are completely and completely formed,
  • из-за очень быстрого развития сетчатки глаза становятся предельно чувствительными и плод уже может различать тьму от света,
  • the genital organs that were previously formed occupy the final location and their development as a whole is coming to an end,
  • the baby begins to perfectly distinguish sounds and even pick up the tempo and rhythm of music,
  • the child becomes very active, his movements are no longer chaotic, but clearly coordinated, which allows him to sometimes push his feet off the walls of the uterus.

UZ testimony at week 18

At week 18, an ultrasound examination reveals many different disorders.

It was at week 18 that diagnostic doctors could easily diagnose the following abnormalities:

  1. Symptoms that indicate Down syndrome in a child.
  2. Disorders of the heart of the baby.
  3. Numerous malformations and fetal formation.
  4. Some vascular pathologies of the child.

Using ultrasound at week 18, you can determine the so-called "biophysical profile" of the fetus and its full size. With the help of these data, long-term conclusions can be made about the condition of the fetus and its developmental rate relative to the duration of pregnancy.

Also, the exact position of the placenta is easily visualized. However, in cases where the placenta is attached to the sides of the uterus, it cannot be said that this is its final position.

Gradually, with the course of pregnancy, the walls will stretch and it will be higher, as is often the case. At week 18, you can already attempt to determine the exact sex of the baby.

However, it is important to remember that at week 18, the results of determining the sex of the child will be purely presumptive. Accurate data will be available only 1-2 weeks later.

The reasons for the extraordinary survey

An unscheduled ultrasound scan at 17 weeks is performed if the doctor suggests a mismatch between the expected duration of the pregnancy to specify the date of delivery. An alternative may be the symptoms and complaints presented by a woman:

  • pulling pains in the abdomen,
  • presence of vaginal discharge abnormal for a given period (blood, blood, plentiful leucorrhea),
  • consistently high blood pressure
  • severe swelling of the lower limbs and face,
  • incessant toxicosis.

In the presence of these symptoms, the ultrasound procedure is done in a transvaginal way, for a detailed assessment of the condition of the cervix and the docking area of ​​the cervix and body of the uterus (cervical canal). The planned ultrasound at this time is made:

  • during complicated pregnancy,
  • in case of detection of serious pathological deviations in the primary screening indicators.

For multi-embryonic pregnancy, additional examination is carried out at the discretion of the physician.

At the end of the first half of the pregnancy, certain changes occur in the expectant mother. The main parameters that should be addressed in the process of ultrasound and visual examination, further. The uterus increases in volume, the mass of the body is about 250-300 grams. The internal organs move under the pressure of the growing uterus, which continues to exit into the abdominal cavity.

The IRR (height of the bottom of the uterus) corresponding to the period of 17–18 weeks should be 18–19 cm. The uterus should be in a calm state. If hypertension of myometrium (muscular layer of an organ) is detected, the risk of miscarriage is possible. Determined by the degree of pressure of the inner and outer throat of the uterus (connective tissue should not have a gap). Finally, the entire placental system is formed.

"Baby place" provides the fetus with oxygen and nutrients. The degree of maturity of the placenta is established from 30 weeks, so at this stage this value should be zero. If the maturity of the provisional body is determined at seventeen weeks, it indicates a delay in development (the syndrome of UCR). The thickness of the "children's place" meets the following standards:

Hyperplasia (abnormal thickening) of the placenta may cause spontaneous abortion

The volume of amniotic (amniotic) fluid is estimated according to the index (IAG). The lack of water threatens to merge the placental membrane and the embryo.

When there is a lot of water, there is a danger of delivery ahead of time, and detachment of the “children's place”. Possible umbilical anomalies are detected.

Normally, it should consist of two arterial vessels and one venous, not be twisted, and not to twist the neck of the baby.

If necessary, ultrasound examination at 17 weeks of gestation can be supplemented with vascular Doppler.

One of the main indicators is the LMS index (systolic-diastolic ratio), denoting the difference in blood flow velocity in the umbilical arteries and the uterus.

In order to avoid premature rejection of the embryo, in case of deviations from the norm, the woman is recommended to stay in the hospital (“on preservation”).

The value of the LMS equal to zero may indicate a fading development of the fetus.

Causes of fetal death

Most often, missed abortion is diagnosed in the first trimester, but this does not exclude this possibility at the 17-week stage. The reasons can be:

  • infection (including venereal and herpes type 2),
  • psycho-emotional turmoil
  • injuries
  • antisocial lifestyle of a woman (alcoholism, drug addiction),
  • severe poisoning with food, chemicals, other poisons.

In such situations, a woman should immediately seek medical help, without waiting for a scheduled examination.

Changes in the physiology of the child at the end of the first half of pregnancy are characterized by the following indicators:

3D ultrasound at 20 weeks + photo

  • the child begins to independently produce blood cells that support immunity (immunoglobulins) and protective proteins of the immune system (interferons),
  • there is a formation of a fat layer for the regulation of thermal processes in the body,
  • the endocrine gland joins the pituitary gland,
  • hormone production is stabilized by the adrenal glands,
  • first hair and nail plates appear,
  • progresses bone mineralization and tooth-laying,
  • the formation of hearing organs, both internal and external (the baby’s ears can be seen on the monitor), ends
  • in most cases, the gender is determined (the sex of the child),
  • a change in the hepatobiliary system is characterized by the onset of liver secretion (the production of bile),
  • the baby’s blood is gaining a full composition,
  • accelerates the formation of structural and functional units of the central nervous system (neurons),
  • development of the heart is completed,
  • there are changes in the internal genital organs of girls.

At the seventeenth week, small vessels and capillaries of the baby’s circulatory system vigorously develop. The infant's muscle cells begin to respond to the effects of the neurotransmitter.

There is a process of contraction, allowing the child to make flexion-extensor movements of the limbs (elbow joint, compression of the palm into a fist). The baby begins to move vigorously in the womb. Some sudden movements are a response to external stimuli (noise, mom's fright, etc.)

d.). A woman should be protected from negative emotions, thereby maintaining the child’s psychological balance.

During the study, possible changes in the internal organs (brain, kidney, stomach and intestines, bladder, heart) are analyzed without fail.

The location of the fetus in the uterus (previa) is determined by the part of the child’s body that faces the birth canal.

Preposition can be pelvic (buttocks or baby legs are directed to the entrance to the small pelvis of a woman), head (distinguish occipital, frontal, facial).

In the second half of pregnancy, the wrong sentence is corrected with the help of gymnastics (if there are no contraindications). For a period of 17 weeks, do not worry. The baby is extremely mobile, and can roll over several times a day.

Fetometric data

On ultrasound, the doctor measures and evaluates the fetometry (fetal size) and other parameters. The interpretation of the results is carried out by the method of comparative analysis with the standards. The following normal digital development indicators are provided for the baby:

  • Fetometry (weight / height) - 250 g, from 140 to 210 mm, respectively,
  • belly / head along the circumference: 9.3–13.1 and 12.1–14.8 cm,
  • LZR (frontal-occipital distance, measured as the length from the frontal part to the outer contours of the skull) - 3.8–5.8 cm,
  • BPR (biparient size) - from 2.9 to 4.3 cm,
  • the bones of the femur and tibia in length are 1.6–2.7 cm and 2.6–3.4 cm,
  • bones of the shoulder and forearm: 1.6–2.84 cm and 1.5–2.2 cm,
  • rhythmic work of the heart - up to 150–160 beats / 60 sec.

According to the table, you can trace the weekly change in the size of the fetus.

Comparative digital indicators of the size of the child by week

A separate indicator is the size of the length of the bones of the nose. These data are one of the markers by which the genetic deviation in the development of the fetus is determined. The inconsistency of the size of the baby during pregnancy shows:

  • downward by 2 weeks or more - intrauterine growth retardation, the presence of genetic abnormalities,
  • upward - an error when calculating the obstetric duration of pregnancy.

If the indicators differ slightly from the standards, it is not fixed, as a fact of the presence of pathology, it means that these are individual data of the appearance of the future baby, which he inherits from his parents (for example, tall).

At this time, a screening examination diagnoses genetic defects and developmental abnormalities: severe pathology of the nervous structures of the child (anencephaly), daunism and trisomy 18 genomic syndrome (Edwards syndrome), hereditary anomalies (Turner syndromes and Patau). Markers of developmental disorders at the genetic level are malformed facial bones and parts of the body.

Signs on which the doctor may suspect daunism are:

  • an increase in the thickness of the cervical collar zone (TVP or the thickness of the collar space),
  • flat, as if "flattened" facial bones (special attention is paid to the bones of the nose),
  • heart failure,
  • narrowing of the lumen of the intestinal tube and esophagus,
  • undeveloped upper jaw and auricles,
  • significantly underestimated indicators of the size of the femoral, iliac and humeral bones along the length.
  • abnormalities of the brain structures (underdevelopment of the frontal lobes and cerebellum),
  • increased bladder volume.

To determine the possible Edwards syndrome, the doctor focuses on the following indicators: abnormal fluid accumulation in brain structures (cerebral edema), the presence of cystic formations in the vascular plexuses, anomalies of the appearance of the face, curvature of the skeleton, pathology of the development of internal organs (gastrointestinal tract, heart, urinary tract) system). To confirm or refute medical hypotheses, an unscheduled blood test for hormones is assigned to a woman:

  • Alphetoprotein (AFP-protein). When genomic syndrome is reduced.
  • "Hormone of pregnancy" or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). There is a sharp increase in the possible daunizme.
  • Estriol free (EZ). Low level with deviations.

The photo ultrasound is clearly visible the presence / absence of the nasal bone.

With 100% certainty, talking about Down syndrome is possible only in the third trimester.

A woman may be offered a placental biopsy procedure (assessment of placental cells). A more accurate study - amniocentesis or puncture of amniotic waters, is possible only after 18 weeks of the term.

The difference between 3D ultrasound and a conventional two-dimensional one is to obtain a three-dimensional image that helps to better look at the appearance of the child. This version of the survey is carried out mainly at the insistence of parents who want to get the first photo of the baby.

The type of ultrasound scan used does not affect the overall results of the procedure. Ultrasound examination of the organs of the mother and the fetus is the main and most informative. With a predisposition to genetic abnormalities or a sudden deterioration in the condition of a pregnant woman, one should not wait for the planned procedure.

Ultrasound does not cause harm, and is a real opportunity to prevent dangerous complications.

17 week of pregnancy: fetal ultrasound in week 17


Obstetrics and gynecology Diagnostics ultrasound ultrasound fetus 17 week

The cost of ultrasound in the second trimester in the period from 14 to 26 weeks is 550 hryvnia. The price includes prenatal screening, biometrics by protocols, 3D / 4D visualization.

The cost of complex prenatal screening for PRISCA (ultrasound + free estriol + alpha-fetoprotein + beta-HCG with the calculation of the individual risk of chromosomal abnormalities (for example, Down syndrome or Edwards) and developmental defects (for example, neural tube defect) - 1060 hryvnia.

Fetometry (fetal size) with fetal ultrasound at 17 weeks of pregnancy is normal:

  • BPR (biparietal size). At 17 weeks of pregnancy, biparietal size is 34-42 mm.
  • LZ (fronto-occipital size). At 17 weeks gestation 41-49 mm.
  • OG (circumference of the fetal head). At 17 weeks of pregnancy, the head circumference corresponds to 112-136 mm.
  • OJ (abdominal circumference of the fetus) - at 17 weeks of pregnancy is 102 mm 121 -149 mm.

The normal size of long bones with ultrasound of the fetus at 17 weeks of pregnancy:

  • Femur 20-28 mm
  • 15-21mm humerus
  • Forearm bones 15-18 mm
  • The bones of the leg are 15-21 mm.

Prenatal second trimester screening

At 17 weeks gestation, the time comes for prenatal screening for the second trimester. A prenatal screening of the second trimester from 16 to 18 weeks of gestation is considered acceptable.

Prenatal screening of the second trimester includes biochemical markers (blood from a vein) and ultrasound markers (screening ultrasound of the fetus at 17 weeks of gestation).

Biochemical markers of fetal chromosomal abnormalities:

  1. Beta-hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)
  2. AFP (alphafetoprotein).
  3. Free (unconjugated) estriol.

Ultrasonic markers of Down syndrome with ultrasound of the fetus at 17 weeks of pregnancy:

  1. The thickening of the cervical fold due to the large amount of skin characteristic of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome).
  2. When performing a fetal ultrasound scan at 17 weeks of gestation, the long bones of the fetus are measured. Shortening of long bones (when brachial, femoral, ulnar and shin bones are shorter than standard values).

The normal size of long bones with ultrasound of the fetus at 17 weeks of pregnancy:

The femur is 20–28 mm, the humerus is 15–21 mm, the ulna is 15–18 mm, and the tibia is 15–21 mm.

It is obligatory in the evaluation of the internal structures with ultrasound of the fetus at 17 weeks of gestation to exclude heart defects and great vessels leaving the heart. Down syndrome is characterized by cardiovascular defects.

The digestive system is evaluated by fetal ultrasound at 17 weeks gestation. Hyperechoic intestine, intestinal atresia or esophagus are ultrasound markers of Down syndrome.

For fruits with Down syndrome is characterized by a lag in the development of the nasal bone. When ultrasound of the fetus at 17 weeks of pregnancy, hypoplasia (hypoplasia) of the nasal bone is diagnosed. The size of the nasal bone in fetuses with Down syndrome 2.5 mm or less with ultrasound of the fetus at 17 weeks of gestation.

Assessment of the urogenital system of the fetus with ultrasound of the fetus at 17 weeks of pregnancy allows you to identify pyeloectasia (expansion of the renal pelvis). More often the lesion is bilateral.

Why are pregnant women prescribed echography?

At the moment, ultrasound scanning is the main diagnostic method in obstetrics. Improved devices already detect pregnancy in the early stages: at 4.5 weeks, a small anechoic mass is detected, somewhere in 5.5 weeks - an embryo. At 9 weeks, the fetal head becomes noticeable. After 1 week, limbs begin to appear.

Ultrasound scan in the first trimester, allows you to calculate the duration of pregnancy.

Ascites in the fetus (end of the first trimester of pregnancy)

Also thanks to him the following states are revealed:

  • multiple pregnancy (presence of several fetal eggs in the uterus),
  • blistering (pathology, which is extremely rare, with her chorion becomes uviform formation due to damage to the ovum),
  • non-developing pregnancy (absence of cardiac activity in the embryo, downward change in the size of the ovum, its deformation, fuzzy contours),
  • ectopic pregnancy (the presence of the ovum - anechoic formation - in the area of ​​the fallopian tubes).

In the second and next trimesters, the period of pregnancy is established, important indicators are determined. By their values, the presence of genetic pathologies is confirmed or refuted. For example, thickening of the collar space may indicate the syndromes of Patau, Down, Edwards.

An important role is played by ultrasound in determining the amount of amniotic fluid. Too small volume can be caused by hypotrophy of the fetus, pathologies of its urinary system. Polymer is often observed with gastrointestinal abnormalities. It can also be triggered by infection of the fetus.

Scan for week 17

17 week of pregnancy is in the second trimester. This is the beginning of 5 months. An ultrasound scan at this time allows you to distinguish the recognizable features of the human body. So, in the 17th week of pregnancy, the fetus seems “thin” for its growth. His legs reach relative proportions. Head, face continue to form.

Purpose of

The ultrasound in the 17th week of pregnancy has the following tasks:

  • оценка роста плода,
  • диагностирование имеющихся аномалий развития,
  • исследование маркеров генетической патологии,
  • обнаружение задержки роста плода,
  • изучение структуры, толщины и локализации плаценты,
  • определение объема амниотической жидкости.

It should be noted that the results of ultrasound may be erroneous. In some cases, experts identify non-existent malformations. The main reasons for incorrect results include the inexperience of some ultrasound doctors, the increased development of subcutaneous fat, the special position of the fetus, imperfect instruments, and the lack of water.

How is the ultrasound?

Two methods of ultrasound diagnosis are used in obstetrics: transvaginal and transabdominal scans. The study, called the first, is appointed by experts only in the first trimester of pregnancy. It uses special sector sensors, whose frequency is between 6.5 MHz. Transvaginal study allows us to confirm pregnancy in earlier periods. Thanks to him, experts identify various anomalies of fetal development.

In the second and next trimester of pregnancy, preference is given to the transabdominal method of ultrasound scanning.. This is the simplest and safe procedure that does not require special preparation. During its holding, a special gel is applied to the belly of a pregnant woman. Thanks to him, the air gap between the patient's body and the sensor is eliminated, the image of the fetus is clearer.

Interpretation of research results

All information obtained during the scan, is entered by the doctor of ultrasound diagnosis in the ultrasound protocol. In the section related to fetometry, the following indicators are noted:

  • biparietal head size
  • belly diameter
  • size, which is fronto-occipital,
  • the lengths of the right and left humerus, femur,
  • the length of the left and right bones of the leg, forearm,
  • head size around the circumference.

The information obtained allows doctors to compare the size of the fetus with the standards and determine their compliance with the duration of pregnancy.

The next part of the protocol is anatomy. Experts evaluate the fetus according to one scheme. First they study the head, the face. After that, the spinal column, lungs, heart, abdominal cavity, kidneys, and bladder are examined.

Normal images of internal organs and structures allow to exclude various pathologies. However, it is not always possible to detect serious anomalies at the 17th week of pregnancy. Some diseases can only be detected in the third trimester.

The protocol also includes an assessment of the volume of amniotic fluid, a study of the placenta. Indicates the number of vessels contained in the umbilical cord. Normally, it has two arteries and one vein. The presence of a single artery may indicate that the fetus has some kind of congenital or hereditary disease.

Evaluation of indicators at week 17: norms and pathologies

Scheme of photometric indicators

At the 17th week of pregnancy, the fetometric indicators normally have the values ​​indicated in the table below. Deviations from the norm may be inherent in the individual characteristics of the child or pathology.

Table: standard values ​​of fetometric indicators

Fetometric indicators that go beyond the lower limit of the normative figures often indicate the presence of SCRP - intrauterine growth retardation. It can be of two varieties: symmetrical and asymmetric. The first is inherent in the uniform lag of fetometric indicators. In an asymmetric variety, the size of the abdomen does not correspond to the norm due to the delayed growth of the internal organs of the abdominal cavity (especially the liver).

Regarding the assessment of the placenta, it is worth noting that during the scan, the doctors of ultrasound diagnostics determine its location and thickness. Most often, the placenta is attached to the back or front wall of the uterus. In rare cases, it is localized in the area of ​​the pipe corners and the bottom of the uterus. The thickness of the placenta in the 17th week of pregnancy may be about 19.4 mm. Deviation from the norm is often manifested by a significant thickening. This may occur due to immune or non-immune fetal dropsy, infectious processes, diabetes, iron deficiency anemia.

Also during the ultrasound, it is determined how high the placenta is attached to the inner throat of the cervix. In the second trimester in women in the position it is located at a distance of not less than 5 cm from the pharynx. The shortening of the gap to 3 cm is a sign of a low location of the placenta. If placental tissue is present in the area of ​​the internal os, this is a serious complication. It can lead to profuse bleeding.

So, ultrasound scanning is widely used in obstetrics. There is no other way that could surpass the ultrasound in the prenatal diagnosis of hereditary and congenital diseases. It should be noted improvement in scanning. Every year the equipment designed for ultrasound is improving.

Measurements during the second ultrasound at the 16th week of pregnancy

Most often, the second planned ultrasound occurs in the second trimester of pregnancy. At 16 weeks a woman needs to pass a series of mandatory tests, including tests for hormones and all kinds of infections, to make sure that her future baby is fine. During an ultrasound, the main measurements of the fetus are made, and the diagnosis of its development is evaluated.

Average norms of indicators when measuring the fetus at the 16th week of pregnancy: 1. BPR (biparietal size) - the transverse size of the fetal head is on average 34-36 millimeters. 2. Exhaust gas (head circumference) - ranges from 113–135 millimeters. 3. Coolant (tummy circumference) of the baby - on average 100–115 millimeters. 4. DB (length of the thigh) - about 18 to 22 millimeters. 5. DP (length of the humeral bone) - on average about 16-20 millimeters. 6. The length of the calf of the fetus, has an average size of 16-20 millimeters. 7. The length of the forearm with ultrasound is 13-18 millimeters.

During ultrasound, bone length is necessarily measured and evaluated so that no developmental defects are detected.

New changes and feelings of women in the 16th week of pregnancy

At 16 weeks of gestation, most women feel much better than in the previous three months. Morning nausea passes and chest pain decreases, although it continues to grow and prepare for lactation.

It is important to choose the right bra that will support the breast, relieving it from stretch marks and at the same time not squeezing, causing discomfort.

In the body of a pregnant woman, hormones calm down, so her mood stabilizes and she feels a rush of tender feelings and positive energy. During this period of pregnancy, the expectant mother wakes up her appetite, and with great pleasure she pampers herself with various goodies, not caring at all about the figure. Products will meet the needs of women and will be useful for the development of her future baby.

At week 16, a pregnant woman may experience pain in the lumbar region. This is due to the fact that the enlarging uterus, it produces pressure on the spine. Therefore, it is desirable to stop wearing any high-heeled shoes from now on, it is better to refuse from heels at all. Lower back pain can be reduced by lying on your side, bending your legs. It is recommended that from this moment of pregnancy do not sleep on the stomach and avoid any pressure on him.

Clothes and underwear should be free with wide elastic bands and made of natural materials so as not to hinder the movement of a woman and not harm her future baby. During the second pregnancy, the woman’s tummy is at 16 weeks, a bit larger than at the first. This is due to the fact that during the first pregnancy the muscles of the uterus are not stretched and keep the tummy in an elastic state.

Many pregnant women at 16 weeks continue to be tormented by constipation; to avoid it, you need to drink at least 2 liters of water daily. The amount of excretion increases, they become flesh-colored. It is important that the discharge does not have a special smell and does not cause burning and painful sensations.

Homogeneous colorless discharge - this is a normal symptom during pregnancy, they protect the birth canal from all sorts of infections. There are transparent discharge from the nipples, it produces the first colostrum, it is not necessary to squeeze it, so as not to provoke uterine contraction. It is better to use cotton swabs and put them in a bra so that it does not get dirty.

During the ultrasound, the size of the placenta is also determined, on average, it is about 18 millimeters. The placenta during this period is already fully formed and independently supports the safe development of pregnancy.

Second trimester - it's time for sex. A woman is no longer so sick, and besides, she does not feel much discomfort. Internal change in the genital organs will give new feelings for partners. The main thing is that there are no medical contraindications, and future parents would choose comfortable postures without pressure on the tummy.

Fetal ultrasound at 17 weeks gestation with edwards syndrome

  1. With ultrasound at 17 weeks gestation, the fetal brain is reasonably well evaluated.

The following fetal brain malformations with fetal ultrasound at 17 weeks of gestation are characteristic of a fetus with Edwards syndrome: dilated cerebral ventricles (ventriculomegaly, hydrocephalus), Dandy-Walker syndrome (absence of the middle part of the cerebellum and increase in size of the fourth ventricle), absence of the corpus callosum (conductive the path between the two hemispheres of the brain, providing the connection between the two hemispheres and, accordingly, normal intelligence)., vascular plexus cysts (usually bilateral).

  • Violation of the density and shape of the bones of the skull (head with ultrasound of the fetus at 17 weeks of pregnancy looks like strawberries).
  • Abnormal facial structures. During fetal ultrasound at 17 weeks of gestation, a cleft of the anterior lip and palate is recorded, a small chin forming the smoothed profile of the fetus.
  • Malformations of the cardiovascular, urogenital system, digestive organs.
  • Skeletal dysplasia (underdevelopment, curvature of the bones).
  • Placenta with fetal ultrasound at 17 weeks gestation

    The normal placenta has a homogeneous structure. The thickness of the placenta is on average 17 mm. The location of the placenta, the distance to the cervix from the lower pole of the placenta is evaluated.

    If you identify multiple anechoic inclusions (look like black holes in the structure of the placenta), careful study of all structures of the fetus is necessary to identify other markers of chromosomal diseases. This placenta is characteristic of triploidy - one of a type of chromosomal abnormality of the fetus.

    New changes in the fetus at 17 weeks of pregnancy

    Brown fat begins to form and deposit in the skin. This fat will help the child maintain body temperature after birth.

    With loud noises, the fruit tries to close its ears with pens.

    The fruit begins to taste. If the amniotic fluid papada anything that has a sour or bitter taste, the baby grimaces and stops swallowing.

    Changes in the body of a woman

    Stretch ligaments that support the uterus. This gives moderate pain in the lower abdomen and lower back.

    You become more forgetful, it is harder for you to concentrate than before. This is the effect of pregnancy hormones, primarily progesterone.

    Do not forget about the special exercises for training the muscles of the pelvic floor - Kegel exercises. They consist in a phased tension of the muscles (at the expense of one-two-three) followed by the same phased relaxation.

    The moment of maximum stress should be longer than the moment of complete relaxation. Kegel exercises will help make the crotch more manageable, which will help in childbirth.

    In the postpartum period, the continuation of these exercises will help the earliest possible restoration of the birth canal and serve as prevention of the prolapse of the internal genital organs.

    read further: 18 week of pregnancy

    What shows ultrasound in the 17th week of pregnancy?

    Ultrasound examination during pregnancy is a survey that allows you to assess the development of the fetus, to make sure that it develops according to time, to detect pathology in the early stages.

    Ultrasound during this period is the second examination from the moment of conception. It is an ultrasound at the 17th week of pregnancy that can assess the state of the internal organs, the circulatory system and detect chromosomal pathologies. The specialist also determines the weight and growth of the fetus, can find out the gender and assess the state of the amniotic fluid and the placenta.

    The main indicators on ultrasound in 17 weeks

    Usually, an ultrasound scan that is done during this period describes the condition of the mother and child, but in some cases it can reveal malformations, such as congenital heart disease, Down syndrome, and others. An ultrasound scan at 17 weeks gestation also determines the size of the fetus. The norm on this term: weight - 160-180 grams, and height - about 18 cm.

    In addition, a specialist doing ultrasound at the 17th week of pregnancy defines three main indicators: the head size (in the study it is called biparietal) is 38-39 mm, the chest girth is 38 mm and the length of the thigh is 24 mm. Also important are the frontal-occipital size, abdominal circumference of the fetus and head circumference.

    In which case, shown ultrasound for 17 weeks?

    Usually the second planned research is done at 20-22 weeks of pregnancy. However, many couples prefer to do ultrasound for 17 weeks, the sex of the child can be set most accurately, since the child is more mobile and will not turn away for a long time.

    But if it was not possible to determine the sex of the child on an ultrasound scan at 17 weeks, then you shouldn’t get upset, you can do it up to 25 weeks. Usually, the doctor prescribes an ultrasound at this time if the pregnant woman missed the examination in the first trimester, that is, the study for 12 weeks.

    Also, the gynecologist directs those whose biochemistry results are questionable or unsatisfactory, have any abnormalities.

    In some cases, it is necessary to do an ultrasound scan to eliminate fetal abnormalities that may cause mom to feel unwell.

    Often, future parents themselves insist on conducting ultrasound and screening at an early period, because the baby’s sex is found out in a 17-week ultrasound scan.

    Also during this period, a specialist can already identify all abnormalities of the fetus and malformations that can threaten not only health, but also the life of a child.

    Examination of the fetal organs for ultrasound

    On examination at 17 weeks, you can determine the sex of the child, but this is not the most important thing in the study.

    The specialist must first consider all the main indicators, the heartbeat and activity during the ultrasound are of particular importance.

    The heart must beat smoothly, rhythmically, and the movements must be active, but not confused or fearful. If the child is too active or there are convulsions, then the fetus most likely suffers from hypoxia.

    The gynecologist must decipher the results of the ultrasound scan for 17 weeks, prescribe treatment, and, if there are serious deviations, place it under the constant supervision of doctors. During this period, the fetus can examine and assess the state of the heart, its valves, veins and arteries, brain, stomach, kidneys, liver and other organs. Experienced ultrasound specialists are able at this time to consider all possible diseases of the child.

    Examination of the condition of a pregnant woman on ultrasound 17 weeks

    There is a misconception that during the study only the fetus is examined. This is not true. The doctor is obliged to assess the condition of the future mother.

    First of all, the condition of the uterus is assessed, if according to the results of ultrasound examination for 17 weeks it is low and the placenta is in poor condition, the doctor will recommend a quiet and gentle regimen, sometimes even constant monitoring by doctors is necessary.

    On the second ultrasound, the doctor is also obliged to look at the condition of the mother’s kidneys to help avoid problems in the third trimester, as the fetus grows, the load on these organs increases.

    If an infection is observed or the kidneys do not work in full force, the specialist will immediately report the results of the ultrasound examination of 17 weeks to the doctor who is leading the pregnancy. In the future, you may need other additional examinations.

    Three-dimensional ultrasound: why do it?

    Three-dimensional ultrasound in contrast to the two-dimensional shows a three-dimensional view of the fetus in real time. It is not used as the main method of research, as an experienced diagnostician has a rather traditional apparatus.

    However, often a three-dimensional ultrasound of the fetus at 17 weeks, future parents decide to do, because it allows them to better view the baby and even leave unforgettable photographs received as a souvenir.

    Do not be afraid of radiation with this type of research - the power of the ultrasonic wave does not differ from the two-dimensional method.

    It is the three-dimensional ultrasound that helps to determine the sex of the child more accurately even at the 17th week of pregnancy. Such a fetal ultrasound at 17 weeks helps parents see their baby almost alive.

    Determining the sex of the child in most cases depends not on the professionalism of the specialist, but on the child himself, who must turn into the “right place.”

    Many doctors recommend doing this ultrasound to all parents, as it builds an emotional connection between mother, father and child. On the ultrasound of the fetus at 17 weeks, you can take not only photos, but also video.

    As soon as the specialist has finished the ultrasound, he gives the protocol and the conclusion to the pregnant woman, but it is not so easy to decipher it.

    Не стоит самостоятельно делать какие-либо выводы по УЗИ, для этого необходимо обязательно обратиться к врачу, который ведет беременность.

    Он все подробно расскажет и, если есть какие-либо отклонения, назначит лечение или отправит в стационар под постоянное наблюдение врачей.

    Ultrasound is the main procedure during pregnancy, which is completely safe and at the same time it alone is able to assess the state of health of the mother and the unborn child. That is why in no case should one refuse it or worry that ultrasound can harm the health and development of a child.

    Ultrasound diagnosis of cervical insufficiency

    In the period of 16-18 weeks of pregnancy produce cervicometry for the diagnosis of cervical insufficiency. It is a method of ultrasound, which is determined by the length of the cervix and the degree of disclosure of the cervical canal.

    Normally, the length of the cervix should be 30 mm or more, and the internal opening of the cervical canal should be closed. On ultrasound, a funnel-shaped expansion and deepening of the internal os can be determined, although when examined by a gynecologist, the external os can be closed.

    Therefore, the diagnosis of cervical insufficiency must be carried out using ultrasound.

    When performing cervicometry, the bladder must be empty, since its fullness may distort the real picture.

    A shortening of the cervix of more than 2 cm, a funnel-shaped deepening of the internal os and a prolabation behind the orifice of the fetal bladder are signs of a pronounced threat of miscarriage and require urgent hospital treatment.

    It is the period from week 16 to week 18 that is most favorable for suturing the cervix to correct the cervical insufficiency, and long-term results with timely treatment are much better.

    17 week of pregnancy: ultrasound results, norms and abnormalities

    Ultrasound is a technique also called echography and scanning. It is considered the only highly informative and non-invasive way, giving the opportunity to monitor how the fetus develops.

    The name of the method indicates that ultrasonic waves are used in the diagnosis. They are reflected differently from different internal structures. Waves captured by the receiver are converted to special signals. These signals are sent to the monitor of the device.

    Thus, specialists receive an image of the fetus.

    When do you need an unscheduled ultrasound

    Ultrasound examination at week 16 is usually not done, since not more than a month has passed since the first planned ultrasound scan. Before his appointment, the doctor takes into account the presence of the following indications:

    • if for some reason (late registration, illness, departure of a pregnant woman) an ultrasound scan was not performed for a period of 8-11 weeks,
    • The results of the first ultrasound examination caused a doubt in the doctor (incompatibility of the fetus size, inconsistent aging of the placenta, the presence of cysts and calcium deposits in it, etc.),
    • if a woman is over 30 years old and has a first birth,
    • if in the history of the pregnant woman there are miscarriages, late abortions, missed pregnancies,
    • if during previous pregnancies, cervical insufficiency was diagnosed (premature cervical dilatation,
    • with congenital abnormalities of the uterus (two-horned, saddle-shaped uterus, its doubling).

    The appointment of an ultrasound at the beginning of the second trimester is also included in the competence of the geneticist as part of a triple test - a screening analysis, which excludes the likelihood of various chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus.

    Is it harmful to do an ultrasound at this time?

    The need for an ultrasound at 16 weeks gestation still causes controversy and doubt among expectant mothers, because the ultrasound at this time until recently was not planned - it was appointed as an exception in various pathologies of gestation. However, in the last decade, the trend has changed: due to various factors (an increase in the average age of pregnant women, the number of cases of in vitro fertilization, etc.), gynecologists prefer to be reinsured and more and more often appoint an unplanned second trimester ultrasound.

    Since the beginning of the use of an ultrasound device to control the course of pregnancy, obstetrician-gynecologists, neonatologists and pediatric neuropathologists have continued to argue about the harm this procedure has on the health of the unborn child. Their uncertainty is naturally transmitted to expectant mothers, many of whom refuse to go for additional testing. Are the doctors' concerns justified and is ultrasound radiation really capable of putting the development of the baby?

    The work of the ultrasonic apparatus is based on high-frequency sound, which is emitted by a special sensor plate, which is also a transmitter and receiver. It emits ultrasonic waves that have the ability to penetrate between the tissues of the human body and build on them, based on the difference in their acoustic resistance. Part of the waves is reflected, while the other part continues on its way to the next obstacle. All signals are transmitted to the processor, which processes the received information and, based on the speed of sound, displays an image of the internal organs on the screen.

    The human ear is not able to hear and feel the ultrasound, the same applies to the human fetus at any stage of pregnancy. Therefore, all the talk about the harm of ultrasound examinations does not have an evidence base and is often based on the sensations of women who claim that under the influence of the waves the child begins to move more actively, although this is easily explained by the fetus's reaction to physical pressure on the stomach.

    What does an unborn baby look like at 16 weeks gestation

    The belly of the future mother in the fourth month increases markedly and is rounded - even under several layers of clothing, her position does not cause doubts among others. This means that the fetus grows safely and begins to gain subcutaneous fat, which it needs for proper heat exchange after birth.

    In the child's body, such changes occur:

    1. The body is fully decorated - its body has proportions close to the proportions of the newborn.
    2. The facial features are also formed: the auricles have the correct outlines, the eyes acquire the ability to open due to the fact that the skin of the eyelids is divided.
    3. Eyeballs are able to distinguish between light and shade, so the fetus mode will gradually adjust to the mother mode - very soon at night he will sleep more, and in the daytime will stay awake.
    4. There is already hairline on the body - the head and torso are covered with downy hair, eyelashes appear on the eyelids, eyebrows appear on the eye sockets. The tips of the fingers are covered with a very thin nail plate.
    5. The baby’s skin at 16 weeks is red and covered with a thick white lubricant that protects it from the effects of amniotic fluid.

    One of the most significant events on this date is the completion of the formation of genitals. The girls already have the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries with follicles, which are enough for the entire period of its reproductive age. In boys, the penis is formed, but the testicles are not lowered yet and are located in the abdominal cavity. That is why attempts to determine sex at week 16 are fraught with error.

    Norms (indicators) of fetal development to the 16th week of pregnancy

    The most important factor in the diagnosis of pathology in the fetus is the compliance of ultrasound indicators adopted and approved in obstetrics standards. At the beginning of the fourth month they should be as close as possible to these figures:

    • weight: 90-120 g,
    • length from crown to tailbone: 10-12 mm,
    • head circumference: 110-135 mm (optimal average size - 124 cm),
    • abdominal circumference: 88-115 mm (average - 100 mm),
    • femur length: 17-24 mm,
    • humerus length: 15-22 mm,
    • forearm length: 12-19 mm,
    • ankle length: 15-22 mm,
    • head length in diameter (BPR): 31-38 mm.

    As can be seen, the size of the fetus is a fairly conventional indicator, which depends on many parameters, such as the constitution and height of the parents, gender, and the accuracy of the deadline. Therefore, to assess the correct development and the absence of pathological abnormalities, factors such as the correct proportions, the same length of the right and left pairs of limbs, the normal number of fingers, their phalanges, baby's mobility, etc. are also taken into account.

    Preparation for unscheduled ultrasound

    Ultrasound in the first half of pregnancy requires some preparation measures that will help optimize the results. First of all, it concerns the preparation of the gastrointestinal tract - one day before the examination fatty, fried, spicy foods and fast carbohydrates (sweets, cakes, chocolate, buns, etc.) should be excluded from the diet. For better bowel cleansing three days before the planned ultrasound date, activated charcoal can be taken at the rate of 1 tablet per 1 kg of body weight per day.

    On the day of the examination it is important to ensure that the intestines are empty. Given that many pregnant women are suffering from constipation and the lack of regular stool, this item can be difficult. In this case, a cleansing mini-enema made in the morning will help. These measures are necessary so that the overcrowded intestines do not cause an error in the ultrasound results.

    At the 16th week of pregnancy, an ultrasound study can be conducted in two ways:

    1. Transabdominal. In this method, an external sensor is used, which is conducted over the patient's abdomen. Transabdominal ultrasound is less accurate and is used more often in the second half of pregnancy to avoid errors. For the study, a special contact gel is applied to the abdomen, which improves the conductivity of ultrasound, the adhesion of the sensor to the skin and its sliding. The gel is absolutely safe and does not pose any threat to the fetus.
    2. Transvaginally. This method involves the introduction of a special vaginal sensor in the vagina. Transvaginal ultrasound in early pregnancy is more accurate than transabdominal due to the fact that the ultrasonic wave encounters fewer obstacles, which is why it is used more often by gynecologists. Sometimes a doctor can combine both methods in one procedure. To maintain an adequate level of hygiene, a condom is put on the vaginal sensor. If there is a discharge after vaginal ultrasound, it may be the result of a disruption in the microflora caused by latex.

    Since the uterus is still small at the beginning of the second trimester, a full bladder is needed before a transabdominal ultrasound is taken, so two hours before the procedure it is recommended to drink at least one and a half liters of water. It is also important to remember about basic body hygiene before visiting a doctor. It is better to take a shoe cover, a towel, a conclusion from a previous ultrasound examination and test results (if any) with an ultrasound scan to a pregnant woman.

    You need to know in advance and the price of the procedure, since it can vary significantly in different medical institutions. The average cost of ultrasound examination of pregnant women in paid clinics is 1200-2400 rubles. Sometimes this amount includes the price of photos and videos of the fetus.

    Ultrasound examination at week 16 is an unscheduled procedure that allows the expectant mother and her gynecologist to be convinced that the development of the baby is going in the right direction and does not pose any danger. But the refusal to comply with the recommendations of the doctor can lead to the fact that pathologies of the placenta or fetus will not be detected in a timely manner when they are still possible to be corrected by medication.

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