In the treatment of respiratory diseases, drugs of directed action are used, which affect the cause of the disease. They inhibit pathogens. This therapy is called etiological. In the fight against flu and colds, the main thing is right - to choose the right medication. Some people, seeking to recover quickly, begin to drink strong antibiotics for colds at the first symptoms of ARVI. Is it correct?
When it is necessary to drink antibiotics for colds and flu
In most cases, respiratory diseases are caused by viruses that are not affected by antibacterial drugs. Therefore, their reception from the first day of illness is not justified. Therapy of respiratory diseases with antibiotics is justified, if on the 5th-6th day of the flow of the flu or cold there is a consistently bad state of health of the person. As a rule, these are symptoms of a bacterial infection that provokes the development of purulent tonsillitis, acute bronchitis, pneumonia.
Symptoms of flu and cold complications:
- after the onset of ARVI, following improvement for 5-6 days, the body temperature rises sharply,
- general well-being deteriorates, fever, cough, shortness of breath appear,
- sore throat, chest, ears,
- lymph nodes increase.
When treating colds and flu with antibiotics, in no case do not interrupt the treatment while improving well-being. People who make such a mistake, then suffer twice as much. In this case, the improvement of the human condition does not mean that the disease has passed. The party of bacteria under the influence of antibiotics has died, but the other part of them adapts to the drug and begins to attack the weakened organism with a new force. This leads to a new round of the disease with subsequent complications.
What antibiotics are best taken for colds
For the treatment of respiratory diseases take bactericidal drugs aimed at the destruction of pathogenic microorganisms. Antibiotics in the fight against colds and flu play the role of heavy artillery when there is a risk of acute complications. For the treatment of respiratory diseases, there are three main groups of antibacterial drugs:
- penicillin - ampioks, augmentin, amoxapclave,
- cephalosporins - cefotaxime, cefpirome, cefazolin,
- macrolides - roxithromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin.
List of effective antibiotics for adults
For colds of bacterial origin, doctors prescribe antibiotics in extreme cases. A prolonged cough, prolonged sore throat, high fever, and stable high body temperature are alarming signs of an acute illness. In this case, traditional antiviral drugs, immunostimulants, vitamins and medicinal herbs are powerless. For effective therapy, you need to know which antibiotic is better for adults with a cold:
The names of good products for children
For the treatment of bacterial diseases at an early age, antibiotics are used in extreme cases. In case of pneumonia, acute otitis, purulent quinsy, which is the result of a respiratory illness, the use of such drugs is justified. The form of antibiotics is prescribed depending on the age of the child. Infants - drugs injections, older children - in pills. Babies are not always given an injection, it is allowed to open the ampoule and give the child to drink the medicine in the right dosage. Children's antibiotics for colds:
- Flemoxin Solutab,
- Fromilid Uno
- alpha normix.
Often parents mistakenly believe that antibiotic therapy is necessary for the successful treatment of flu and colds in children. This is a misconception about the effects of antibiotics on the child's body. In viral infections in children, the use of these drugs is unreasonable, even at high temperatures, which persist for a long time.
Treatment with antibiotics in children leads to dysbiosis, weakening of the immune system, anemia. It is advisable to conduct antibacterial therapy for babies only in critical situations. For example, when there is an aerobic streptococcal angina, acute otitis media, pneumonia, inflammation of the paranasal sinuses. The use of antibiotics for the treatment of children with colds and flu without complications is justified by:
- pronounced signs of decreased body resistance - constant low-grade body temperature, frequent catarrhal and viral diseases, HIV, oncology, congenital immunity disorders,
- rickets, malformations of general development, lack of weight,
- history of a child with chronic relapsed otitis.
Sparing preparations for treating cold in pregnant women
When treating complications of respiratory disease in a woman in a position or nursing mother, take into account the effects of antibiotics on the development of the fetus. For treatment select sparing antibacterial drugs. In order to choose a suitable medicine, the doctor identifies the causative agent of the disease, its resistance to various drugs. If it is impossible to conduct such a study, prescribed antibiotics for pregnant women are prescribed:
For the treatment of flu and colds in pregnant and lactating mothers, in order to avoid the occurrence of dysbiosis, it is advisable to take drugs in the form of injections. To avoid allergic reactions, the use of antibacterial therapy combined with antihistamines. From the diet of pregnant and lactating women exclude chocolate, citrus, coffee.
List of broad-spectrum antibiotics
When bacterial therapy for the treatment of complications of the flu and colds prescribe drugs aimed at inhibiting groups of pathogens. Such drugs are called broad-spectrum antibiotics. They help cure complications of influenza and acute respiratory infections. Cheap pills are effective, as are expensive. These types of drugs are available over the counter in pharmacies. Before taking, read the instructions and read reviews about antibiotics. A good drug has a small amount of side effects. Broad-spectrum antibiotics:
The most effective antibiotics for ARVI in adults: when to start drinking
Adults and children suffer from colds and acute respiratory viral infections, at least two or three times each year, and sometimes more often. Infection usually occurs in spring or autumn.
Doctors prescribe a number of drugs for treatment (it is undesirable to do it yourself, so as not to harm yourself).
In case of serious complications - for example, when a bacterial infection joins a virus infection - antibiotics are prescribed for ARVI.
In case of complications of ARVI, the doctor may prescribe antibiotics.
Complications and bacterial infections
The common cold is traditionally caused by pathogenic bacteria, while the cause of acute viral infections are viruses. When a diagnosis of acute respiratory disease is made, it means that the nature of the disease has not yet been determined.
Even the most effective antibiotics for ARVI will be powerless if the disease is caused by viruses. On the contrary, you can harm yourself and complicate the situation.
In the case of ARVI, doctors, first of all, prescribe antiviral drugs, as well as drugs to treat symptoms. You can take interferon inductors so that the body can defeat the infection on its own. Although in the case of the bacterial nature of the disease or its neglected form, therapy requires the use of more potent drugs.
Alas, with the complications in most cases, the immune system alone can not cope. This is where the need arises to know which antibiotic for ARVI can be considered the most effective in adults.
Without antibiotic drugs, treatment of sore throat, sinusitis, pneumonia, otitis and meningitis usually does not do.
When do I need to drink antibiotics?
Understandably, the treatment of adult respiratory viral infections in adults with drugs such as antibiotics should not be administered independently. Such responsibility can be assumed only by a qualified medical specialist.
Even the diagnosis of sinusitis requires an examination by a doctor and a research in a bacteriological laboratory (a smear from the nose, as well as the larynx is taken). Alas, in some hospitals have to wait for the result of the analysis for several days.
And time in the case of such serious diseases is very expensive! The longer you delay the diagnosis and the start of treatment, the more difficult it will then be to fight the infection.
Do I need to drink antibiotics "just in case"? No, these are not drugs that are allowed to be used for preventive purposes. At the very least, this should not be done without the appropriate sanction of a medic.
Some mistakenly believe that by starting to drink antibiotic drugs, if there is a temperature, they will avoid complications. On the contrary, it only increases the likelihood of serious consequences, since treatment at the onset of the disease should be carried out with the help of antiviral and symptomatic agents.
Here are the signs, noticing that in oneself (and, especially, in a child), one has to be anxious and be prepared for the doctor to prescribe antibiotic treatment:
- If you are treating ARVI, but do not feel better on the fifth day. Or there was a temporary relief, replaced by a sharp deterioration.
- With a sudden increase in lymph nodes.
- Duration cough more than ten days.
- The appearance of purulent discharge from the nasal cavity, purulent blotches in the sputum.
- Severe migraine, pain in maxillary sinuses.
- Pain in the ears, the discharge of fluid.
Especially the listed signs should be alarming when it comes to the health of the child.
When prescribed drugs described? Only after the doctor examines the patient, perhaps he will be sent for additional examinations and will confirm the bacterial nature of the disease. Actually, this is the correct answer to the question: can ARVI be treated with antibiotics?
What medications can be recommended?
Among other things, it is necessary to note which antibiotics help adults and children with acute respiratory viral infections. List all that is offered in modern pharmacies will not work, and not necessary. It should be called the most effective and common drugs.
Flemoksin Solyutab not only useful in the treatment of SARS, but even pleasant to the taste
This antibiotic belongs to penicillins. It is taken twice a day (sometimes three times).
We also recommend: Flu ointment in the nose
In form, these are usually tablets that dissolve in water or dissolve.
The taste of the drug, by the way, is very pleasant (fruit), which facilitates its use by children.
To prepare the suspension, the tablet is dissolved in 100 milliliters of water.
The exact dosage is determined by a medical professional. Usually, it takes into account:
- body weight,
- age of the patient
- individual features of the body,
- course of the disease.
Separately, we should talk about dosages:
- The drug, by the way, is allowed even for the smallest, but they are given a maximum of 60 milligrams per day and no more.
- Children from one year to three years old are given 250 milliliters twice a day.
- From three years to five years of age you can drink the same dosage, which is indicated above, but three times a day.
- Children under 10 years old need 375 milligrams.
- But adults need 1500 milligrams per day.
Is ARVI treated with this antibiotic? Completely, but only in cases where he is appointed by a qualified medical specialist.
This is a combined semi-synthetic penicillin, which can be taken for the treatment of SARS in adults and children.
It comes in a variety of forms:
- in the form of a dry powder from which suspensions are made,
- in pills
- in the form of powder from which oral drops are made,
- in the form of dry matter from which injections are diluted.
In order not to be mistaken in the dosage (which in no case can be done if you do not want problems for yourself), use measuring spoons (as a rule, they are offered in the kit with the medicine).
- Children from three months old need half a teaspoon three times a day.
- From one to seven years, you need to take one teaspoon - again three times a day.
- Children under 14 years old are usually prescribed a couple of tablespoons of the suspension three times a day.
- Adults take this drug in tablet form.
When to drink this antibiotic? As well as in a case with other similar means, after appointment by the doctor.
Here is another drug from the penicillin family. It is produced in the form of tablets, as well as in the form of dry matter, from which suspensions should be mixed.
The exact dosage is determined by a medical specialist, although there are certain standards:
- Children from the age of three months should drink 30 milligrams per kilogram of body weight twice a day.
- Adults take about 750 milligrams per day, although this is exactly dependent on weight.
The duration of the therapeutic course is approximately five days.
This antibiotic is often prescribed for complications of acute respiratory viral infections, infections of upper respiratory tract infections and lower respiratory tract infections.
The absence of side effects makes it possible to take the drug Augmentin, even by children
Augmentin is another penicillin antibiotic that can be given for SARS even for a child. Pharmacists offer it in the form of tablets, diluted dry matter (for subsequent injections) and powder, from which suspensions are made.
It is clear that children are given a suspension, which, by the way, is incredibly easy to prepare: pour boiled water into a medicinal bottle to the indicated mark.
Storage of the solution is carried out for seven days.
As for the required dosage, it is determined by the doctor, but the approximate standards are as follows:
- Since the age of two and up to 12 years - you need to drink 40 milligrams per kilogram of weight three times a day.
- Anyone who is older than 12 years of age - the drug is prescribed in tablets. One tablet is usually enough three times a day.
Should I drink this medicine for the treatment of acute respiratory viral infections? If it is prescribed by a doctor, then it is even necessary.
This drug belongs to the cephalosporin family. When is it prescribed? For the treatment of severe infections - especially those that affect the upper respiratory tract (such as bronchitis, sinusitis, pneumonia).
We also recommend: Isoprinosine with ARVI
In pharmacies, medicine is offered in the form of tablets, as well as dry powders, from which injection solutions are made.
- Children need 30-100 milligrams per kilogram of weight (the exact dosage is determined by the physician).
- Adults are prescribed 250-500 milligrams (in pills) per day (the dose is divided into two doses with at least a five-hour break).
The treatment course is traditionally about 10 days, but can be extended or, conversely, reduced at the discretion of the doctor.
The appointment of this antibiotic macrolide with ARVI and influenza also often occurs. It is also advised to take for angina, sinusitis and bronchitis.
Allowed to children from the age of three. However, sometimes doctors give this medicine to babies, but in the form of a suspension, and not tablets (3.75 milliliters, if the weight does not exceed 5 kilograms).
In tablets, the dosage is:
- 30-50 milligrams per kilogram for children,
- 400 milligrams per day for adults.
Possible side effects such as dizziness and redness of the skin. But, as a rule, it soon passes.
The duration of the therapeutic course is from a week to 10 days.
With influenza and SARS, a drug like Ceftriaxone is also prescribed.
Ceftriaxone helps in the treatment of pneumonia
Here are the main indications for its use:
- Inflammation of the lungs, as a complication of the flu.
- Lung abscess.
- Angina in a purulent form.
- Bacterial diseases affecting the urogenital system.
- Meningitis is bacterial in nature.
Why do doctors prescribe this antibiotic? He successfully copes with anaerobic, as well as gram-positive bacteria. How fast does he act? Quickly absorbed in the human body and, accordingly, brings a positive effect. So it must be taken if the doctor prescribes the appropriate prescription.
However, there are certain contraindications to the use of Ceftriaxone:
- Hepatic failure, hepatitis.
- Kidney problems.
- Cardiovascular diseases
- Individual intolerance.
Introduced antibiotic successfully copes with bacteria that hit the respiratory tract and urinary organs:
- A day is enough to take one 250-milligram tablet twice (sometimes three times) a day, so that there will be at least a five-hour interval between doses.
- Children, starting at the age of eight, should drink half a 200-milligram tablet twice a day after meals so that there is at least a six-hour interval between meals.
Also, children are allowed to give Tetracycline 15 syrup in the form of a syrup twice a day.The therapeutic course is about a week (although it depends on the specific disease and its degree).
Wide spectrum antibiotics
All of the above drugs are broad-spectrum antibiotics and are suitable for the treatment of SARS and influenza, but only in cases when they are prescribed by doctors.
Which of them is better to take and on what day, this is also up to the medical specialist.
But you do not forget to read more information about the tool that you will be assigned - about the indications for its use and contraindications, reviews of other users and other doctors.
Remember that the diagnosis of acute respiratory disease does not mean the need to immediately drink antibiotic drugs. With the help of these funds, as a rule, almost any complication of ARVI is treated, but when the first symptoms appear, symptomatic and antiviral drugs are usually prescribed.
Routine rhinitis, as well as coughing, are not treated with such strong drugs, otherwise there will be some side effects and worsening of the condition.
Do not self-medicate! Only doctor can prescribe antibiotics.
But with these problems, with the right selection and the right dose, they deal with serious problems with “five plus”. However, do not forget about the need for parallel use of probiotics, so that the body does not suffer much from the side effects of these funds.
When and what antibiotics should be used for adult respiratory viral infections
Antibiotics for acute respiratory viral infections are not a typical type of medication prescribed by doctors to patients. Most often, these tools are shown to people who already have a complicated process with the addition of a secondary infection.
For what and what antibacterial drugs can be used in the treatment of colds, flu and other similar diseases - we will look further.
Also, you can be interested in information about what is the incubation period for influenza and blood in adults.
To get started is to understand what is ARVI. SARS or acute respiratory viral infection is a whole spectrum of pathogens of necessarily viral nature, which causes one or another disease of the upper respiratory tract.
Accordingly, the following measures can be prescribed for such a disease:
- Antiviral drugs on the first day, respectively, instructions for use,
- Taking vitamins (especially A, E and C),
- Symptomatic therapy (antipyretic, irrigating, vasoconstrictor and other types of drugs according to indications),
- Plentiful warm drink (should be within the limits of body temperature for the best absorbability from a gastrointestinal tract). It will also be useful to learn about how acetylsalicylic acid is used for colds without fever.
- Bed rest
- Airing the room, as well as small quiet walks in the fresh air,
- Mandatory air humidification in the room where the patient is.
On the video - antibiotics for adults:
With the right and timely treatment of these measures is enough to cope with the disease. But antibiotics can be assigned as an additional group of drugs:
- With the prevention of complications,
- In immunodeficiency states,
- With long-term use of corticosteroids,
- With oncological pathologies in history,
- With a recent organ transplant and bone marrow, as well as other surgical interventions,
- In old and childhood,
- In the presence of chronic diseases of the respiratory tract.
In such cases, frequent complications are common with a reduced immune response of a local type, that is, in the throat. Therefore, it is not uncommon for a simple case of acute respiratory viral infections in chronic patients or people with a reduced protective function of the body to go over in a few days to tracheitis, bronchitis or pneumonia.
Antibiotics cannot be taken without a doctor's prescription for a number of reasons: they destroy not only pathogenic, but also native microflora in the body, often provoke the development of fungal diseases and can lead to a number of complications if used incorrectly and irregularly.
But what distinguishes the flu from Orvi and which drugs should be used first, you can read in the article by reference.
There are the following groups of tools that are used in acute respiratory infections. In general, it is:
- Penicillins (Ampicillin, Augmentin, Flemoksin, Flemoklav, Amoksil and so on), Means for a long time used and rather effective
- Cephalosporins (Cefixime, Cefuroxime, Pancef, Supraks, Axetin, Zinnat, etc.), These tablets are used as directed by the doctor and have a fairly large effect.
- Fluoroquinolones (Norfloxacin, Hemifloxacin, Sparfloxacin, Lomefloxacin, etc.), An effective antimicrobial agent, which is prescribed in combination with other drugs
- Macrolides (Azitroks, Sumamed, Azitsid, Sumamoks, Klabaks, Klacids, Fromilid, etc.). This antibiotic is used most often in inflammatory processes and has a wide spectrum of action.
The choice of an antibiotic depends on a number of factors - which pathogenic flora predominates in the human body, is there resistance to pathogens, and so on. Of the above, the least effective in terms of potential risks and benefits are fluoroquinolones, which have many side effects, contraindications and limitations in use.
Learn how to quickly cure ARVI.
Penicillins - the most common group of drugs used in respiratory pathologies and not only. Modern drugs (with the exception of ampicillin, which is very heavy in action and recently used most often only in the hospital) have a minimum of restrictions and side effects. They even prescribe infants.
The active component of such drugs is amoxicillin. Clavulanic acid may also be included, which increases the effective absorption and action of the main substance. In tandem, these compounds contribute to the destruction of the bacterial membrane (streptococci, staphylococci, and so on), which causes it to die.
The dosage can be different - from 250 mg to 1 g. The price, respectively, is also different for them:
- Ampicillin - 17-67 rubles,
- Augmentin - 141-441 rubles, Tablets of general effect, but they should be used only as prescribed by a doctor
- Flemoksin Solyutab - 252-477 rubles,
- Flemoklav Solyutab - 120-463 rubles,
- Amoksiklav - 123-282 rubles. Tablets of a wide spectrum of action, are applied by a course to destination mpetsialista
Amoxil is sold in Ukraine. The cost is in the range of 40-60 hryvnia. Otherwise, there are no differences between the drugs. For effectiveness, they have long been tested by many studies, as well as long-term use in various branches of medicine.
Read how to treat SARS in an adult.
Efficiency of cephalosporins occupy almost the same niche as the previous group. They are used quite widely, although not as popular among the population, as preparations based on penicillin compounds. Appointed most often in the treatment of pleurisy, bronchitis, pneumonia.
Their cost is also different:
- Cefixime - from 450 rubles,
- Cefuroxime - about 1,200 rubles. They are not used as often as conventional drugs, most often due to market prevalence and cost.
- Pancef - 383-577 rubles,
- Supraks - 729-874 rubles,
- Axetin - 420-665 hryvnia (in Ukraine),
- Zinnat - 230-390 rubles. The manufacturer offers tablets coated with a convenient shell for use.
These drugs have a pronounced bactericidal action, destroying the bacterial cell membrane. Most often used in the form of injections, but there are also oral forms. the use of this group of drugs is justified only if there are complications during the course of SARS.
Cephalosporins are quite effective means, but they also have their limitations and contraindications. Therefore, to prevent them do not drink.
Macrolides are the third most effective group, characterized in that they apply it only when there is resistance or contraindication to other antibiotic groups. Therefore, to use such a group of drugs for the sake of prevention is still not recommended. The price they have is as follows:
- Azitroks - 127-314 rubles. Antibiotics that are purchased and used for various inflammations and diseases can very quickly help.
- Sumamed - 223-1080 rubles,
- Azicide - about 170 rubles,
- Sumamoks - 510-540 rubles,
- Klabaks - 140-420 rubles,
- Klacid - 380-690 rubles. Such antibiotics are quite effective in viral diseases.
- Fromilid - 330-550 rubles.
Their cost and effect are different, but in general they are prescribed for complications like otitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, and so on, that is, for those pathologies that are caused by bacterial flora.
These drugs belong to the group of "three tablets", as some of them are available in packs of 3 pieces.
But it is better to take the classic types of drugs in a slower action and lower dosages.
This group of antibacterial drugs has its own advantages and disadvantages. It is used most rarely, as it has many side effects and contraindications. most effective against pathogens that have developed resistance to other types of antibiotics. The cost varies:
- Norfloxacin - 100-180 rubles,
- Gemifloksatsin (Faktiv) - 580-660 rubles,
- Sparfloxacin (Sparflo) - about 350 rubles, antibiotics of wide application, both to relieve inflammation, and at high body temperatures in viral diseases
- Lomefloxacin - about 440 rubles.
These drugs have a broad spectrum of activity, but they are active against gram-negative bacteria, including pneumococci, chlamydia, mycoplasma, and so on.
The most effective antibiotic
If we talk about the most effective from the point of view of antibiotics for signs of acute respiratory viral infections in adults, this is the penicillin series:
- Flemoxine Solutab,
- Amoxiclav But what is better with quinsy amoxiclav or sumamed is detailed here.
- Flemoklav Solyutab. The tool contains a complex of drugs
But they can cause an allergic reaction. If there is an allergy, then it is better to pay attention to cephalosporins, including Supraks, Cefuroxime, Cefixime.
But even in spite of this, it is necessary to first consult with a doctor regarding antibacterial agents, since their incorrect use or the wrong choice of dosage may lead to serious complications.
Antibiotics for influenza and ARVI (cold) in adults and children: a list of drugs when to take
Influenza is a disease included in the concept of acute respiratory viral infections, but because of its significance and the complications of its course, it is mentioned separately.
Antibiotics are rarely used in the treatment of viral infections, they are appropriate when bacterial complications join. But, without seeking medical help, sometimes patients will take antibacterial drugs without authorization.
This not only does not bring benefits, but also leads to the development of severe infectious complications.
The problem of self-treatment of SARS
Faced with the common cold or flu, people rarely turn to therapists, relying on their own strength. In the course of self-incompetent treatment of viral diseases, a number of mistakes are made:
The widespread use of antibiotics for flu and cold without a prescription in children and adults is an important public health problem. A number of bacterial strains resistant to these drugs have been formed, and getting rid of them becomes difficult. You cannot start drinking antibiotics at any opportunity.
Antibiotics are used only to treat diseases caused by bacteria and some protozoa and fungi. Therapy of viral infections with antibacterial drugs is not performed.
Methods of traditional medicine usually have little effect in the treatment of SARS and influenza.
Treatment of flu and SARS
Despite the abundance of pathogens and the difference in the mechanisms of their transmission, the treatment of SARS and influenza follows the same scheme:
In the process of vital activity, microorganisms — the causative agents of acute respiratory infections — produce toxins, damage the epithelial lining, causing the typical symptoms of the flu and the common cold: headache, fever, weakness, chills, etc. Therefore, it is necessary to turn to symptomatic therapy, that is, elimination of the symptoms of the disease. The most effective in this case are the preparations of the following groups:
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are cheap, over-the-counter drugs. They have anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects.
It is necessary to take NSAIDs if there is a temperature above 38-38.5 ° C. To bring down the temperature below this is impractical; raising the temperature is necessary to suppress the vital activity of microorganisms, to enhance the enzymatic activity of the human systems and its protective mechanisms.
NSAIDs also include salicylates (acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin), but do not use aspirin. When a viral infection of acetylsalicylic acid can cause the development of Reye's syndrome in children.
Analgin (metamizole) is not recommended for people with dark skin, because of the pharmacogenetic differences in this group of people, hematopoiesis is inhibited when taking Metamizole sodium.
It is better to give the child paracetamol and ibuprofen, the latter has a more pronounced and prolonged activity.
Salicylates (acetylsalicylic acid) is unacceptable for use in influenza and acute respiratory viral infections in children and adolescents under 16 years of age. Paracetamol tablets can be taken no more than 4 times a day with an interval of 4-6 hours.
There are two groups of drugs for the treatment of cough: antitussive and expectorant. Antitussive drugs are used for dry cough, but in case of suppression of the cough reflex in the presence of sputum conditions for the reproduction of bacteria are created. Then the bacterial infection joins the virus infection.
It is advisable to take expectorants for any type of cough. This is a wide list of drugs with several subgroups. But the most effective - non-enzymatic mucolytics, splitting the constituent parts of mucus, reducing the viscosity of sputum and improve its secretion.
These are drugs such as Bromhexin, Ambroxol, ACC. Ambroxol is a cheap and effective drug: take 30 mg 3 times a day on the first 3 days, then 30 mg 2 times a day or 15 mg 3 times a day.
The daily dose varies depending on age, it is necessary to specify in the instructions for use.
Ascorutin is a drug that includes vitamins C and P (ascorbic acid and rutin). Since the 40s of the last century, it was believed that ascorbic acid stimulates the immune system and cures infectious diseases. The science of the 21st century has proven that vitamin C has nothing to do with this and has no such effect.
The expediency of using ascorutin is preserved in case of viral infections, especially in case of flu, when the permeability of the vascular wall increases, which is accompanied by edema and inflammation. In the case of the flu - even hemorrhagic edema. Ascorbic acid and rutin stabilize the basement membrane of capillaries, reducing their permeability.
What tests help identify the need to use antibiotics for Orvi?
Any respiratory disease is manifested by a set of characteristic symptoms in a patient, which can be used to determine that a person has a viral infection. To clarify the diagnosis, the doctor prescribes the patient to pass a complete blood test to identify the causative agent and urine to exclude the presence of ureteral infection.
A blood test with Orvi will show:
- normal red blood cell concentration
- reduced white blood cell count
- neutrophil decline,
- disappearance of zoosinophils,
- a significant increase in lymphocytes and monocytes.
Suppose your temperature at Orvi lasts for 5 days, the condition worsens, the cough has passed into a more difficult stage. Do not hurry! Have a CITO blood test (which means fast), wait a few more hours. The results will show whether you really need a medicine, or is it just such a difficult course of the virus.
What to look for yourself?
Orvi is a disease transmitted through the upper respiratory organs from one person to another. Almost all the symptoms of the disease relate to them. Infection with a viral infection occurs unnoticed and it is difficult to determine the exact date of picking up the parasite. First there is lethargy, fatigue, redness of the eyes. It is common for children during the illness of Orvi to often cry and be naughty. Это признаки интоксикации организма вирусной инфекцией, проявляемой еще нарушением сердечного ритма и отдышкой.
Other manifestations of Orvi include:
- temperature increase with a maximum value of 38.5 degrees,
- runny nose with clear and fluid nasal discharge
- sore throat,
- swollen nasopharynx,
- frequent sneezing
- chest-rending dry cough,
- acute headache
- sore eyes and tearing.
What antibiotics can be solved with Orvi after the diagnosis of a bacterial complication has been made. Prior to that, you can not make a decision yourself
Are antibiotics necessary and possible for Orvi?
It is not recommended to take antibiotics for influenza and Orvi in order to prevent the disease. This group of drugs does not prevent bacterial complications, and when they are taken during a viral disease, it increases the likelihood of bacterial complications. The body, in addition, produces resistance to the antibiotics taken, and subsequently there will be difficulties in treating bacterial diseases. Antimicrobial drugs should be taken only on prescription.
When to start drinking antibiotics with Orvi?
Uncomplicated respiratory infections are treated without the use of antibacterial therapy (unleashed rhinitis, nasopharyngitis, viral tonsillitis, conjunctivitis, mild bronchitis, tracheitis, laryngitis). So, what antibiotics to take with Orvi? One of the following factors allows you to switch to them:
- The 38-degree body temperature does not fall for 3 days in a very young child,
- deterioration of health after the disappearance of the main symptoms of the disease,
- swelling of the submandibular lymph nodes, as a sign of angina or diphtheria,
- discharge of pus from the nasal passages for more than 10 days, aching headache of the frontal part and nasal sinuses on the face, as a sign of sinusitis,
- painful shooting in the ear and the discharge of fluid from it, indicating middle otitis media,
- dry cough more than 10 days, as with whooping cough,
- the presence of plaque on the glands that foretells scarlet fever, infectious mononucleosis, streptococcal sore throat,
- complications with the formation of pus, manifested by sinusitis, lymphadenitis, paratonsillar abscess, descending laryngotracheitis,
- pronounced lack of weight, rickets, malformation in a child younger than 6 months,
- immunodeficiency of the baby with constant inflammatory processes, colds, fever up to 37.5 degrees, frequent boils, herpes rash, fungal diseases, diarrheas, autoimmune and oncological diseases, HIV, congenital defects of the immune system,
- the development of pneumonia is even atypical.
When can you do without antibiotics, and when - you can not?
The appearance of a sore throat is not enough for taking antibiotics. The diagnosis should be: angina. However, this is not a reason for self-selection of drugs.
Antibiotics are not able to cure a cold and cold. Influenza, Orvi also can not be eliminated with antibacterial drugs. These are viral infections against which the antibiotic is powerless. It does not reduce the temperature, inflammation, runny nose, and cough, it can only provide side effects when it is uncontrolled. There were many situations when a patient or a patient with Orvi drank an antibiotic without making sure that the disease “developed” into a bacterial one. As a result, an even more complicated infection, several doses of more serious drugs, a serious condition and a difficult way out of it. Therefore, never use antibiotics without a doctor's prescription and test results!
Be sure to make sure that antibiotics are really necessary!
Serious health problems that can threaten life are treated only with antibiotics. These are diseases of the upper respiratory tract and ENT organs of a purulent nature: tonsillitis, laryngitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, otitis.
Infectious inflammations concentrated in an enclosed area are also subject to antibiotic treatment. If you get sick with sinusitis, osteomyelitis, abscess, or phlegmon, then the traditional recipes for treatment, antiviral drugs and immunomodulators do not help here.
Post-operative interventions are forced to use for further treatment with antibiotics. It is a powerful tool to prevent unwanted infections. The terrible threat to human health and life, which can arise in any of the organs and requires cardinal struggle with it, can be eliminated with the help of antibiotic therapy.
What antibiotics to drink with Orvi - only the doctor decides!
You should not give up the antibiotics prescribed by the doctor, because you can hurt yourself. A short-term improvement in health during a serious illness is a false sign. In no case should the course be discontinued. Serious complications can occur: angina, if not treated correctly, will cause heart and kidney diseases, pneumonia and sinusitis will develop into a chronic form.
About the consequences of taking AB. It is necessary to imagine this.
What antibiotics can be used with Orvi?
Depending on the mechanism of action, there are 2 types of antibiotics: bactericidal and bacteriostatic. Bactericidal bacteria inhibit the growth of bacteria, inhibiting the active centers of microorganisms. They lead to the death of parasitic cells. Such actions are characteristic of cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, polymyxins, gramicidins, rifampicin, ristomycin, penicillin groups, streptomycin.
Bacteriostatic antibiotics have a stopping effect on the growth of bacterial colonies. They inhibit the rapid reproduction of microbes. The organism itself destroys these enemies thanks to the white blood cells and the white blood cells that are part of the human immune system. Such properties in erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, macrolides, lincomycin.
There are antibiotics of a wide and narrow spectrum of influence. In the first case, the pathogen has not been identified and the drug has a destructive effect on all harmful microorganisms. You can use ampicillin, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, macrolides, carbapenems.
The narrow spectrum of action of drugs affect a certain type of bacteria. It can be staphylococcus, streptococcus, which die due to penicillin, cephalosporin I-II generation, lincomycin, fuzidina, vancomycin. E. coli is destroyed by third generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, aztreonam, polymyxins. Tuberculosis is treated with streptomycin, rifampicin, florimycin. Fungi of various origins are treated with nystatin, levorin, amfortericin B, and batrafen.
Antibiotics have a feature of “accumulating” in the organs for which they are intended to be treated. Actinomycin affect tumors. Azithromycin is concentrated in the lungs and is therefore effective in inflammation. Lincomycin accumulates in the bones.
There are 4 generations of antibiotics - the next one is characterized by a larger circle of negative girth of bacterial influence and a mild effect on the human body than the previous generation. What antibiotics to take with flu and Orvi - the doctor decides.
Also, antimicrobial drugs are divided by origin. To b-lactam include:
- penicillins group (natural product), the active ingredient - benzylpenicillin, phenoxymethyl-penicillin, oxacillin, cloxacillin, flucloxacillin, amdinotsillin, atsidotsillin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, pivampitsillin, carbenicillin, azlocillin, mezlocillin, piperacillin,
- a number of cephalosporins with active substances - cefaloridin, cefazolin, cefamandol, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefpirome, cefepime.
Macrolides - antibiotics with complex chemical origin. Active elements - erythromycin, oleandomycin, spiramycin, roxithromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin.
Tetracycline bacteria kill the urinary tract and urinary organs. Submitted by tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, methacycline, doxycycline, minocycline, morphocycline.
Aminoglycosides treat complex bacterial diseases, peretonit. Representatives of the group are Streptomycin, Monomitsin, Kanamycin, Gentamycin, Tobramycin, Sizomycin, Amikacin, Netilmicin, Izepamycin.
Fluoroquinolones stop the development of bacteria. Group drugs are Norfloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Enoxacin, Ofloxacin.
Sulfamides block bacterial development. Co-trimoxazole, Trimethoprim - drugs of the group.
Lincosamides inhibit the proliferation of bacteria. The group is represented by lincomycin and clindamycin.
Imidazoles inhibit parasite protein synthesis. Metronidazole is the main active ingredient.
Peptides inhibit bacterial protein synthesis. Bacitracin - active ingredient.
Antibiotics after Orvi or during the disease are taken orally (through the mouth), if they are presented in tablets, capsules, drops, syrups. There are drugs that are poorly absorbed by the stomach: penicillins, aminoglycosides, carbapinems. The effect of them is not fast. Most antibiotics are injected intramuscularly, intravenously, into the spinal canal. This treatment is most appropriate and suitable for seriously ill patients.
List of antibiotics for Orvi for adults, and in what cases what to give
As a rule, in case of bacterial complications, the doctor prescribes effective antibiotics for Orvi in adults from the penicillin group represented by the drugs: Ampicillin, Augmentin, Amoxicillin, Amoxiclav, Flemoksin Solyutab, Amosin, Ekobol, Benzitsillin, Bicillin. These are effective drugs for the complications of cold and flu, there is a risk of an allergic reaction to the drug.
In bacterial diseases of the upper respiratory tract, powerful macrolide antibiotics are prescribed. These are drugs Sumamed, Azithromycin, Azivok, Sumazid Azitral, Sumamed Forte, Sumemetsin, Hemomitsin, Zitrotsin, ZI-Factor, Azithromycin monohydrate, Azithromycin dihydrate, Azitroks, Azitsid, Klabaks. The last of these has the properties of supporting the immune system and prevents the growth of bacteria in the blood. It treats a prolonged cold, promotes easy expectoration.
One of the most well-known groups of antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial diseases is cephalosporins. Cold complications are often treated with Cefepime.
Fluoroquinolones kill pneumococci and other respiratory pathogens. Care must be taken by older people. Presented drugs: Sparfloxacin, Moxifloxacin, Levofloxacin.
The list of antibiotics for children and in what cases what to give
Newborns with bronchitis and pneumonia are allowed antibiotics: Flemoxin Soljutab, Augmentin, Amoxicillin. ENT diseases are treated with: Cefuroxime axetil, Zinatsef, Zinnat axetin.
Angina and otitis media in children should be treated with a penicillin group of drugs. She kills streptococci. Augmentin, Ampicillin. These drugs are not toxic, so they are popular in pediatrics.
Children's bronchitis and pneumonia will cure cephalosporins. With special care, children are prescribed drugs of the 3rd and 4th generation - they have severe contraindications (Ceftriaxone).
Fluoroquinols are the most non-toxic antibiotics, so they are widely used in pediatric treatment. Tavanic, Tsifranom, Tsipraletom can kill E. coli, chlamydia.
It is forbidden to prescribe the following antibiotics for Orvi in children: Levomitsetin, Tetracycline, Monocycline, Doxycycline, Aminoglycoside and the drugs with the end of ofloxacin. These drugs have a devastating effect on the child's tooth enamel.
Antibiotics for pregnant women
Women “in position” with Orvi can be given antibiotics only for serious reasons and only as prescribed by a doctor. In order not to harm the development of the fetus, pregnant women, if necessary, the doctor prescribes mild antimicrobial drugs. These are penicillin, cephalosporin series and macrolides.
Penicillin antibiotics can penetrate the placenta, but do not harm the baby. However, allergic reactions are possible. Preparations: Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Oxacillin, Amoxiclav, Flemoklav.
Group cephalosporins taken by women, regardless of the duration of pregnancy. Through the placenta penetrate in small doses, but have no negative effect on the fetus. They have a wider range of effects on microbes than the previous group of antibiotics, therefore they are prescribed more often. Treat pregnant women: Cefazolin, Ceftriaxone, Cefalexin, Cefuroxime, Cefotaxime, Cefepime, Ceftazidime.
Macrolides include Erythrocymine, Josamycin and Spiramycin. The placenta does not delay them, but they do not harm prenatal development.
Antibiotics with their derivatives: Azithromycin, Metrodinazole, Gentamicin, pregnant women can only be taken under the supervision of a doctor as prescribed. Forbidden drugs for future mothers include: tetracycline, sulfanilamide, fluoroquinolone, nitrofuran series of antibiotics and chloramphenicol.
How is the reception of antibiotics with Orvi. General scheme
An antimicrobial drug is prescribed at the rate of its sufficient concentration in the patient's body to kill the bacterium:
- a single dose of medication should correspond to the weight, age and degree of neglect of the disease in a patient, it is contraindicated to reduce it,
- take an antibiotic after an equal amount of time
- you should not take breaks or you will have to switch to a stronger antibiotic from another pharmacological group,
- it is necessary to sustain the prescribed course of taking the medicine without independent decisions.
How many days to take? What is the risk of interrupting a course or its wrong reception?
Proper adherence to the dosing regimen and the duration of antibiotic intake ensures reliable control of harmful bacteria. Small doses and treatment with short courses, interruption of therapy, and frequent repetition of the same drug result in bacteria that are resistant to this antibiotic.
Strictly need to comply with the principles of dosing and taking the drugs. According to the specifics of the disease, the doctor prescribes the required amount of antibiotic to sufficiently accumulate in the place of localization of the bacteria in order to get rid of it. Therefore, it is extremely dangerous to take initiative in taking this kind of drugs, you need to adhere to all the recommendations of the doctor.
What can you not eat and drink?
Antibiotics should be taken after a meal, with the exception of certain foods after a short time. These are general guidelines.
Antibiotics (especially the tetracycline group) should not be taken with milk, consumed with dairy products, taken immediately after or before its use. This prevents the absorption of antibiotic into the blood from the stomach and violates its medicinal properties. 3 hours before the reception of antimicrobial agents and 3 hours after you can eat dairy products.
Acceptance of cephalosporins should not be accompanied by the use of alcohol. This provokes headaches, vomiting and significantly the effect of the drug.
When taking antibiotics to treat a bacterial disease, you need to know that they block the effect of birth control pills. During the course of treatment of unwanted pregnancy should be protected by a condom.
How to eat?
In addition, antibiotics for influenza and Orvi for children is a strong blow not only to immunity, but also to the entire body as a whole. It is best to temporarily limit the intake of “heavy” foods, such as salinity, smoked meat, greed, as well as sweets, fats, especially trans fats and other modern-fashioned sweet things, spices, and “heavy” food. Limit yeast and meat foods. What can:
- dairy products,
- boiled and fresh vegetables,
- boiled fish, chicken in small quantities.
And be sure to drink a lot: the body must get rid of toxins and slags, which are formed as a result of the activity of microbes. Warm teas with honey, fruit drinks, compotes are your best assistant.
Additional drugs to maintain the body
According to professional doctors: the disease dysbacteriosis does not exist. We are all born with a certain set of harmful and beneficial bacteria in the intestines, the composition of which is influenced by lifestyle, food, the environment.
If a person has a bacterial disease, which can be cured only with an antibiotic, then in no case should one refuse to take the prescribed medication. Antimicrobial drugs have many contraindications that can be avoided by eating healthy food, not abusing fatty, not overeating, drinking enough water, not being in crowded places, staying in a ventilated room, where the air is not overdried and constant wet cleaning is done.
The occurrence of unpleasant symptoms after a bacterial disease and the taking of an antibiotic to cure it does not indicate the harm of the medication itself, but the consequences of the life of the harmful bacterium. Actions on the intestinal microflora of all the commercially available probiotics and pribiotics have not been proven by official medicine, so there is no point in accepting them. На стадии желудка, имеющиеся полезные бактерии в таблетках, суспензиях уничтожаются кислой средой, которую преодолеть им не представляется возможным, как и попасть в кишечник живыми.
However, the effectiveness of "improving immunity after antibiotics" kefir and dairy products can not be challenged. Drink kefir and yogurt with natural sourdough to support the intestinal microflora, and beware of new sores the first time. It will be a great post-antibiotic aid to the body.
Do not forget that the concept of "the best antibiotic in Orvi" does not exist. In any situation, the doctor selects the drug individually, but there is simply no universal medicine.
What is ARVI
ARVI is an abbreviation that stands for acute respiratory viral disease. Based on the name, it becomes clear that the cause of the disease lies in the viruses - they become the cause of respiratory infections. Such infections are popularly called colds and are mainly expressed in lesions of the upper respiratory tract - inflammation of the nasal mucosa, runny nose, sore throat, difficulty in swallowing, etc.
Acute respiratory viral infection lasts not for long - usually 3-5 days, while, in addition to the above symptoms of the respiratory system, the patient experiences symptoms typical for such a condition - the temperature rises, body aches, felt headache and general “brokenness” . Sometimes inflammation of the lower respiratory tract joins the symptoms, which manifests itself in a dry cough.
The most famous acute viral infection is the flu. Every year, a wave of epidemics of its most diverse strains rolls around the world, and each time this disease is presented as a deadly threat. Indeed, the flu can be fatal. But how to treat it?
Like any other viral infections, the flu does not have a specific treatment, and even more so antibiotics are not used in its therapy. Viruses are successfully destroyed by the natural immune system of a person, if the patient is provided with sufficiently comfortable conditions - no stress, bed rest, frequent warm drinks, and a balanced diet food.
But why is antibiotics prescribed for ARVI? In order to understand the meaning of such medical prescriptions, you must have an idea about this group of drugs.
When are antibiotics prescribed for colds?
With a common cold, it is pointless to take antibiotics, since the disease is of viral origin, but respiratory infections are often complicated by bacterial pathologies - there is no way to do without antibiotics.
When to drink antibiotics for colds:
- 2–3 days after the onset of the disease, the patient’s condition does not improve, only worsens,
- runny nose gets worse, breathing through the nose is difficult, discharge becomes yellow or green in color,
- after 4–5 days of ORZ, a deep cough with a large amount of sputum appears,
- the temperature rises sharply to 38 degrees or more.
With a sharp increase in temperature, antibiotics are prescribed.
Complicated common cold is an exception to the rule, the immunity of a healthy person is able to cope with viruses in 7–10 days. The risk of developing pneumonia, sore throats, otitis media, sinusitis, bronchitis is high in people whose protective forces are weakened. Who is at risk? Small children, elderly people, people who have undergone organ transplantation, have been taking immunosuppressants and corticosteroids for a long time, people with HIV and oncological diseases.
List of the best antibiotics for colds
When signs of bacterial infection appear, the therapist or pediatrician prescribes broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs. After receiving the results of tests on the sensitivity of microorganisms to the active component of the drug, prescribe a tool that will act directly on the pathogens.
Antibiotics for colds in adults
To eliminate the bacterial complications of the common cold, antibacterial agents from the group of penicillins, cephalosporins, macrolides, lincosamides are used. Most drugs can be purchased at a pharmacy without a prescription, but it is better to take strong medicines as directed by a specialist.
Cheap antibacterial agent of penicillin, produced in capsules, tablets, in the form of a suspension. The price is 80–120 rubles. The medicine helps with otolaryngological bacterial diseases, bronchitis, pneumonia.
Available antibacterial drug Amoxicillin
- bronchial asthma, diathesis of allergic origin,
- liver dysfunction
- lactation, pregnancy,
- some forms of leukemia,
The standard dosage is 500 mg every 8 hours. Duration of therapy is 6–10 days.
Powerful, but cheap antibiotic, in the package there are only 3 tablets, which is enough for complete recovery. The drug belongs to a separate group of azalides due to some structural features, effective against most strains of bacteria. Available in tablets, capsules, powder for suspension. The price is 120–220 rubles.
Azithromycin - an effective antibiotic
Indications for use:
- tonsillitis, inflammation of the mucous larynx, paranasal sinuses,
- otitis media
Dosage - 500 mg once a day, 2 hours after a meal, the medicine should be drunk for three days, with angina, the course can be extended to 5 days. Contraindications - heart rhythm disturbances, severe kidney and liver diseases, lactation period. Pregnant women are sometimes prescribed the drug in a standard dosage, but it should be drunk only under constant medical supervision.
Azithromycin should not be drunk with Heparin.
Combined universal antibiotic, in the composition there is amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, is marketed in tablets, in the form of a suspension and powder for injections. The price is 260–370 rubles.
The standard dosage is 250 mg three times a day, with advanced forms of pathologies, 500 mg three times a day, or 875 mg in the morning and evening. Injections are made every 4–8 hours in 1000 mg, depending on the severity of the pathology. The duration of treatment is 7-14 days.
Augmentin - a combined antibiotic
The drug is intended to eliminate the manifestations of diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tract, pathologies of the upper respiratory tract of a bacterial nature. Contraindications - intolerance to the components of the drug, jaundice or liver dysfunction in history. For pregnant and lactating women, the drug is prescribed in a standard dosage, the treatment should be under the supervision of a specialist.
Inexpensive, but a good antibiotic from the group of lincosamides, is effective only against gram-positive bacteria, is released in tablets, in the form of a solution for intravenous or intramuscular administration. The price is 110–180 rubles.
The drug is prescribed for inflammation of the lungs and middle ear, bronchitis, sore throat. Contraindications - severe renal and hepatic pathology, the period of gestation and breastfeeding.
Lincomycin belongs to the group of lincosamides
Intravenous and intramuscularly prescribed at 0.6 g three times a day, in difficult cases, the dosage is increased to 2.4 g. The dose for oral administration is 1.5 g per day, it should be divided into 3 doses. Duration of treatment - 1-2 weeks.
Lincomycin should not be taken simultaneously with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, otherwise breathing may stop.
What is antibiotics
Antibiotics are a group of drugs intended to fight bacteria. Bacteria, unlike viruses, are a cellular form of life, and antibiotics mainly act on the walls of their cells, destroying them (bactericidal drugs) or interfering with division (bacteriostatic drugs).
In addition, this group of substances is divided into broad-spectrum antibiotics and narrow-spectrum antibiotics. These concepts divide drugs into those that are effective against several types of bacteria, or against any one group. In addition, antibiotic agents are divided for a variety of reasons - by origin, method of production, by chemical group, by purpose. Today there is a huge variety of antibiotics and several generations of these substances.
There is no such thing as an “antibiotic for ARVI” because viral infections do not imply the use of such drugs. How to treat acute respiratory viral infections has already been said earlier - if the patient is provided with sufficiently comfortable conditions for recovery, an acute viral infection can be defeated without using any drugs. In some cases, treatment of ARVI involves the use of antiviral drugs (for example, it is necessary for debilitated patients - the elderly, children suffering from chronic diseases or immunodeficiency).
However, in some cases, the use of auxiliary substances is still required. Sometimes it is required to bring the temperature down, for which anti-inflammatory and antipyretic drugs are used. It happens that muscle pain or headache becomes unbearable for the patient, then you should take painkillers.
When antibiotics are needed
Despite the fact that ARVI is not treated with antibiotics, it should be borne in mind that acute viral infections often cause complications, among which so-called. secondary infections of a bacterial nature. This happens because the body’s natural reserves are depleted, and it becomes more vulnerable to other pathogens. In addition, it is not uncommon for patients suffering from the same flu to decide to have a cold "on their feet" and, once in public places, are additionally infected with a bacterial infection.
So, when should antibiotics be taken? A secondary infection does not necessarily affect the respiratory tract - it can act in the intestines, eyes, it can even be a genital infection, but most often the respiratory organs are affected. If during acute respiratory illness the temperature does not return to normal for more than 5 days, and the symptoms of the disease worsen - time to consult your doctor for help.
Antibiotics for complications of ARVI is indicated if the patient has bronchitis, pneumonia, purulent tonsillitis, inflammation of the tonsils or paranasal sinuses, otitis or laryngotracheitis. Which antibiotics to drink, the doctor must decide on the basis of the symptoms, the patient's condition, as well as the results of tests. Usually, when a purulent discharge or other symptoms of a bacterial lesion appear, the patient is prescribed an analysis of the sowing of microflora, which is designed to identify a specific pathogen and the most effective drug against it.
In no case should not acquire and take antibiotics on their own, without consulting with a specialist. It should be understood that neither the new generation of the drug, nor the well-known name, nor the promising suggestion by a wide spectrum of action are a guarantee of a right decision. To understand which antibiotic is better, it is possible only on the basis of laboratory analysis data.
Special cases of ARVI
In some cases, antibiotics prescribed for SARS in the absence of the above complications. Why is this happening? The reasons for this appointment may be several.
The first, the most common and at the same time the least logical reason is that the patient himself asked for the prescription of an antibacterial drug. How is this possible? Unfortunately, in our country, along with ardent opponents of antibiotics, there are also their “amateurs” who cannot accept the fact that the treatment of viral diseases does not require the use of special drugs. More often, such paranoid individuals generally receive the drug without an appointment due to poor control of antibacterial agents in our country.
The next reason to prescribe antibiotics without waiting for complications is weak patient immunity. If a patient has a severe chronic disease, acquired immunodeficiency, or there are cases of colds more often 5 times a year, this is an excuse to drink antibiotics for ARVI, and the fact of immunodeficiency should be reported when visiting the attending physician.
Treatment of acute respiratory viral infections without antibiotics does not cost in weak children up to 6 months - with weight gain, developmental defects, rickets and other diseases. Many experts prefer to prescribe antibiotics and relatively healthy children, because in the fight against viral infections, it is this category of patients that most often suffers from various complications.
The reason to prescribe an antimicrobial drug are some blood diseases. For example, with aplastic anemia or agranulocytosis, the risk of becoming ill with a bacterial complication of respiratory infections is several times higher than that of a patient without these diseases. This is the reason to use the new generation of antibiotics in the treatment.
The most common drugs
As already mentioned, specific instructions on which antibiotics to take in case of complications with adult acute respiratory viral infections should be given by the doctor based on the results of the examination and the results of laboratory tests. Here are just listed the main groups of drugs that can cure a bacterial infection.
Until recently, penicillin antibiotics were considered one of the most well-known and effective drugs. Unfortunately, the use of the earliest of the developed - natural penicillins - is currently impossible, because many strains of bacteria have become resistant to them. But penicillins are widely used with synthetic modifications that are protected from bacterial enzymes. These drugs begin to act almost immediately after absorption into the blood and are most often used to treat angina. The list of drugs in this series - Augmentin, Amoxiclav, Ecoclav.
Relatively new and according to some data the most effective drugs are macrolides. They work well in cases of inflammation of the sinuses, otitis, with atypical pneumonia and bronchitis. The most frequent list of prescribed macrolides is Sumamed, Hemomitsin, Makropen.
Fluoroquinolones are treated in cases when other antibiotics are not suitable (resistant strains of bacteria, or individual intolerance). However, they can be prescribed only for an adult patient, since they adversely affect the development of children. They are produced under such trade names as Flexide, Avelox, Floracid.
How to take antibiotics
As soon as the doctor prescribed to take antibiotic pills, the patient should be familiar with the instructions for use or the regimen, which was prescribed to him. Usually, the doctor, issuing a prescription, indicates only the dosage and frequency of intake, and some of the nuances about how to use the medicine elude the patient. In the meantime, proper use of the antibiotic affects how effectively the disease is treated.
The first and most important rule is that even if the patient’s condition begins to improve within a couple of days of using the drug, you should still drink his minimum course (usually it is 5 days). This will save the patient from cases of relapse of the disease or its transition to the chronic form. You can stop taking antibiotics only if the patient has an allergy. In this case, the doctor prescribed pills of another group, but with a similar spectrum of action.
Another rule - it is necessary to follow the recommendations regarding the use of drugs in a certain time period and regarding food intake. The tablet should be taken with clean, still water at room temperature in order to avoid a chemical reaction with the drug and a possible decrease in the effective action.
The following rule - from the first day of the course of antibiotics, it is necessary to completely eliminate the use of ethyl alcohol, including medical alcohol tinctures and solutions. They must be replaced by the attending physician for funds not alcohol content. Drinking alcohol at the same time as antibiotics can cause irreparable liver time of the patient. The same applies to the simultaneous use of fatty, smoked, salty foods.
The answer to the question whether ARVI can be treated with antibiotics remains negative. Antibiotics do not cure ARVI, but can only prevent the development of complications or fight against complications that have already arisen. It is necessary to resort to antibiotics exclusively on the recommendation of a doctor, if there are sufficient grounds. What kind of antibiotics to treat for SARS is also decided by the doctor.
The main criterion for suspecting a bacterial complication is a prolonged rise in temperature (longer than 3 days), purulent discharge from the ear, nose, a characteristic patina on the throat, and a strong cough that does not go away for a long time. If there is a sharp deterioration after 3 days of illness, this is also a reason for a second visit to the specialist. In severe infections, it is sometimes necessary to use more than one antibacterial drug, specific drugs should be prescribed based on the results of planting flora.
It should be remembered that in uncomplicated cases of viral infection the best medicine is sleep, rest and bed rest without contact with crowded premises. Это сохранит не только ваше собственное здоровье, но и здоровье окружающих. Даже если вы уже принимаете антибиотики и чувствуете себя значительно лучше, следует сохранять больничный режим до полного выздоровления и завершения курса лечения.
Today the truth is that antibiotics ineffective with colds, fluand ARVI, is generally known. But, despite the fact that it is well known to specialists, antibacterial agents for viral infection, patients often take just "for prevention." After all, when patients with colds are recommended to follow the well-known rules that are relevant in the treatment of such diseases, many people think that drinking plenty of fluids, consuming food with vitamins, complying with bed rest, and gargling is not enough to cure the disease. Therefore, many either begin to take strong antibiotics on their own, or practically “beg for” a specialist to prescribe them any drugs.
Many people come to the conclusion that they ask on the forums, which is better to drink the drug for a cold. And they are treated by advice, without prescriptions and prescriptions. Moreover, nowadays it is easy to purchase such a medicine without a prescription, although most antibacterial agents should be sold with a prescription.
Very often these mistakes are made by parents who simply do not know when to give the child an antibiotic. Many pediatricians prefer to "play it safe" and prescribe such drugs to cold children simply "for the purpose of prevention" in order to prevent further complications.
But in fact, the best way to treat colds in a child is to follow the same traditional advice about drinking plenty of water, moisturizing and airing the room, using auxiliary folk methods and symptomatic use of the remedies for temperature. After some time, the body will overcome the attack of a viral respiratory infection.
Actually, the appointment of antibiotics for colds is associated with the desire to prevent the development of complications. After all, preschoolers in the modern world really coexist with a high risk of developing complications.
Not every kidthe immune system works without fail. Therefore, many pediatricians, trying to play it safe from the fact that later they are not accused of incompetence, prescribe such medicines to babies.
It is important to understand that in most cases it is useless to drink antibiotics for colds, as colds with fever and without fever most often are of viral origin. And this means that taking antibacterial drugs in case of a cold is useless.
It is better to drink antibiotics if certain complications develop after a viral attack, accession has occurred bacterial infection, localized in the nasal or oral cavity, bronchi, lungs.
What to drink with a cold without a temperature, whether it is possible to drink antibiotics at a temperature, and in what cases it is necessary to take antibacterial agents, it will be discussed below.
Is it possible to determine from tests that antibiotics are needed?
At present, it is far from every case that laboratory tests are conducted that can confirm that the infection is bacterial in nature. Conducting urine cultures, sputum - this is not cheap tests, and they are rarely carried out. Exception - swabs from the nose and throat with angina on wand leflera (this is pathogen diphtheria). Also at chronictonsillitis carry out selective crops detachable tonsils, urine cultures in patients with urinary tract pathologies.
Changes in the clinical analysis of blood are indirect signs of the development of a bacterial inflammatory process. In particular, the doctor is guided by an increased rate. ESRincrease in quantity leukocyte count, shift to the left leukocyte formula.
How to determine what complications develop?
To understand which is better to give the drug to a child or an adult, it is important to determine whether there is a development of complications. You can independently suspect that bacterial complications of the disease are developing, by the following signs:
- The color of discharge from the bronchi, nose, throat, ear changes - it becomes cloudy, becomes greenish or yellowish.
- If a bacterial infection joins, the temperature often rises again.
- If a bacterial infection affects the urinary system, then the urine becomes cloudy, and sediment may appear.
- A lesion of the intestine leads to mucus, blood or pus in the feces.
To determine the complications of ARVI can be on the following grounds:
- After an improvement of about 5-6 days, the temperature rises again to an indicator of 38 degrees and higher, the state of health worsens, the cough worries, dyspneaWhen coughing or taking a deep breath, it hurts in the chest - all these signs may indicate development pneumonia.
- In the case of temperature, pain in the throat becomes more intense, plaque appears on the tonsils, lymph nodes on the neck increase - these signs require exclusion diphtheria.
- When the pain in the ear, if the ear flows, it can be assumed that develops otitis media.
- If rhinitis becomes nasal, the sense of smell is gone, pain in the forehead or face, and the pain intensifies when the person leans forward, then the inflammatory process of the paranasal sinuses develops.
In such a situation, you need to very well select antibiotics for colds. Which antibiotic is better for a cold for an adult, or what antibiotics for children with a cold should be used, only a doctor decides. Indeed, the choice of such drugs depends on many factors.
- age of a person
- localization of complications
- patient history
- drug tolerance
- antibiotic resistance.
The names of children's antibiotics for colds, the names of injections and the names of antibiotics for colds and flu for adults can be found on any medical site on the network, and their list is very long. But this does not mean that good antibiotics for colds can be drunk just “for prevention”, if signs of complications appear. Even an antibacterial agent, in which there are 3 tablets in a package, can worsen the patient’s condition, adversely affecting his immune system.
Therefore, be guided by the advice of friends about the fact that a particular drug is good, inexpensive and to drink broad-spectrum antibiotics can not in any case. What antibiotics should be taken for a cold should be determined exclusively by the attending physician.
When you do not need to take antibiotics for uncomplicated ARVI?
With a cold, with ENT diseases or ARVI, passing without complications, antibiotics do not need to be taken in such cases:
- if a rhinitis with mucus and pus lasts less than 10-14 days,
- when viral develops conjunctivitis,
- in case of viral tonsillitis,
- at nasopharyngitis,
- in case of development bronchitis, tracheitishowever, sometimes in an acute condition with a high temperature, the use of antibacterial agents is still necessary,
- when laryngitis The child has,
- when appears herpes on the lips.
When should you take antibiotics for uncomplicated ARVI?
Antibiotics for ARVI without complications prescribed in such situations:
- If signs of deterioration of immunity are determined: the temperature constantly rises to subfebrile parameters, the cold and viral diseases of the baby are experienced more than five times a year, inflammatory and fungal diseases in a chronic form, in humans, have HIV, congenital pathologies of immunity or oncological diseases.
- When blood diseases develop - aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis.
- For babies up to 6 months - with rahite, underweight, malformations.
In this case, antibiotics for acute respiratory viral infections in adults and especially antibiotics for acute respiratory viral infections in children are prescribed by a doctor. In such patients with acute respiratory disease, the doctor must monitor the condition of the body.
When are antibiotics prescribed?
The indications for the use of such drugs are:
- Angina bacterial - it is important to immediately exclude diphtheria, why take swabs from the nose and throat. With this disease, macrolides are used or penicillins.
- Laryngotracheitis, bronchiectasis, exacerbation of chronic bronchitis or acute bronchitis - used macrolides (Macropene). X-rays are sometimes required to rule out pneumonia.
- Purulent lymphadenitis - use of broad-spectrum antibiotics of the last generation, sometimes it is necessary to consult a surgeon or a hematologist.
- Otitis media In acute form, an otolaryngologist performs an otoscopy, after which he prescribes cephalosporins or macrolides.
- Pneumonia- after the condition has been confirmed by X-ray, semi-synthetic penicillins.
- Sinusitis, sinusitis, ethmoiditis - conduct x-rays and evaluate the clinical signs for diagnosis.
If a viral infection develops complications, then taking into account the age, severity of the disease, history, the doctor determines which antibiotics to drink. It may be such drugs:
- Penicillin row - if the patient does not have allergic reactions to penicillins, semi-synthetic penicillins are prescribed. This means Amoxicillin, Flemoxine Solutab. If a patient develops a severe resistant infection, then doctors prefer to prescribe so-called “protected penicillins” (amoxicillin +clavulanic acid): Augmentin, Amoxiclav, Ecoclav. These are first-line drugs for sore throat.
- Macrolides - as a rule, are used for mycoplasma, chlamydial pneumonia, as well as for infectious diseases of upper respiratory tract. This means Azithromycin(Hemomycin, Azitrox, Zetamax, Sumamed, Nitrolide and etc.). Means Macropene is the drug of choice for the treatment of bronchitis.
- Cephalosporin series means Cefixime (Pancef, Supraxand etc.), Cefuroxime axetil(Zinnat, Supero, Aksetin) and etc.
- Fluoroquinolones - these drugs are prescribed if the patient does not tolerate other antibiotics or if the resistance of bacteria to penicillin drugs is noted. This means Moxifloxacin (Pleilox, Avelox, Moximac), Levofloxacin(Floracid, Tavanic, Glevo and etc.).
For the treatment of children can not be used fluoroquinolones. These drugs are considered drugs "reserve", because they may be needed in adulthood for the treatment of infections that are resistant to other drugs.
It is very important that the prescription of antibiotics and the choice of what is best for the common cold is carried out by a doctor. The specialist should act in such a way as to provide the most effective assistance to the patient. In this case, the appointment should be such that it does not harm the person in the future.
Already, scientists have identified a very serious problem associated with antibiotics. The fact is that pharmacological companies do not take into account the fact that the resistance of pathogens to antibacterial agents is constantly growing, and present new products to users, which could remain in reserve for some time.
So, it is important to understand that antibiotics are indicated to be taken with a bacterial infection, whereas the origin of colds in most cases (up to 90%) is viral. Therefore, the use of antibiotics in this case is not only useless, but also harmful.
The question of whether antibiotics and antivirals can be taken at the same time is also inappropriate in this case, since such a combination exacerbates the overall load on the body.
It should be borne in mind that antibiotics have a pronounced negative effect. They inhibit kidney and liver function, worsen immunityprovoke allergic manifestations and dysbacteriosis. Therefore, the question of whether it is necessary and possible to drink such drugs should be treated very soberly.
Do not use antibacterial agents for the prevention. Some parents give children antibiotics for the common cold in order to prevent complications. But antibiotics for rhinitis in adults and children - this approach is completely wrong, as with other manifestations of the common cold. It is important to turn in time to a specialist who can identify the complications of the disease in a timely manner and only then prescribe such drugs. In case of a cold for children, initially it is necessary to take measures that are not related to the intake of synthetic drugs.
It is possible to determine whether antibiotics are effective by reducing the temperature. The effectiveness of antibiotic therapy proves that the temperature drops to 37-38 degrees, and the general condition improves. If such relief does not occur, the antibiotic must be replaced by another.
Evaluate the effect of the drug should be for three days. Only after this, the drug, in the absence of action, is replaced.
With frequent and uncontrolled use of antibacterial agents, resistance to them develops. Accordingly, each time a person will need stronger medicines or the use of two different means at once.
It is impossible to take antibiotics for the flu, as many do. Funds against influenza, which is a viral disease, the doctor prescribes, based on the condition of the patient. The question, what antibiotics to drink with the flu, arises only in case of a serious deterioration of the patient.