Staphylococcus - bacteria that can penetrate into any organ and substance of the body, including breast milk. If the analysis showed the presence of an infection in a nursing mother, it is necessary to have detailed information about the correct behavior in such a situation, without harming the newborn.
Features of the disease
Infection with staphylococcal infection occurs in various ways. Most often it is transmitted:
- by air
- by contact
- from mother to child.
Staphylococcus is conditionally pathogenic microorganism, as it surrounds a person everywhere. He can get into the body of a nursing woman in rooms with an insufficient level of sterility, after touching the carrier of the infection, using his personal belongings.
Not all women know where staphylococcus appears in milk. Injured skin, constant heat - an ideal environment for the development of infections. The bacterium penetrates into mother's milk due to the presence of numerous cracks in the nipples.
Sometimes staph and klebsiella are found simultaneously in breast milk. The second type of microorganism also refers to conditionally pathogenic, and with excessive reproduction leads to various undesirable consequences.
Important! The presence of staphylococcus in breast milk is not always a cause for serious concern. Much depends on the attendant circumstances, the type of bacteria, its quantity.
Staphylococcus aureus is found in nursing more often than other species, and is the most dangerous. It is distinguished by increased resistance to medical drugs, various types of disinfection.
In the body of an adult, it manifests itself as lesions of the skin, mucous membranes, lungs, and organs of the gastrointestinal tract.
In an infant, Staphylococcus aureus can cause:
- cough, runny nose with purulent discharges,
- the appearance of plaque in the mouth,
Another sign of the development of bacteria in the newborn is omphalitis - a lesion of the umbilical wound. In this case, hyperemia develops, extending to the region of the sternum.
Hemolytic staphylococcus is a common cause of the development of inflammation of internal organs and tissues. It is able to affect the upper respiratory tract, causing the appearance of plaque on the tonsils and purulent discharge from the nose. Often with this disease, the pathological process affects the endocardium, pleura and lungs. In the latter case, the lesion is manifested in the form of lack of air, blue lips.
Common signs of the development of staphylococcal infections in infants are increased body t up to 38 degrees, moodiness, loss of appetite, sleep disturbances, stool, stomatitis.
Consequences of infection
In the normal development of a child, staphylococcus in breast milk rarely causes dangerous consequences. Most of the remaining infections are susceptible to premature babies and babies with a weakened immune system.
Such babies often have frequent watery stools, swollen eyelids, purulent discharge from the eyes, and vesicles with turbid contents on the skin. The most serious consequences can be pneumonia, blood poisoning (sepsis).
A nursing mother has a high likelihood of dyspeptic disorders - abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, nausea.
Sometimes bacteria cause severe conditions in the form of:
- infectious mastitis,
- purulent sinusitis or tonsillitis,
Such cases require a mandatory detailed examination, followed by drug therapy. Staphylococci are characterized by increased resistance to traditional drugs, so self-treatment will not bring positive results.
How to determine the presence of bacteria in milk
To identify pathogenic microflora in a nursing mother will need to pass an analysis of breast milk for staphylococcus. To ensure that the research results are accurate, it is necessary to properly prepare for this procedure.
There are certain rules on how to pass breast milk on staphylococcus aureus.
Before collecting the required portion for analysis, you will need:
- wash with warm water and soap hands, nipples, breasts,
- skip the first few ml of milk,
- collect about 10 ml of fluid from each breast (in separate containers).
The collected milk should be transferred to specialists for analysis over 3 hours. The results of the study will be known in a few days. To identify the bacteria in the baby feces analysis is carried out.
Should I throw breastfeeding?
If there are problems with the breast, weaning does not always become mandatory. It is necessary to stop breastfeeding if a woman has purulent mastitis and a baby has a staphylococcal infection. In this case, the mother and child are given appropriate treatment.
If staphylococcus does not cause purulent inflammation of the mammary glands, breastfeeding can be continued. The benefits of natural nutrition will exceed the harmful effects of bacteria, since breast milk contains immunoglobulins that protect the infant from infections.
Preventing the development of a staph infection in lactating women consists of several steps. Traditionally it includes:
- regular hand and breast hygiene,
- timely treatment of wounds, nipple cracks,
- frequent change of bras,
- when using a breast pump - its careful processing.
During breastfeeding, restrictions are imposed on the use of fatty, sweet, spicy foods, flour. In addition to the deterioration of the composition of milk, such products create a favorable environment for reproduction and activation of pathogenic microflora.
Treatment of mother and baby
Like the symptoms, the treatment of staphylococcus depends on the degree of its concentration. Nursing mothers may be prescribed antibiotics (primarily for purulent mastitis).
For this purpose, apply Amoxicillin, Azithromycin, Clarithromycin. Topical treatment includes nipple treatment with Chlorfillipt.
If you continue to feed the child, it is advisable to use special linings that reduce pain, the risk of transmission to the newborn.
Additionally, during the course of treatment, vitamin complexes, drugs to strengthen the immune system and eliminate hormonal disorders are prescribed.
Probiotics and bacteriophages can be prescribed to the child - means for normalizing the intestinal microflora and reducing the number of multiplied bacteria. With the activation of staphylococcus antibiotics are used, permitted in infants.
When not massive growth of staphylococcus occurs in breast milk, newborn babies often feel great, because the infection is neutralized by antibodies present in the nutrient fluid.
Famous Dr. Evgeny Komarovsky encourages nursing mothers with the identified bacteria to remain calm. He recommends that you always focus on the well-being of the baby and do not forget that the best food for newborns is breast milk.
Get acquainted: Staphylococcus in all its glory
This microbe was called staphylococcus, starting from the Greek words "staphyli", which means "grapes", and "cocci", that is, "grains". Staphylococcus have the form of round grains, gathering in colonies, like bunches of grapes. There are 27 species in their family, but only four pathogens.
1. Staphylococcus aureus. In breast milk, it is found more often than other species.
2. Epidermal (causes sepsis and epidermis).
3. Saprophytic (leads to urethritis and cystitis).
4. Hemolytic (provokes purulent inflammation of the skin, sepsis and a number of other ailments).
Staphylococcus aureus is the most dangerous because it can cause the greatest number of diseases and affect the skin, mucous membranes, lungs, brain and bone marrow, and gastrointestinal organs. This type of germs is also dangerous because it has managed to adapt itself to all measures to combat it. So, there is a group of Staphylococcus aureus called methicillin-resistant. Its representatives are immune to penicillins and cephalosporins, oxacillins, methicillins. Their harmfulness lies in the fact that they are unusually tenacious, do not die in the sun, remain dry, can tolerate boiling temperatures of up to 150 degrees for 10 minutes, do not mind swimming in medical alcohol, and convert hydrogen peroxide into their food.
Where in the hospital takes staphylococcus
According to statistics, each of us accounts for several million bacteria. They populated all the niches of the environment. Staphylococcus is also omnipresent. He is in the air, in the water, in the ground, on the surfaces we touch. Moreover, he lives in us and on us. Therefore, it is impossible to completely get rid of it. Infection with staphylococcus can occur anywhere. In the hospital, it is found on poorly processed instruments, on the snow-white coats of medical staff, on any surfaces, just in the air. Of course, he is present on the body of women in labor and on their clothes. Nurses and nurses regularly sanitize, but no matter how careful it is, new staphs very quickly re-occupy the premises. The inspectors or the medical staff themselves bring them in; they arrive at the ward with food or things brought for the mother or for the baby. Catch staphylococcus in the following ways:
- through the toolkit
- with poorly processed food.
Panicking about this is not worth it, because these microbes do not always cause disease.
How staphylococci get into breast milk
Many people wonder: where does staphylococcus in breast milk come from if the woman herself is completely healthy? As we have already described, this germ is everywhere, even in those maternity hospitals where regular sanitation is carried out regularly. On the body of mummies, he also multiplies with pleasure. In order not to have it at all, a woman in labor must change clothes several times a day, and only wear pro-boiled and ironed clothes, and also bathe every day. In practice, it is difficult to implement. It is much easier to wash your chest and hands thoroughly before each feeding. Previously, maternity hospitals additionally required to wipe the nipples with a furatsilina solution before feeding. Especially carefully you need to handle the nipple, which formed cracks. In these cases, staphylococcus, sitting on the skin and clothing, easily fall into the wound and immediately begin to multiply there. Without treatment, a woman can develop a dangerous disease - infectious mastitis. Staphylococcus in breast milk appears precisely from these wounds and microbial-infected milk ducts. Another reason is the presence of this infection in the body of a pregnant woman left without treatment. In this case, the microbe enters the milk through the lymphatic vessels. Sometimes a woman does not even suspect that she has a staph infection in her body, which is so sluggish and asymptomatic.
For whom staph is dangerous
The microorganisms present in breast milk first enter the baby’s mouth and then into its gastrointestinal tract, but pathological conditions do not always occur. Mother's milk, being the richest source of vitamins, among other things, supplies the child with important antibodies that successfully fight against microbes, including staph. Therefore, most children's organisms do not react to the presence of these microbes. They can cause disease in such children:
- born with pathologies
- very weak, with low weight,
- receiving supplements from the first days of life.
Staphylococcus in infants: symptoms of damage to the internal organs and mucous membranes
A dangerous microbe can infect the mucous membranes of the infant. At the same time, the following signs appear:
- “Furred” mouth,
- runny nose with purulent discharge.
If staphylococcus has penetrated into the digestive tract of the baby, he has enterocolitis. His symptoms are:
- loose stools with mucus,
- refusal to eat, capriciousness,
- abdominal distention,
- increased anxiety
Most often in infants infected with staphylococcus, conjunctivitis is observed. Symptoms of the disease:
- sour eyes (waking up, the baby finds it difficult to open them),
- redness and swelling of the eyelids,
If such symptoms appear, you should consult a doctor, and not engage in self-diagnosis and treatment of folk methods in the form of eye washings, because the staphylococcus driven inside will develop further.
Signs of staphylococcal skin lesions
Various kinds of rash can also indicate staphylococcus in infants. Symptoms of skin lesions often indicate such illnesses:
1. Phlegmon. In this case, the crumbs temperature is high, there are reddened swelling on the skin, to the touch to which the child reacts very painfully.
2. Abscess. It is also accompanied by a rise in temperature, capriciousness, and refusal to eat. Pustules spread throughout the body. The skin around them becomes inflamed. When pressed from them flows yellow-green pus.
3. Bubbly. Starting with a few blistering rashes, which many parents consider to be a non-dangerous allergic reaction to diapers, this disease turns into sepsis without proper treatment. Signs of "dangerous" bubbles are common: the capriciousness of the child, fever, reluctance to eat.
4. Sepsis. This terrible disease often causes not staphylococcus in breast milk, but the infection of the umbilical wound by the medical staff or mother. Also in sepsis, other, milder diseases, already caused by staphylococcus in milk, can develop.
If you suspect a Staphylococcus a baby, the following tests are taken:
- nasopharyngeal culture,
- skin scraping
- blood test (from finger)
- bakposev feces,
- bakposev slime.
The analysis of breast milk for staphylococcus is also carried out, but its positive result is not decisive. The fact is that it is necessary to take an analysis in a 100% sterile environment, which is almost impossible to achieve in our laboratories.
Throwing or not throwing breastfeeding
A number of doctors insist that when staphylococcus is detected, breastfeeding should be stopped, the mother should be treated with antibiotics, and only when the titers are completely free of staphylococcus, continue to breastfeed the baby. Most physicians, including the famous pediatrician Komarovsky, do not share this opinion. Breast milk contains antibodies that are not found in any infant formula. They protect the child not only from staphylococcus, but also from other dangerous microbes. Therefore, to continue breastfeeding is necessary. Of course, a woman is obliged to carefully fulfill all the requirements of hygiene. Doctors recommend switching to artificial feeding only in especially severe cases, when a woman is diagnosed with serious diseases caused by staphylococcus.
Breastfeeding for infectious mastitis
This disease often affects women who have given birth for the first time, because they do not immediately know how to properly attach the baby to the breast and control the arrival of milk in the mammary gland. In the first case, wounds appear on the nipple, which immediately colonize staphylococcus. In the second case, the milk stagnates, lactostasis begins, the breast tissue becomes inflamed. If inflammation has begun and a staphylococcus is found in breast milk, the woman should not only not stop feeding, but, on the contrary, apply the baby to the breast more often than usual. In some cases, after feeding, additional pumping is required. Sometimes, according to the testimony of a woman, an incision is made on the chest so that the pus can get a release. At the same time, a course of therapy with antibiotics. Breastfeeding should be interrupted only if pus is released from the nipple along with milk. Then the breast is emptied with a breast pump, and after the disappearance of the pus, the lactation continues again.
Antibiotics against staphylococcus, especially golden, is not easy to pick up. In order not to be mistaken with the choice, it is necessary to make an antibiotic. Most doctors prescribe "Clarithromycin", "Lincomycin", "Azithromycin", "Roxithromycin", "Vancomycin", but these funds may not be suitable for getting rid of methicillin-resistant streptococci.
Good results are given by bacteriophage preparations that “work” with all groups of bacteria.
In the complex, doctors may prescribe probiotics and immunostimulants.
Ideal kills staphylococcus ordinary green leaf, so it must necessarily lubricate the nipples, if they have wounds.
This page contains the most popular posts and comments of our users on the topic "Staphylococcus epidermidis in breast milk". This will help you quickly get an answer to the question, you can also take part in the discussion.
Sowing Breast Milk for Sterility “Sowing Milk for Sterility”, also known as “milk bakposev”, aka “Bacteriological examination of breast milk” and so on. Insanely popular in the countries of the former CIS analysis. An insane amount of questions about him on the forum and in everyday practice. There is no number in vain for the spent nerves of mothers, drunk antibiotics and bacteriophages, injected ...
Girls who gave milk for analysis, help to understand. Today they took the results, that's what it says: “right-staphylococcus epidermidis В / ml 130 CFU Not mass growth, left-staphylococcus epidermidis В / ml 160 CFU Not mass growth.In the laboratory they said that milk was normal, but nothing was naturally explained. (I took the analysis because my daughter found dysbacteriosis and staphylococcus) How do I ...
I never cease to be amazed at how many people in the most different corners of the world have no idea about the animals living with them side by side. J. Darrell Guys, let's live together! A. HaitCocchi is an oval or spherical bacteria (the Greek word kokkos means “grain”). Hundreds of the most diverse cocci surround a person throughout his life, but no, ...
Staphylococcus Aid ceases to wonder how many people in the most different corners of the world have no idea about the animals living with them side by side. J. Darrell Guys, let's live together! A. HaitCocchi is an oval or spherical bacteria (the Greek word kokkos means “grain”). Hundreds of the most diverse cocci surround a person throughout his life, ...
Cocci are oval or spherical bacteria (the Greek word kokkos means “grain”). Hundreds of the most diverse cocci surround a person throughout his life, but perhaps there is no microbe better known than staphylococcus. The microbiological term staphylococcus was introduced into medical practice back in 1881. Under the microscope, it is clear that the cocci are collected in groups, ...
Cocci are oval or spherical bacteria (the Greek word kokkos means “grain”). Hundreds of the most diverse cocci surround a person throughout his life, but perhaps there is no microbe better known than staphylococcus. The microbiological term staphylococcus was introduced into medical practice back in 1881. Under the microscope, it is clear that the cocci are collected in groups, ...
Breast milk is the ideal food for a newborn. Milk contains vitamins and elements necessary for the full growth and development of the baby. Therefore, it is important for nursing mothers to take care of the quality of milk and periodically take an analysis. Indeed, in breast milk can be a variety of bacteria, from completely harmless to rather dangerous.
Staphylococcus often occurs in humans. It has the ability to quickly spread in the body with a weakened immunity and infect the internal organs and tissues. The fungus can be found on the skin and mucous membranes, in the intestines and breast milk.
Characteristic of bacteria
About the presence of bacteria in the milk will tell a medical analysis. In this case, staphylococcus does not always cause problems in health. With good immunity of a nursing mother, it is safe for an infant, since antibodies in breast milk simply block bactericidal substances.
But keep in mind that the woman's body is depleted after childbirth, and immunity, most often, weakened. Then the staphylococcus begins to multiply and poison the body with toxins. As a result, the risk of skin inflammation, blood infection (sepsis), pneumonia, meningitis and other organ damage increases. In this case, you must begin treatment.
Most often, staphylococci are safe and do not manifest in any way. However, with unfavorable microflora, they multiply, infect and poison the body with harmful substances and cause dangerous diseases, including thrush and E. coli. The development and reproduction of bacteria contributes to weak immunity, trauma and surgery, intestinal dysbiosis.
Consequences of Staphylococcus aureus
Sepsis (blood poisoning)
To get rid of the infection, a long and carefully selected treatment is required. Staphylococcus aureus is very stable and cannot be treated with alcohol or hydrogen peroxide. Staphylococcus treatment can only be prescribed by a doctor!
Epidermal staphylococcus (staphylococcus epidermidis) inhabits the skin. Emit dozens of varieties of these bacteria that do not harm humans. Such bacteria are found on the skin and enters the milk when it is decanted. A skin infection is not dangerous and does not cause serious diseases. And the presence of such bacteria in milk does not interfere with breastfeeding.
In case of milk stagnation and seals, the nursing mother must consult a doctor. If not treated properly, lactostasis will lead to serious diseases, one of which is mastitis.
Prevention and treatment
We remind you that only a doctor prescribes treatment! It is important that the medications taken are compatible with lactation and do not harm the baby. With such infections, antibiotics often help, which are contraindicated in breastfeeding.
To support microflora and destroy harmful bacteria, probiotics and plant-based antiseptics are prescribed to a nursing mother. Popular drugs are rotocan and chlorophyllipt. Solutions used for wiping the nipples for two to three weeks. Such tools are safe for babies and do not require the termination of breastfeeding.
To prevent contamination of milk, you should follow the recommendations for compliance with the rules of feeding and preventive measures:
- It is necessary to establish proper breastfeeding. Feed your baby on demand, not according to the regime. Put the baby in the right position, make sure that he grasps the nipple and the areola,
- Keep your nipples and breasts clean! Wash twice a day using only neutral liquid soap. Wipe your breasts with paper towels or napkins. Plain soap and towels irritate the nipples,
- If cracks or abrasions appear on the nipples, use special compresses, ointments and gels for the chest. What remedies for nipple cracks can be used during lactation, read here,
- For the prevention of cracks, use solutions of vitamins A and E. They increase the elasticity of the skin, prevent injuries and contribute to a speedy recovery.
- Use a comfortable soft underwear when breastfeeding, which will not rub and cut the bones in the nipples.
- Insert a special liner into the bra, which absorb excess fluid. Be sure to change the gaskets as wet!
- Regularly check the breast for seals and milk stagnation,
- Often the cause of infection are food. A nursing mother should carefully make up the diet. Remove sweets and flour products from the menu, as they create a favorable area for the growth and reproduction of bacteria. To make the right menu during lactation will help tips from the article "Food after childbirth."
Proper organization of breastfeeding baby and feeding the nursing mother will prevent staphylococcus in breast milk. Do not forget to monitor the well-being of the baby!
Often, the study found staphylococcus in breast milk of nursing mothers. It turns out that mother's milk is not always beneficial. If you suspect any violation in the process of feeding, you should contact a specialist. The analysis of breast milk for sterility will clarify the solution to the problem.
Description of the problem
In breast milk, there are various types of staphylococcus - microorganisms that are conditionally pathogenic in humans. Staphylococcus can be everywhere - in the air, on the skin, in products, in the internal organs of a person.
However, it does not make itself felt for a long time, but if favorable conditions have been created, the abundant dissemination of these microbes begins. This can lead to serious illnesses.
This microorganism begins to multiply in such cases as:
- reduced immunity
- catarrhal and any other infectious diseases,
- E. coli
- transferred operations.
With the spread and increase in the number of microbes, intoxication of the organism occurs. There are complications - pneumonia, meningitis, blood infection.
Staphylococcus aureus is the most dangerous type of germs found in breast milk.
- It can release harmful toxic substances that destroy healthy body cells. Causes purulent diseases.
- Reduces the body's defenses.
- It produces fast antibiotic resistance.
- Pathogenic microbes can be spread by airborne droplets. Infection can be in utero.
- The disease can begin several times.
Staphylococcus aureus causes certain disorders in the body:
- various purulent skin diseases (pustules, boils),
- disorders of the digestive system (nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain),
- inflammatory, infectious diseases of the nasopharynx (sore throat, otitis media, sinusitis),
- eye diseases (conjunctivitis).
If the epidermal staphylococcus was detected in the milk composition, it is necessary to retake the analysis. Before that, you need to follow all the hygienic rules, as this kind of bacteria could get from the upper layers of the skin. In addition, doctors allow a small amount of this type of staphylococcus in breast milk.
How to recognize staphylococcus
Contact comes from the external environment. On the nipples, especially in the first weeks of feeding, many cracks are formed, through which bacteria and enter breast milk. Accurately determine their presence will help only a special analysis.
The main symptoms of having staphylococcus in breast milk are:
- cracks appear on the nipples, which cause pain and discomfort,
- pulsating severe chest pain speaks of the development of the inflammatory process,
- purulent nipple discharge,
- If Staphylococcus aureus is observed in breast milk, an increase in temperature, weakness and loss of appetite may be added to the symptoms.
The child also has a loss of appetite, diarrhea, lack of weight gain.
Examining Breast Milk for Sterility
To get the right research result, you need to prepare. Breast milk for analysis is delivered to the laboratory immediately after collection.
To collect breast milk, you must follow certain rules.
- Milk from the right and left breast is collected in different containers.
- The container must be sterile, for which it must be boiled for several minutes. Jars can be bought at the pharmacy.
- Hands and nipples should be thoroughly washed and wiped with a clean towel.
- The first few mg of milk pour. The analysis is enough for 10 ml from each breast.
A complete analysis of breast milk is ready a week after delivery. This time is enough for planting bacteria and their maturation. After staphylococcus, especially golden staphylococcus, was discovered, a study of their resistance to various antibiotics is carried out. In parallel, it is possible to conduct an analysis of feces for the presence of staphylococcus in the body of a child.
Treatment of the disease
Even if pathogenic microorganisms were found, breastfeeding of the baby does not stop. When the analysis of breast milk is carried out, medications that are safe for the baby’s body are prescribed. Doctors forbid feeding in the presence of purulent mastitis.
- If these bacteria are detected, the nipples should be treated with antiseptics (chlorophyllipt, bacteriophage). Chlorophyllipt can be administered to the mother and inside.
- When feeding a baby, you should use special nipple pads that will reduce pain and the likelihood of transmitting germs to your baby.
- Antibiotics are prescribed. The doctor may advise you to stop breastfeeding at the time of treatment, but in most cases this is not required.
- The complex of vitamins and minerals.
- Drugs that increase immunity.
- Restoration of hormonal levels.
For the treatment of a child, probiotics are prescribed that help restore the intestinal sphere. In case of detection of staphylococcus in a child antibacterial therapy is carried out.
If you have warning signs, it is better to go to the hospital and give the milk for examination.
4 popular misconceptions
Detection of staphylococcus in breast milk always becomes a reason for prescribing treatment for both women and children. Doctors often recommend not breastfeeding for the duration of the illness, that is, until the staphylococcus test in breast milk is sterile.
The similar position is recognized by unjustified modern medicine. It is based on a number of misconceptions that so far have accompanied the diagnosis and treatment of this infection.
- Staphylococcus a symptom of the disease. According to the doctor of the highest category, head of the neonatal pathology department of the Children's Hospital named after Filatov Mikhail Kyshtymov, the detection of staphylococcus in breast milk can speak ... nothing at all. “In 80% of cases, the detection of bacteria becomes the result of an incorrect sampling,” comments Mikhail Vladimirovich. - Staphylococcus is present everywhere. It is not possible to create complete sterility for collection. He can get into the milk from the skin of the chest, palms, even from the air. ”
- Treat staphylococcus always. "If the mother does not have an inflammatory disease, and the child does not show any symptoms of the disease, treatment, and especially with the interruption of breastfeeding is not required," - says a specialist in lactation Natalia Razakhatskaya. Moreover, frequent microbiological studies on the composition of the microflora of breast milk are a feature and nonsense of our medicine. According to the candidate of medical sciences, a senior researcher at the Research Institute of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Oleg Stetsyuk, breast milk is not a sterile liquid. On the skin of the mammary glands, various bacteria are colonized in their ducts, including staphylococcus - this is the norm during lactation. According to international recommendations, microbiological sowing of breast milk is not advisable.
- Any type of infection is dangerous. “Sowing staphylococcus from mother's milk is not a reason for weaning and any treatment at all. Even the presence of Staphylococcus aureus does not require the use of antibiotic therapy, if the condition of the mother and child is normal, ”specifies Oleg Stetsyuk.
- Bacteria in the mother's milk cause severe illness in the child. “In clinical practice, there were no cases when staphylococcus from mother's milk caused serious illnesses of an infant,” commented the manager. Department of Neonatal Pathology of the Children's Hospital. N. Filatov, Mikhail Kyshtymov. - It can only serve as a stimulating factor in the presence of an additional source of infection against the background of a general decline in the immunity of the baby.
Infection with staphylococcus occurs in several ways.
- Drip-air. Through this “channel”, the infection most often spreads in maternity hospitals and hospitals. It is known that strains from medical institutions are particularly resistant to antibiotics, the most difficult to fight them. However, proper sanitization of the wards almost completely destroys the pathogen. To avoid the spread of bacteria, the wards and the postpartum ward should be regularly quartz, treated with a one percent bleach solution.
- Contact. The causative agent populates the skin when touching the skin (handshake), hygiene items (common towels), furniture in public places, railings. Avoiding contact with him is almost impossible. To reduce the concentration on the hands, it is enough to regularly treat them with soap and water.
- Intrauterine. In women who carry a staphylococcal infection, it is possible to have children with severe symptoms of the disease. The foci of infection are the carious cavities, the mucous membranes of the throat in chronic tonsillitis, the intestines in mothers suffering from chronic dysbiosis.
Therefore, the best prevention of staphylococcus during lactation is to take care of the state of the mammary glands and fight cracks. They, in turn, often causes improper attachment of the baby to the breast.
A high concentration of bacteria in milk and the presence of concomitant factors stimulate the development of diseases.
The probability of occurrence of the disease increases if the child:
- born prematurely, not gaining weight,
- sick, resulting in reduced immunity,
- receives, besides breast milk, water, a mixture.
Symptoms of staphylococcus in breast milk are determined by the focus of the inflammatory process in the body of the baby and the mother.
- Enterocolitis. Manifested by frequent, slimy and pasty stools of the baby, anxiety of the baby due to pain in the abdomen. Often accompanied by fever and vomiting.
- Pemphigus. The disease occurs in the form of inflammation of the skin of the child. Usually affects the lower abdomen, back, folds on the neck. They are covered with numerous bubbles with turbid liquid inside. The danger of pemphigus - in the likelihood of sepsis in the absence of proper treatment.
- Infectious conjunctivitis. It affects the eyes, causes pain, swelling of the eyelids. The characteristic signs of staphylococcal infection that caused conjunctivitis during breastfeeding are purulent discharge from the eyes, tearing. In the morning, the eyelids stick together, the baby cannot open them on its own.
- Abscess. In a child, abscesses can be multiple, covering the scalp, surface of the body, neck. They are ulcers surrounded by purple-red skin. On opening, yellow or green pus is released from them. There is a general weakness of the baby, fever. The mother has an abscess formed in the breast affected by staphylococcus aureus. It does not develop simultaneously. Abscess is preceded by lactostasis, transforming into mastitis. В период лактостаза при грудном вскармливании заболевание успешно лечится частыми прикладываниями ребенка к груди без дополнительной терапии.
- Флегмоны. Поражение подкожной клетчатки, проявляется повышением температуры тела крохи, выраженным недомоганием. The child experiences acute pain in places of accumulation of pus, his skin is painful, swollen, reddened, swollen.
- Sepsis. Most often develops due to infection of a weakened child through the umbilical wound from contact with the sick mother, the staff of the maternity hospital. It manifests itself rapidly, already in the first month of life. It begins with an acute inflammation of the focus of development of the disease, then there is a lesion of the whole organism: jaundice with a marked increase in the liver, multiple abscesses on the body, tachycardia, difficulty breathing.
These symptoms in a child's staphylococcus in breast milk require immediate treatment for medical help. Treatment of acute, serious diseases occurs exclusively in the hospital, as they represent a threat to the life of the baby. Unacceptable self-healing folk remedies. Inhibition of infection is provided only by combination therapy with the use of antibiotics, antimicrobial agents, and vitamins.
Breastfeeding with infection
Staphylococcus can cause serious illnesses, but in most cases its danger is exaggerated. Each doctor should individually approach the prescription of therapy and, moreover, recommend refusal from breastfeeding.
“There is no pathogenic microflora in breast milk,” says a doctor of the highest category, expert AKEV Yakov Yakovlev. - It contains only those bacteria that make up the healthy intestinal microflora. If the causative agent of the disease is found in milk, it means that it got there from the skin or ducts. But even in the child’s gut, it does not necessarily cause any disease. ”
Breast milk contains immunoglobulins and a whole range of substances that protect the baby's body from infections. Dangerous bacteria that get into it from the skin of the mother, are completely oppressed by the local intestinal microflora.
According to Jacob Yakovlev, in case of detection of staphylococcus in breast milk, treatment is not required in most cases:
- to treat the mother, if staphylococcus is found during seeding,
- treat the child if bacteria are detected in the milk,
- Sow on the microflora of milk, as there are no pathogenic bacteria.
Treatment is prescribed in the following situations.
- Infectious mastitis mother. Treatment of the affected breast involves maintaining breastfeeding with an increase in the number of attachments to it. According to WHO recommendations, staphylococcal mastitis is not a reason for interrupting breastfeeding. But it requires treatment with antibiotics, many of which are fully compatible with the lactation period.
- The clinical picture of staphylococcal infection in a child. The decision on temporary weaning is made individually, if there is a high concentration of bacteria in the milk. However, it is important to remember that milk itself is not a source of the disease, its cause lies in the factors that reduce the immunity of the baby.
- Modern medicine recommends guided by the child's well-being in maintaining breastfeeding when a staph infection is detected, - specifies the leading expert of the Federal Research Institute of Medical Problems of Health Formation of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation L.V. Abolyan. - Even if the mother has staphylococcus, there are cracks in the chest, but the baby feels good, you can continue to breastfeed.
Yuri Kopanev, Candidate of Medical Sciences, Pediatric Gastroenterologist, recommends conducting local maternal therapy without interrupting breastfeeding. “It is not necessary to treat the disease with antibiotics,” specifies Yuri Alexandrovich. - A good effect is provided by treating the mammary glands with plant antiseptics - “Chlorophyllipt” or “Rotocan” for two to three weeks. During this time, the wounds on the nipples will disappear, and with them the germs. ”
The reasons for the detection of staphylococcus in breast milk can be many: from the presence of lesions on the skin of the breast to the wrong sampling. Although in practice it is impossible to pass the analysis “correctly”, that is, under conditions of complete sterility. Therefore, to approach the issue of treatment of the disease should be balanced. Therapy is indicated to the mother when there are cracks in the skin of the mammary glands. And the child in the presence of a clear clinical picture of staph infection.
Distinctive features of Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus aureus is very common in breast milk. Why is this type of infection most dangerous? The fact is that these bacteria are quite resistant to external factors and only the enzyme coagulase can kill them. It causes the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus to fold.
The resilience of this infection helps it spread almost everywhere in various ways. Most people constantly carry bacterial colonies on themselves, from where they can be transferred to others, but only a person with weak immunity can get infected. Childbirth seriously beats the female immune system, so mothers in the postpartum period are at risk.
A few staph myths
What to do when maternal breastfeeding bacteria are found. If the analysis of breast milk for staphylococcus is positive, doctors often immediately prescribe treatment for both mother and baby.
Some experts advise to temporarily suspend breastfeeding until the infection is completely removed from the milk. These methods are not always justified and are based on outdated data on staphylococcal infections:
- if staph is detected, it will definitely lead to the development of the disease. Considering the fact that these bacteria can be located anywhere, and it is impossible to create sterile conditions when taking tests, pathogens can get into the test material from the hands, chest skin and even from the air,
- treatment of staphylococcus bacteria is necessary. This statement is true only in cases when, in addition to a positive laboratory test, a woman or a child additionally experiences some unpleasant sensations. If the inflammatory processes in the mother's body do not develop and the baby feels fine, there is no need to resort to medicines and stop putting the child to the breast. It must be remembered that breast milk is not sterilized, and, therefore, contains a number of bacteria that enter both from the body of the woman and from her skin. Accordingly, the baby receives them in micro doses daily and staphylococci are no exception.
- All kinds of infections are dangerous. Not always. Positive seeding on staphylococcus does not mean that you need to immediately take a course of antibiotics and other drugs. With the normal state of health of the mother and child, it is possible to do without drug therapy, even if bacteria of Staphylococcus aureus are detected.
- The presence of bacteria in breast milk will surely affect the baby negatively. Staple and healthy baby staphylococcus in breast milk will not cause serious problems. Another thing is if the child has lowered immunity and other infections are present in the body.
The presence of staphylococcus in breast milk is due to its penetration into the breasts from the affected organs or from the skin. Milk is not a favorable breeding ground for bacteria, so they just pour into its flow.
This method of spreading infections is characteristic of hospitals and maternity homes. Viruses that live in medical institutions are very difficult to treat, some do not give up even before antibiotics. To combat such phenomena, hospital wards quartz daily and undergo mandatory sanitization after discharge of patients. Such measures in most cases prevent the further spread of bacteria.
From the future mother-carrier, the infection can be transmitted to her fetus and the symptoms of the disease will be immediately identified in the newborn. Bacteria are concentrated in carious cavities, intestines in chronic dysbacteriosis, affected throat mucosa (chronic tonsillitis).
When breastfeeding staphylococcus enters the milk, most often from the skin. Cracks formed on the nipples are a comfortable and breeding place for bacteria.. There are all conditions: warm and humid. Self-control of the condition of the breasts and the treatment of cracks will help prevent the development of infection during lactation.
If preventive measures are not taken on time, the number of bacteria will steadily increase, and their concentration in milk will increase. Such a development will undoubtedly lead to serious diseases.
The risk of infection increases in children:
- not getting weight
- born prematurely
- having weakened immunity
- supplemented with milk mixtures.
How sterile is female milk?
Contrary to popular belief about the sterility of human milk, recent studies of scientists have proved that the presence of certain microorganisms is quite natural and normal for this biological fluid.
They begin to actively multiply and provoke the disease only under certain conditions, such as:
- improper or inadequate nutrition
- reduction of the overall resistance of the organism to infections, due to a serious disease,
- violation of intestinal absorption,
- weakness of the body by heavy physical or mental labor,
- stressful situations, significant moral experiences.
What kind of “insidious pests” are most often found by laboratory technicians? Among them come across both almost harmless and dangerous enemies:
- E. coli
- yeast-like mushrooms,
- epidermal staphylococcus,
- Staphylococcus aureus.
What is the harm from germs from breast milk?
Infection with Staphylococcus aureus of the golden type can cause a lot of suffering to both the mother and her baby. This pest is armed with a microcapsule that helps it to easily penetrate into living tissues, while maintaining its structure, as well as several types of poisons that destroy healthy cells.
Staphylococcus aureus that has got into the baby’s stomach with breast milk can cause the following diseases in it:
- purulent inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes, such as multiple furunculosis,
- respiratory diseases (sinusitis, pleurisy, tonsillitis),
- inflammation of the middle and inner ear (otitis),
- disorder of digestive function (abdominal pain, flatulence, frequent diarrhea, repeated vomiting).
In a nursing woman, a staph infection that has got into the mammary gland can cause purulent mastitis. With this disease, breastfeeding is absolutely impossible, and the child has to be transferred to artificial feeding.
Infection through milk with Klebsiella, yeast-like mushrooms or Escherichia coli also does not give pleasure to the baby. As a result of fermentation of lactose by them, a large amount of gas is released, which is why the crumb is tormented by frequent loose stools and abdominal distention.
How does the infection enter the milk?
Typically, pathogenic bacteria enter the ducts of the mammary gland, and then into the milk, through the cracks of the nipple epidermis. Cracks appear when:
- too sharp movement take out the breast from the mouth of the baby,
- the mother feeds the baby in an uncomfortable position
- mother allows the baby to suck long breasts after he ate,
- nipples were not prepared for nursing during pregnancy.
A detailed microbiological analysis of breast milk is useful not only because it can show the presence or absence of pathogens, but also allows us to determine their resistance to certain antibiotics for the identified microorganisms. All lactating mothers without exception do not need to examine breast milk for sterility. The doctor sends only those women who have a suspicion of mastitis and whose children suffer from gastrointestinal disorders or skin diseases for analysis of breast milk sterility.
If the mother has severe pain and induration in the breast, hyperemia and swelling of the gland, high fever is a sure sign of mastitis. Most likely, the analysis will detect her staph.
How to collect milk for analysis?
To collect milk for analysis, follow these guidelines:
- Prepare for the analysis of breast milk two glass or plastic disposable jars - for the left and right breast should be a separate container.
- Boil glass jars with lids for 10-12 minutes; plastic enough to wash with warm water.
- Mark on each of the containers for the left and right breast.
- Wash your hands and breasts with warm water and baby soap.
- The first milk portion is not suitable for sowing, so first strain 10 ml from each breast into the sink and rinse the breast again.
- Dry your breasts with a clean cloth.
- After that, strain 10 to 15 ml of each gland into prepared jars and close them with lids.
- Very quickly take or take the jars of milk to the laboratory. Analysis of breast milk should be done no later than 3 hours after pumping.
A woman needs to be extremely careful when collecting milk for planting. It should not get bacteria from the skin or clothing.
In the laboratory, milk samples are sown on nutrient soil, where microorganisms grow rapidly. Simultaneously with the determination of the type and number of bacteria, determine their resistance to antibiotics.
Squeezing milk for analysis
What could be the result of the analysis?
The result of the study is usually ready in a week. With this result, the woman goes to the doctor, who, if necessary, prescribes a course of treatment for her.
Options for the development of events:
- Sowing did not reveal the growth of microorganisms, that is, there are practically signs of sterility of breast milk. This is the rarest case of result.
- The growth of epidermal staphylococcus or enterococcus in small quantities was found. This result occurs most frequently and suggests that there is no danger to the health of the mother and child, since these representatives of the microflora may exist in a healthy human body. You can safely continue to breastfeed.
- A nursing mother needs serious treatment if she found Staphylococcus aureus, yeast-like mushrooms, or Klebsiella when sown in breast milk.
Yevgeny Komarovsky, in his video, says that if a staphylococcus is found in breast milk, but the woman has no symptoms of mastitis, then there is no need to stop breastfeeding. In this case, the woman is prescribed treatment with antiseptic drugs that are not prohibited during lactation, and the baby is given a course of lacto-and bifidobacteria to prevent digestive disorders.
Milk still needs to be decanted regularly so that it does not disappear, as well as to prevent complications. When mastitis is prescribed antibiotic therapy. If the baby has managed to get staphylococcus from mom, then he is also given appropriate treatment.