Such a disease as psoriasis has become quite widespread, and in frequent cases it is treated in dermatology clinics. This disease is observed in 3% of people, regardless of their gender, racial characteristics and place of residence. Most often, the disease is observed in people aged 25 years, but 10% of patients are children.
Psoriasis is a chronic disease of the skin, resulting in scaly deprive, covering the skin and causing itching, and biochemical, vascular and immunological changes occur in the epidermis, as well as in organs and systems of the human body. Psoriasis, the treatment of which must begin at the first sign of it, is not an infection. However, diseases tend to cause psychological discomfort in humans.
Psoriasis can be inherited, but it is not one of the hereditary diseases, as a person can be affected by a disease during life due to provoking factors, which are:
1. External. These include various damage to the skin, the effects of drugs and toxic substances on the skin, as well as various skin diseases that damage the epidermis.
2. Internal. In this group of factors include various infectious lesions of the body, stressful situations, as well as hereditary diseases.
Thus, psoriasis, the treatment of which can last a long period of time, develops due to the rapid division of skin cells, disorders of the immune system, stress, and is often inherited.
We can say that psoriasis symptoms, treatment has, depending on the forms of its development. So, scaly deprive can spread to the joints, at the same time they begin to ache, the skin becomes bright red, itching appears. One of the first symptoms of this disease is the formation of red spots on the knees and elbows, which can spread to the limbs, face, head, and nails, and begin to flake off, cracks and blisters appear on the skin. People with psoriasis have impaired functions of the nervous system, metabolism, digestive system and kidneys.
Psoriasis, as a chronic disease, can both worsen and subside, depending on the time of year. Thus, at a progressive stage of development, this disease is characterized by the appearance of a new rash, which is rapidly spreading. At the stationary stage, new eruptions are not formed, and in the regression stage, which usually falls on the winter season, the disease is exacerbated.
For many years, physicians have been trying to find a cure for psoriasis. However, today there are no such drugs that treat this disease, it is only possible to control the development and course of the disease, as well as to improve the condition of patients. It can be said that the new in the treatment of psoriasis is a set of methods of therapeutic effects, so that the disease can disappear, but only for a certain period of time, while the quality of life of sick people after treatment becomes improved.
It should be noted that methods of treatment of the disease should be chosen individually, depending on the age category, gender, state of mental and physical health, degree of damage to the scaly deprive, as well as the duration of the disease. It is necessary to pay attention to factors that can provoke the manifestation of the disease, such as allergies or skin damage. Also, doctors resort to psychotherapy.
Thus, psoriasis treatment involves one that leads to remission, which would persist for a long time period.
In all cases of psoriasis treatment, drug therapy, phototherapy, external therapy and alternative methods of treating the disease are used.
Features of the structure of the skin
The skin of the face and body is one of the largest organs in area, reaching 2 square meters or more (depending on gender, age and a person’s constitution). The main function of the skin is the protection of internal organs and blood vessels from adverse external factors.
We know that in men, the skin is thicker and tougher, and in women it is thinner and more vulnerable.
Do you know that the skin is a complex multi-layer construction that can regenerate on its own? Its structure consists of three layers:
- the top one - the epidermis - is renewed 1 time in 28-45 days, changes its color under the influence of ultraviolet,
- the middle one - the dermis - is responsible for the nerve conduction, the production of sebum and the growth of hair, wrinkles originate from here, when the elasticity of the skin decreases,
- deep - subcutaneous fatty tissue - provides thermoregulation, supplies nutrients and moisture to the cells of the upper layers.
Skin diseases can affect only one or several layers at once, disrupting their normal functioning. However, violations in the work of the gastrointestinal tract and others also have a negative effect on the face and body.
How to figure out how dangerous the disease, and not confuse it with other diseases?
The main causes of skin diseases
Did you know that in modern medicine you can find more than 120 types of skin diseases?
Each of them manifests itself differently and can be caused by different external or internal causes.
To quickly get rid of black spots, acne and pimples, as well as to rejuvenate the skin of the face, we recommend that you familiarize yourself with this effective means .
A negative impact on the skin from the outside occurs as a result of:
- direct contact with parasites (mites, etc.),
- exposure to aggressive chemicals (alkali, etc.),
- sharp temperature difference (overcooling of legs, etc.),
- prolonged exposure (sunburn),
- the effects of bacteria trapped in the middle and deep layers of the skin (leprosy, etc.).
The internal causes of the development of diseases of the skin include:
- depression and stress, affecting the work of the nervous and hormonal systems,
- slowing or accelerating metabolic processes,
- dysfunctions of the gastrointestinal tract organs (constipation, dysbacteriosis, etc.),
- hormonal disorders.
Skin diseases are divided into several groups, respectively, caused their reasons.
General classification of skin ailments
Depending on the type of pathogen, pathology of the skin are:
- fungal (mycoses, versicolor, etc.), they quickly turn into a chronic stage, and the affected skin areas increase in size,
- infectious (pyoderma, etc.) caused by harmful microorganisms, there is an appearance of rash or scarring on the skin,
- viral (herpes, papilloma), such diseases require specially selected treatment, in most cases it is not possible to completely defeat the virus, however, you can prevent unwanted relapses and alleviate the patient’s condition,
- pustular (streptoderma, etc.) -
- allergic (dermatitis, eczema, etc.) - caused by a specific allergen that is irritating,
- purulent (abscess, furuncle) - when an inflammation center is formed under the skin, gradually developing into an ulcer,
- oncological (melanomas, cancer) - develop in the form of a malignant tumor, constitute a serious threat to the patient’s life,
- parasitic (scabies, pediculosis) - caused by certain types of parasites.
Did you know that some viruses and infections manifest themselves only in the midst of another illness or when immunity is weakened? In other words, herpes can be a consequence of a cold, and seborrhea (dandruff) can appear in late winter - early spring, when the body's defenses are running out.
A furuncle can appear as a result of squeezing a normal pimple with dirty hands when an infection gets under the skin.
Characteristic signs of skin diseases
Healthy skin of the face and body has a uniform color, smooth and even, slightly moist surface. Any abnormality — dryness and flaking, a change in the original color, the appearance of hot spots of inflammation, acne, ulcers, small rashes, itching, burning, and the appearance of discomfort or pain — should immediately alert.
However, for the diagnosis of a single symptom is not enough. It is necessary to study the full picture.
The most common symptoms of skin diseases are:
- local redness (red spots, irritation),
- the appearance of dark spots, scars, scars,
- open sores and ulcers that do not heal for a long time,
- neoplasms (acne, subcutaneous nodules, ulcers, small rash, etc.),
- excretion of ichor or pus,
- dryness and flaking
- burning of varying severity
- itching that may intensify or subside,
- pain when lightly pressing on the affected area,
- change in the original skin tone (dullness, cyanosis),
- the appearance of small edema.
Itching and burning are characteristic symptoms of dermatitis and urticaria. Small bubbles are formed on the skin, filled with clear liquid. When such a bubble bursts, the liquid gets on healthy skin, causing an intolerable itch.
Itching can also occur with allergies, herpes, demodicosis and other diseases.
Redness of the skin is a sign indicating the development of inflammation. Hyperemia occurs in the affected areas, may be accompanied by desquamation and painful sensations. This symptom is observed in contact dermatitis, eczema.
Dry skin and the formation of cracks may indicate xerodermia or eczema. However, if such a phenomenon is observed on the skin of the feet, this is evidence of hyperkeratosis or psoriasis.
If you doubt the correctness of the self-established diagnosis, do not be lazy to go to the doctor, get tested or make tests.
Remember that not all skin diseases can be cured to the end. However, an accurate diagnosis facilitates the selection of finished products and folk remedies that can significantly improve the patient’s condition and bring the skin and order.
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What are skin diseases in humans?
Skin diseases can be of different origin. All of them are distinguished by their appearance, symptoms and the cause of the formation.
The most common ones are:
- Fungi. Fungal diseases of the skin in humans, as a rule, cause fungi-parasites, whose origin is plant. Such diseases usually affect: the nail plate, hair, skin. Fungal diseases are contagious, which means they can easily be transmitted from one organism to another.
- Ulcers. The provocateurs of pustular skin diseases are staphylococci and streptococci. Also the cause of the formation of ulcers can be infections as a consequence of cooling and mental trauma. Pustular skin diseases are divided into two main types: superficial pyoderma and deep pyoderma.
- Skin diseases that are caused by animal parasites. Such diseases include: pediculosis and scabies. The first is simply cured. The causative agent of scabies, as a rule, is a scabby itch or mite. At the first symptoms of scabies, it is necessary to begin treatment, because otherwise it can lead to the formation of eczema.
- Lishai Lishai have several species. The most common of them are: lichen pink, flat red lichen, shingles, lichen color. Each species has its own characteristics and causes of education.
- Diseases of the skin glands. The most common types of these diseases are: seborrhea and acne. If seborrhea affects the head, then hair loss begins. Acne most often occurs at a young age, most often on the basis of seborrhea.
Dermatitis - a rash in the form of bubbles, peeling, discomfort, itching, burning, and so on. The reasons may be different, depending on which there are several types of dermatitis, for example, infectious, allergic, atopic, food, etc.
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Photos and names of skin diseases in humans
Now it is worth considering a photo of the main diseases of the skin, and below you can get acquainted with their symptoms, causes and description.
The most common skin diseases:
- Acne vulgaris
Acne is called a disease of the sebaceous glands, which is characterized by blockage and the formation of inflammation of the follicles. In the people, this skin disease is often called acne.
The main causes of acne are:
- Hormonal failure, which causes the sebaceous glands to malfunction.
- Hereditary factor.
- Dysbacteriosis of the intestinal system.
- Contamination of the skin and its poor cleansing.
Symptoms of acne formation:
- Formation of blackheads in the form of blackheads or white eels.
- Formation of deep acne: papules and pustules.
- Damage to the chest, face, back and shoulders.
- The formation of redness and tuberosities.
- The appearance of purulent acne.
Dermatitis is any inflammation of the skin. The disease of dermatitis has several types. The most common types of dermatitis: contact, diaper, seborrheic, atopic.
Despite this, dermatitis has some major causes:
- Physical effects on the skin in the form of friction, pressure.
- Exposure to heat and sunlight on the skin.
- The use of chemicals and cosmetics that people use.
- The impact of the external environment.
Symptoms of skin dermatitis:
- The appearance of burning and itching.
- Blistering of the skin.
- The presence of puffiness.
- The formation of redness at the sites of inflammation.
- The formation of scales and dry crusts.
Here you can learn in detail about the features and treatment of inflammation, as well as see photos of dermatitis.
Skin disease such as lichen, includes a number of several varieties. Each of these species is distinguished by its pathogen, type of rash, localization and infectiousness.
Detailed information about the types of this disease and photo depriving a person can be found on the website.
The main causes of lichen on the skin of a person:
- Viral and fungal microflora.
- Weakened immunity.
- Infectious diseases.
Symptoms of disease depriving:
- The formation of colored and scaly spots.
- The formation of spots on any part of the body, depending on the type of disease.
- Some species are accompanied by fever.
Answers to the question about the treatment of herpes on the body can be found here.
Herpes can also be different in appearance and location, however, all types of herpes have common causes:
- Weak immunity (most often after suffering a disease).
- Metabolic disorders in the body.
- The presence of bad habits (drinking large amounts of alcohol).
- The presence of acute respiratory diseases.
- Improper functioning of the gastrointestinal tract.
Main symptoms of herpes:
- The formation of bubbles that are filled with clear liquid.
- Inflammation and redness at the formation site.
- Bubbles burst after 3 days.
- Formation of a dry yellow crust on burst bubbles.
Eczema is a recurring inflammation of the upper layer of the skin that can be caused by a variety of causes, ranging from diseases to eating foods that cause an allergic reaction.
The main reasons for the formation of eczema on the skin:
- Heredity and genetic predisposition.
- Incorrect work of the body's immune system.
- Hormonal disruptions in the body.
- The presence of mycosis.
- The presence of diseases of the liver and stomach.
Symptoms of eczema:
- The formation of weeping bubbles on the skin.
- The formation of serous ulcers.
- The presence of itching appears rarely.
- Severe erythema.
- Swelling of tissues.
Acne vulgaris called chronic disease of the skin, which manifests itself as purulent-inflammatory changes in the sebaceous glands. Most often, acne vulgaris appears on the face, back and chest.
The main factors that are provocateurs for the appearance of acne vulgaris:
- Genetic predisposition.
- The onset of puberty.
- Disturbed menstrual function.
- Diseases that were transferred earlier.
- Factors related to professional activity.
The main symptoms of acne vulgaris:
- Education comedones.
- The rebirth of comedones in papules or pustules.
- Localization on the back, face and neck.
- Scar formation after inflammation.
Bedsores called the development process, which is characterized by death, affecting soft tissue to the bone itself due to external stimuli and malnutrition of tissues.
The main causes of pressure sores:
- Any external mechanical stimuli (plaster cast, denture).
- Tissue Disorders
- Urinary and fecal incontinence.
- Sedentary lifestyle of the patient.
- Protein deficiency.
- Dry skin.
- Poor patient care.
Symptoms of pressure sores:
- The formation of redness.
- Puffiness of the skin.
- Exfoliation of the upper layers of the skin.
- Bubble formation.
- Formation of deep ulcers after blistering.
The main causes of scabies in humans - presence of scabies on the skin, which is almost impossible to see with the naked eye.
Symptoms of scabies:
- The presence of itching on the affected skin.
- The formation of rashes due to severe scratching and skin infection. other infections.
- Bubble formation.
- The formation of strips on the skin - scabies.
Here you can learn more about how to treat scabies.
This disease is accompanied by compaction and keratinization of human skin. With the development of keratosis, pain and bleeding wounds may appear.
The main causes of keratosis:
- Genetic predisposition.
- External chemical irritants.
- Weak immune system of the body.
- Already transferred infectious diseases.
- Changes in age (most often the disease manifests itself in people over 50 years old).
Symptoms of keratosis:
- Roughness and unevenness of the skin at the first stage of the disease.
- Formation of hard brown or red spots.
- Peeling of the skin near the formations.
- The presence of itching.
The disease can form on any part of the skin. A sharp increase in the number of moles on the body should already be alarming.
Main symptoms of carcinoma:
- Formation of pearl or shiny cones.
- The formation of ulcers.
- The formation of pink convex spots.
Hemangioma is called a benign lesion on the skin due to a vascular defect, which is most often seen in children. Externally, the disease is a hilly spot of red.
Causes of hemangioma:
- Medication in pregnancy.
- Hormonal failure in the body of a pregnant woman.
- Transferred infectious diseases during pregnancy.
Symptoms of hemangioma:
- At the initial stage, the formation of a faint spot in the face or neck of the child.
- Redness spots.
- The stain becomes burgundy.
Melanoma is another sign of skin cancer.. At the first signs of melanoma, you should consult a doctor.
Main symptoms of melanoma:
- A mole has different shades.
- Roughness and unevenness of the neoplasm.
- Birthmark more than 5 mm in diameter.
- Swollen moles.
- Moles start to hurt and itch.
- From moles stand out lymph and blood.
Papilloma called a tumor of a benign nature, which appears on the surface of the skin in the form of a small growth.
Causes of papilloma:
- Weakened immunity.
- Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Drinking large amounts of alcohol.
- The presence of chronic diseases.
The main symptoms of papilloma:
- The formation of pink or bodily growth.
- The size of education can reach several centimeters.
- Formation of common warts.
Ringworm called the group of fungal diseases of the skin. As a rule, the disease occurs in 20% of the inhabitants of the planet. The main cause of dermatomycosis in humans is the ingress of fungi on the skin or mucous area of a person.
Symptoms of ringworm:
- The formation of spots of red hue, which are covered with scales.
- The presence of itching.
- Loss and breaking of hair.
- Nail exfoliation.
As a rule, skin diseases are treated in the following ways:
- Diet and proper diet, the use of essential vitamins.
- Drug treatment to boost the immune system.
- Use of antibiotics if the skin disease has taken a severe form.
- External treatment with ointments and creams.
Here you can read more about how to treat the fungus on the legs.
the expert who answered the question
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General characteristics of the disease
Translated from the Greek language, dermographism is referred to as “letter on the skin” or “skin schedule”. People suffering from this pathology of epidermal tissues, daily observe on the body a variety of different patterns, which sometimes resemble inscriptions and drawings. The nature of their occurrence lies in the fact that sensitive skin turns red and is taken in strips after interacting with solid objects of the environment. Tight clothes, pressure from the folds of the blanket, the usual stroking of the skin, can lead to swelling, redness or the appearance of multiple white edema of irregular shape.
According to the type of skin reaction, acute dermographism and chronic are distinguished. The first type of disease is characterized by an increased degree of sensitivity of the epidermis. In the case of mechanical effects on the skin, not only its upper layer is inflamed, but also deeper tissues. Edema from touching a hard object may not take place over several days, and the inflammatory process begins to develop so extensively that it affects other areas of the skin that have not been injured. Chronic dermographism of red or white etiology does not occur so aggressively, and is limited to local irritation of the epidermis directly at the point of contact of the skin and the subject from the environment.
Species classification of dermographism
This dermatological disease is divided into types based on what is the clinical picture of its course at all stages of manifestation. Dermographism is classified as follows:
- White. The appearance of white stripes and patterns after mechanical action on the skin is considered to be a normal reaction in people with a hypersensitive surface of epidermal tissues. Puffiness of the skin with a pronounced white tint is formed after even slight pressure and holding a hand or any hard, sharp object with a finger.
- Red. This type of dermographism is formed after a stronger mechanical effect on the patient's skin. This reaction of the body suggests violations of the vasomotor reaction of the peripheral nervous system. Red marks appear on the skin 15 seconds after contact. In the chronic form of the disease, they persist for about 1-2 hours. In the case of an acute type of dermographism, the red stripes on the body may not go from 1 to 3 days.
- Urtikarny. The most common type of dermographism. It accounts for about 15% of all dermatological diseases. In addition to the characteristic red spots and stripes, a small urticar rash forms on irritated skin, which itches and causes physical discomfort.
- Hydropic. This type of disease is found in medical practice less often, and is a kind of individual reaction of the skin. At its manifestation epidermal tissues do not acquire any characteristic color, and in places of contact oblong edema in the form of a roller is formed. The height of the swelling - from 1 to 3 mm, and the width of 2-3 cm. They appear with a slow reaction - 10-15 minutes after touching the skin, and disappear after a few hours. In this case, the patient does not experience any tactile discomfort.
Types of urticaria
Traces of mechanical urticaria are somewhat reminiscent of inscriptions, so many people do not immediately recognize this disease in the “signs”.
Mechanical urticaria can be different and have different causes. Main types:
- Red The cause is seborrheic dermatitis. After touching the skin there are red stripes.
- Cholinergic. Stains remain after exposure to cold.
- White After the mechanical impact there are not red, but white stripes.
- Family. It is inherited.
Another classification divides the urticaria depending on the cause of the disease:
- Dermatographic. Appears after mechanical impact, for example, pressing with household items, clothing. Accompanied by redness, burning. Lasts from 30 minutes to several days.
- Solar. Changes occur after exposure to infrared and ultraviolet studies.
- Aqua. Rarely encountered. The cause is the ingress of water to the skin, regardless of its temperature.
- Thermal / cold. Edema and redness occur under the influence of a certain temperature, even after taking hot or cold drinks.
- Papular Appears after an insect bite. It is dangerous if allergies and swelling appeared in the throat area, there is a risk of suffocation.
- Cholinergic. Appears due to increased sweating during stress.
Mechanical urticaria appears suddenly, it will not even immediately be clear what was the cause. There are a group of factors that activate pathological processes.
- metabolic disorders and thyroid function,
- infectious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract,
- genetic predisposition
- mechanical effects
- physical overvoltage
- emotional stress,
- the release of histamine mast cells on the skin, which causes swelling.
The reason may be any failure in the human body: a decrease in immunity, long-term chronic diseases, wearing tight clothes.
Most of all, doctors are inclined to believe that stress is the main cause. Diseases of the internal organs are less affected.
Pathological skin reactions can be triggered by medication: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics, codeine, morphine, X-ray stress, iodine. Failure can occur after a blood transfusion.
Not always dermatographic urticaria is a separate disease. It may be a symptom of a more serious problem.
Mechanical urticaria may indicate a more serious problem in the body
The main manifestation is red or white traces, swelling after mechanical or temperature exposure. Inflammation appears on any part of the skin, except for the hair of the head and genitals. The latter rarely occurs, and large areas of skin are also rarely affected.
If you hold a sharp object on the skin of a healthy person - a white stripe appears, which disappears over time. A man with a mechanical urticaria has a red, inflamed scar, a white one in the middle.
Redness appears a few minutes after mechanical exposure and disappears after a few minutes. In severe form of dermography, traces can last for several days, months or even years. With proper treatment, discomfort and redness disappear after a few days.
- burning and itching
- increased symptoms at elevated ambient temperatures
- general weakness.
Symptoms can appear slowly and immediately. In the first case, the scars remain for several days and appear a few hours after prolonged exposure, in the second - after a slight pressure on the skin, the symptoms disappear after a couple of hours.
The body temperature rises rarely, usually the person feels general malaise, headache, chills, and aches.
When the above symptoms appear, you should contact the therapist, dermatologist, allergist, immunologist.
For statement of the diagnosis it is enough visual survey and skin test. The doctor acts on the skin surface with a blunt object and waits for a reaction. When mechanical urticaria immediately appears white trace resembling a scar. To identify cholinergic dermographism on the skin spend a piece of ice. Solar urticaria is detected by irradiation with waves of different lengths.
The doctor's actions are determined on the basis of the patient's complaints. Additionally, the doctor may prescribe a test for immunity, for thyroid hormones, complete blood count and culture for the intestinal flora.
By itself, mechanical urticaria is not lethal, but the disease can cause tremendous discomfort to the patient.
The mild form of mechanical urticaria does not require treatment. Symptoms leave a person within a few hours. Medication need only with serious symptoms that affect the quality of life.
Treatment of mechanical urticaria usually gives poor results. The main goal of therapy is to eliminate the manifestations of urticaria and discomfort. It is much more effective to identify the cause and get rid of it.
Obsessive manifestations will help eliminate:
- antiallergic drugs
- histamine receptors,
- leukotriene receptor antagonists.
During the reception of the bathroom need to abandon the hard washcloths, aggressive detergents.
How to give first aid? First, it is necessary to eliminate the causes - directly mechanical action. Further, it is recommended to take an antihistamine or glucocorticosteroid and, if there is no allergy to cold, put an ice cube out of water or chamomile decoction. You can make a compress out of a warm chamomile decoction.
If the form of the disease is severe and the patient begins to weaken, you must immediately call an ambulance. There is a risk of anaphylactic shock or angioedema.
Types of skin diseases
There are a lot of causes that cause skin unhealthy - they can be either external, which implies a traumatic effect of the environment, or internal, when problems of the immune and endocrine systems, the gastrointestinal tract, etc. affect the skin.
Each layer of the skin is subject to specific diseases. So, it is possible to refer scabies and psoriasis to the pathologies of the epidermis, furunculosis and hydradenitis to the pathologies of the dermis, and cellulite and lipoma to the pathologies of the subcutaneous fat. However, some painful conditions, such as burns, can affect all layers of the skin at once.
Skin pathologies can be divided into infectious and non-infectious. But this division is not always true: for example, seborrheic dermatitis, is caused by a fungus that lives on the surface of the epidermis in healthy people, but does not manifest itself without disturbing the immunity. In addition, infections often join already at the height of the pathological process: patients with psoriasis often develop purulent ulcers, which are a consequence of bacterial skin lesions.
Predisposition to certain skin ailments can be inherited - many patients note that problems such as juvenile acne in children and their parents manifest in a similar way.
Of particular importance in dermatology are chronic skin diseases. Unlike acute infectious processes, they accompany a person for long periods of life and require consistent therapy. More often, they develop under the influence of various internal factors: from parasitic invasion to stress.
Statistically, the most common group of skin diseases that become the reason for going to the doctor is dermatosis and dermatitis, diseases of a non-infectious nature, accompanied by itching, scaling, and discoloration of the skin. Similar diseases are observed both in children and in adults with allergies and immunodeficiencies.
Signs of skin diseases: how to distinguish one from another
Every adult can suspect skin disease in himself or in a child. Indeed, in normal body covers have a uniform color, moderate humidity and a smooth surface. Violation of any of these conditions, as well as the appearance of unpleasant sensations - itching or pain - is cause for alarm. And even before the visit to the doctor, I want to find out how dangerous this condition is to health and whether it is worth observing any special security measures in order not to aggravate the situation and not infect anyone around.
Diseases from the group of dermatitis and dermatosis, which also includes psoriasis, are not infectious, but can significantly worsen the physical and psychological state of a person, therefore, at the first signs of illness it is necessary to appear to a dermatologist.
- Atopic dermatitis is a pathology of an allergic nature, which usually appears in children in the first year of life.The disease is manifested by itching and various rashes on the face and neck, on the scalp and in the natural skin folds - armpits, in the elbow and knee pits, in the groin, etc. The disease can occur in both mild and severe form, which causes serious suffering to the baby. In the treatment of atopic dermatitis, an integrated approach is important: cleansing the body, normalizing digestion, diet therapy, excluding provoking factors from both the diet and the external environment, external therapy to eliminate symptoms on the skin.
- Allergic dermatitis, unlike atopic, often occurs in adults as a reaction to a food (food allergy) or contact (contact allergy) irritant. Food allergies manifest, as a rule, within 24 hours from the moment one or another product was eaten causing an allergic reaction. Localization of an allergic rash can be individual, but usually the rash appears in the same places, with the same intensity and area of the rash. In case of contact allergies, the inflammatory reaction and changes in the skin are observed only in that part of the body that has been in direct contact with the allergen: for example, when reacting to hair dye, redness, itching and swelling occur on the head, and in case of intolerance of certain metals — on the neck, wears a chain, or in the abdomen area, which is in contact with the belt buckle. A key factor in the treatment of allergic dermatitis is the identification and elimination of the allergen, as well as local therapy - to eliminate the itch, inflammatory reaction, to protect against infection and restore damaged skin.
- Seborrheic dermatitis is a consequence of excessive secretion of sebum, which is accompanied by active reproduction in the epidermis of the fungus of the genus Malassezia. The disease develops in areas of the body rich in sebaceous glands - this is the scalp, nasolabial triangle, ear region, the sternum and navel, the back section between the shoulder blades, armpits. With seborrheic dermatitis, small whitish scales form on the skin surface, which are easily peeled off, exposing the slightly inflamed surface. Therapy for seborrheic dermatitis should be aimed primarily at eliminating the cause (of the fungus of the scalp), as well as at restoring the damaged skin structure in order to reduce excess flaking.
- Eczema is a chronic, recurring skin disorder, accompanied by inflammation, rash and burning sensation. It occurs on symmetrical areas of the body and flexor surfaces of the joints. The disease is caused by disorders in the immune system that can be inherited from generation to generation. A distinctive feature of eczema is the irregular nature of the rash: first, inflammation appears on the skin, after which it becomes covered with small bubbles that, when emptied, form a moist wound surface. Over time, erosion on the skin dries out and becomes covered with crusts, after which a period of remission begins. The disease can worsen from year to year, and the final cure, even with proper treatment, may never come.
- Neurodermatitis is the result of two pathological processes at once: an allergic reaction and a “breakdown” in the work of the vegetative nervous system. The key symptom of the disease is pronounced itching of the affected areas of the body, which interferes with the normal life and sleep of the patient. There is a limited and diffuse form of neurodermatitis - depending on the number and area of the involved areas. The skin becomes dry, inflamed and rough, and even after successful treatment in the affected area, pigmented spots can be seen.
It is no coincidence that psoriasis is separated into a separate group — it is one of the most severe chronic skin diseases, which is characterized by an unpredictable course and a hazy mechanism of occurrence. This disease occurs in people regardless of their age, gender, social status and lifestyle, although it is noted that it occurs more often against the background of severe stress. Psoriatic plaques appear on the elbows and knees, scalp, soles and palms, and the outer surfaces of the joints. Markings range in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters and often merge into single spots. Psoriasis plaques have a scaly structure, and when they separate flakes, the skin under them shines and may bleed. The disease can affect not only the skin, but also the nails and joints, causing psoriatic arthritis.
Active zinc (zinc pyrithione): interesting studies
According to the latest scientific research, one of the most effective non-hormonal agents of local action are preparations based on active zinc (or zinc pyrithione) - such as “Zinocap” of the Russian company “Otisipharm”. Zinc is an organic and natural medicine for the skin - because its concentration in healthy human skin is about 20% of the total content in the body, and the lack of this valuable metal is accompanied by various skin lesions and impaired wound healing. Drugs with active zinc (zinc pyrithione) have a whole complex of specific properties (anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal), help reduce skin itch, promote the production of ceramides (lipids) of the skin, which leads to the restoration of its barrier function. Studies have shown that active zinc has comparable efficacy with hormonal drugs and, at the same time, a good safety profile. It is practically not absorbed from the skin surface and therefore does not have an irritating and damaging effect. In addition to zinc pyrithione, “Zinocap” also contains d-panthenol, which prevents skin from losing water, helps to restore the intercellular structures of the skin and speeds healing.
The drug "Tsinokap" is presented in pharmacies in the form of a cream and an aerosol, which is convenient to apply to hard-to-reach areas of the body (such as the scalp).
Depending on the prevalence, such a manifestation is:
- generalized is itchy skin all over the body,
- focal - a person can clearly indicate the localization of a similar sensation.
Types of a symptom for the reasons of its formation:
- dermatological - is characterized by damage to the skin that can occur on the background of scabies, urticaria or insect bites,
- systemic - is one of the signs of liver, gastrointestinal, kidney or thyroid gland ailments,
- neuropathic - often formed due to damage to the central or peripheral nervous system,
- psychogenic - develops such skin itching on the nerve soil.
Quite often, this manifestation is of a mixed nature, in which it can be difficult to identify the sources of this disorder.
It is also worth highlighting several specific types of itchy skin:
- reflex - appears in overly suspicious or emotional people at the mention of any irritating factor,
- high-rise - begins to be expressed when raised to a height
- senile - more than half of people over the age of 70 experience this sensation,
- aqua - occurs on the background of the contact of the skin with water.
Since in the overwhelming majority of cases the itching of the skin is caused by the course of one or another ailment, in addition to the main symptom, other specific signs of skin lesions may be observed. These clinical manifestations include:
- the appearance of red spots - often reddening have a clearly defined border. Often, these lesions rise above the skin and have bubbles. With some pathological processes there is a tendency to merge several reddened zones,
- peeling of the skin, while scales can bring quite intense discomfort,
- burning sensation
- the occurrence of wounds and scratches due to the constant scratching of the problem areas,
- the appearance of characteristic rashes,
- the formation of crusts - they appear at the site of rupture of bubbles or ulcers.
Very often, this symptom is a symptom of liver disease, but there is a list of other clinical manifestations that indicate the defeat of this organ:
- increased gas formation,
- upset stool, which can be expressed in diarrhea or constipation, as well as their alternation,
- change in urine hue (it darkens) and feces (they discolor),
- the skin and mucous membranes become yellow. It is this symptom that leads to the appearance of pruritus of varying severity. In such cases, there is itching without rash,
- bitter taste in the mouth,
- general malaise.
If the occurrence of such a problem was due to physiological reasons, in particular, in pregnant women, then additional signs can be considered:
- violation or complete lack of sleep,
- depressed mood
- physical and emotional discomfort.
It is worth noting that all the above manifestations are only the main symptoms that may be followed by itchy skin. Symptomatology is individual. In rare cases, in addition to the main feature, other external expressions may not be observed, for example, in cases of blood diseases or mental disorders.
There are no specific preventive measures against the appearance of itchy skin on the legs, hands, head and body. To avoid the appearance of such a symptom, you must:
- completely abandon the addictions
- follow the rules of personal hygiene,
- take medication only as prescribed by a clinician and with strict adherence to the daily rate,
- carefully select substances for washing and cleaning, because very often they cause allergies,
- to enrich the body with vitamins and to strengthen the immune system,
- provide sufficient humidity in the room,
- avoid prolonged overheating of the skin,
- several times a year to undergo a full medical examination.
In general, itching of the skin is favorable prognosis, but subject to compliance with all preventive and therapeutic recommendations. Significantly worsen the course of a disease, accompanied by such a symptom, can self-treatment with folk remedies, without consulting with doctors.
Symptoms of skin diseases
Symptoms that characterize skin diseases can be very different. Among the main emit the following types.
It is physiological and pathological. The first may appear when a person is bitten by an insect. As for the second, it is considered a symptom of various skin-type ailments, which include: scabies, psoriasis, eczema. It is also very often that itching is observed in people suffering from neurosis.
Edema and visible redness
The manifestation of the corresponding symptoms can be seen with allergies. If the edema has spread to the subcutaneous tissue, then it is called Quincke. When it appears on the neck of a person or on the face, it can lead to compression of the airways. In general, these symptoms suggest that the body is fully prepared to develop various allergic reactions.
A rash is a change drastically formed on the skin. They are almost always accompanied by itching and a slight reddening of the cover. The rash is a specific reaction of the skin to an external stimulus.
Physicians consider this physiological process normal. However, if the corresponding symptom crosses the permissible limits, then attention should be paid to it. So, peeling of the skin is often observed in the winter, because low humidity is fixed in heated rooms.