Thyroid and menstruation


Hypothyroidism and menses, their relationship and interaction were investigated by scientists of the 19th century. They proved the necessity of changes in the flow of menstruation in the diagnosis of thyroid pathologies.

Hypothyroidism and menses are two interdependent processes. Any deterioration of the organs of the endocrine system leads to changes in the performance of their tasks by the reproductive systems.

Signs of hypothyroidism

Reduced functioning of the gland, inactive hormones in the body lead to hypothyroidism. Deficiency of hormones disrupts thyroid function, reduces the production of thyroxin T3 and triiodothyronine T4, affects menstrual cycles.

Hormonal trace elements perform important duties:

  1. Fill the ovaries with the necessary hormonal nutrition.
  2. Control the cyclicality (repeatability) of processes.
  3. Regulate all metabolic processes between cells.

Hormones are involved in the blood production process. It is blood that is an integral and main part of menstrual cycles. Blood passes through a permanent replacement, leaving the body and the production of new.

A sufficient amount of hormones contributes to the renewal of tissues and organs of the reproductive system. In the body of a woman matures cell. The normal duration of the cycle is the repetition of the release of blood in 21-35 days. If hormonal disruption occurs, cyclic jumps occur. The top coat of the mucous walls of the uterus is updated more slowly or with delay.

Problems with the work of the glands cause delayed onset of menses. There are no exact quantified figures calculated in days. It all depends on the condition and stage of hypothyroidism. In some patients it is 23 days, in others the delay reaches 6-12 months.

In case of thyroid disease, the work of the ovaries slows down, therefore the whole process of interrelation of hypothyroidism and monthly cycles can be explained by the following changes:

  • the lack and inactivity of the gland leads to a slow functioning of the ovaries,
  • follicle is made with big problems and obstacles,
  • the growth of sexual cell formations becomes slow or, in general, does not occur.

The right amount of hormones T3 and T4, produced by the thyroid gland, is required to produce active components by the ovaries. The deficiency leads to changes in the endometrium of the uterus. The consequence of this is the delay of menstruation, their scarcity and, most unpleasantly, the loss of the cycle.

Types of deviations from the norm of monthly cycles

Inactivity of the thyroid gland can affect changes in the quality of the menstrual cycles.

There are several changes in the course:

  • increasing the amount of blood released
  • increase in duration
  • weakening in the allocation of blood (hypomenstrual),
  • hypomenorrhea. Decreasing the amount of outgoing blood
  • oligomenorrhea. Monthly duration is reduced to 1 day,
  • Oppenmenorrhea. The increase in the time interval between the beginning of the month to 9 weeks. Spaniomenorrhea. Cycles are observed only 2-5 times per year
  • amenorrhea. Complete cessation of the menstrual cycle
  • severe bleeding. The rarest deviation.

Doctors describe cases from practice when all types of deviations are combined. Mixed forms appear combining the signs of several deviations from the norms.

The menstrual cycle passes without ovulation. This pathology leads to infertility. Fertilization becomes impossible.

Hypothyroidism and the monthly cycle during puberty

Endocrinologists pay attention to the problems of the thyroid gland in the formation of the reproductive organs. In girls at puberty, hypothyroidism can cause uterine bleeding.

Physiological imperfection of the internal organs leads to various pathologies of adult life:

  • amenorrhea,
  • lack of ovulation processes
  • poor readiness to conceive and bear a fetus,
  • infertility.

When diagnosing problems and diseases of the thyroid gland:

  1. The monthly cycle becomes irregular.
  2. After the first menstruation for a long time there is no cyclicity, recurrence. Permanent failures occur.
  3. Monthly pass with pain.
  4. The uterus is positioned incorrectly.
  5. Often there are inflammation of the ovaries.
  6. The nervous system is excitable and poorly controlled.

Doctors recommend during puberty for any deviations in the functioning of the thyroid gland, to undergo a complete examination of the health of the reproductive systems. Diagnosis will allow you to find the causes of improper course of monthly cycles.

There are several pathologies with similar symptoms:

  1. Pain in the lower abdomen.
  2. Omission of the kidneys.
  3. Anemia and low blood hemoglobin.

Disorders in the endocrine system is one of the pathologies characterized by similar symptoms. Timely diagnosis will help avoid the consequences that in adulthood will no longer be corrected.

What caused the influence of the thyroid gland on the reproductive system?

The largest hormone-producing organ produces substances called thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). How the thyroid affects menstruation is determined by their tasks. These components are:

  • Ensure the functioning of the ovaries for the production of FSH, LH, estrogen, progesterone, as well as the cyclical processes in the organs
  • They regulate lipid, protein, carbohydrate, and mineral metabolic processes, which also support the production of sex hormones.

The influence of the thyroid gland on the female reproductive system

Thyroid hormones and menses are also related to the fact that these substances are involved in the production of blood by the body. But it is a significant part of the menstrual flow, because of which the body needs its mandatory replacement.

The result of the formation of a sufficient amount of thyroid hormones is the regular renewal of the reproductive system, the maturation of the egg every 21-35 days, and the replacement of the upper level of the uterine lining.

Thyroid hormones and cycle length

The noticeable change that the unhealthy thyroid gland brings to the reproductive system is the delayed menstruation. Violations of her work may have a different character.

If the body is not able to produce the required amount of active substances, it inhibits the work of the ovaries. The follicle secretion becomes difficult, then the maturation of the female germ cell slows down, and in some cycles it does not occur at all.

The hormonal imbalance caused by the insufficiency of the thyroid functions is aggravated by the fact that the ovaries produce less active ingredients. All this hinders the development of the endometrium of the uterus. Menstrual mucus as a result becomes noticeably poorer.

Hormonal disturbances also respond to well-being before critical days, as well as on sensations during them. Menstruation becomes painful, and many other signs of PMS get worse.

We recommend reading the article about the peculiarities of menstruation while taking birth control pills. You will learn about the principle of action of contraceptives, the nature of menstruation in their use, as well as drugs prescribed by doctors.

What diagnosis is more likely to delay?

What diseases of the thyroid gland cause delayed menstruation:

Delayed menstruation with hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism. Actually, this is its lack of function. In addition to a long waiting for menstruation, a woman discovers a decrease in the volume of discharge and its duration, but an increase in the time intervals between critical days. The development of the disease can lead to the cessation of menstruation. And if they go, then rarely, with variable ("a lot yesterday, today a little") secretions, pain, but they are not preceded by ovulation,

  • Thyroiditis. These are inflammations of the thyroid gland, becoming frequent precursors of hypothyroidism. Delays are one of the characteristic signs of malaise. Another symptom is non-menstrual bleeding,
  • Tumors. The atypical cells formed in the gland tissues spread, interfering with its work. The amount of hormones decreases, which leads to disruption of ovarian activity. Thyroid gland with neoplasm and menstruation makes rare visitors. The gap between them can be up to 90 days,
  • Diffuse toxic goiter, in which the body experiences intoxication from an excess of thyroid hormones. The first signs are a disturbance of nervous reactions, and as a result, delays,
  • Hyperthyroidism. This is an excess production of thyroid hormones by the gland, usually leading to a shortening of the cycle. But in some cases, the violation may have the nature of a delay. Despite an excessive amount of thyroxin and triiodothyronine, too active thyroid and scanty menses are a frequent combination.
  • How to detect problems with thyroid?

    If a woman has lost a cycle due to unexplained at first glance reasons, the doctor will recommend her to check the thyroid gland. Efficiency and violations of its work are detected, in particular, by analysis of the hormone TSH. It is produced by the pituitary gland, but the amount of the substance depends on the thyroid function. Increasing TSH means a mess in her work.

    It is also necessary to check the volume in the blood of thyroxine and triiodothyronine. The first question for women is: when to do it? Analyzes for thyroid hormones in menstruation can be taken without fear of getting incorrect results. In addition to T4 and T3, studies on antibodies to thyroperoxidase, thyroglobulin and the TSH receptor are likely to be needed. They also spend on any segment of the cycle.

    Menstruation after treatment

    Instant recovery of menstrual function after thyroid surgery is not worth waiting for. In addition to hormonal upheaval, the body suffered and nervous, and the state of the central nervous system in the cycle also has not the last meaning. And because monthly after removal of the thyroid gland may have the following features:

    • Irregularity This is more often expressed in delays, but it is also likely that premature arrival of critical days
    • The scarcity and short duration of discharge. Endometrium due to hormone deficiency at the highest point of development thickens to a minimum. Accordingly, by the time of rejection, its width is small, so 2-3 days may be enough for updating,
    • Absence in a number of ovulation cycles. This symptom is caused by a deficiency of T4 and T3, which means a lack of the number of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones.

    We advise you to read the article about the causes of frequent menstruation. You will learn about the possible hormonal failure in the body, the effects on the menstrual cycle of foreign bodies, tumors and other gynecological diseases.

    Why there is no menstruation after removal of thyroid gland

    In some diseases, the thyroid gland is removed completely. The most common cause is a malignant tumor or another malaise threatening to cause it. Often there is a consequence of this method of treatment, as the removal of the thyroid gland, no monthly.

    Depriving the body of the ability to naturally obtain the necessary hormones can lead to gynecological diseases. Many of them are also characterized by delays, so you need to look for the cause in the reproductive sphere.

    After surgery, as a rule, prescribe drugs designed to replace the missing T4 and T3. Lack of menstruation may be caused by improperly selected dosage. The doctor should correct it.

    Disturbance of the menstrual function can sometimes be unrelated to the indisposition of the organs directly involved in the process. But this is certainly an abnormal situation that can help detect problems of an endocrine nature, if you don’t give up on it and go to the doctor right away.

    How do thyroid medication “thyroxin” and menses interact? The thyroid gland is one of the smallest, but at the same time necessary organs, and the disruption of its work disintegrates the work of everything.

    Vitamin complex "AEVIT" and monthly. Most gynecologists recommend their patients to take. women’s spheres, since an excess of vitamin E in the body always causes a failure in the production of hormones in the thyroid gland.

    First of all, it is the thyroid gland and adrenal glands. . Monthly become more abundant, often with clots (some compare them with pieces of the liver).

    Thyroxine and menses: can there be a delay, how are they going. . Thyroid and menstruation. Please note: if you have a question for an obstetrician / gynecologist, ask him in the consultation section with a doctor.

    Menstruation in case of cancer, which change both with damage to the reproductive organs, and if the tumor appears on the thyroid gland, makes it possible to feel trouble.

    As a result, not only the reproductive system, but also the thyroid gland, the central nervous system, is disturbed in the body. . If you have anemia on the background of blood loss from heavy periods, then iron containing drugs you only.

    Communication thyroid and reproductive system of the female body

    The organ for the production of hormones in the female body produces substances such as thyroxin and triiodothyronine. These substances perform the following tasks:

    • ensure proper functioning of the ovaries,
    • create a cycle of all processes in the body,
    • are involved in the regulation of all metabolic processes in the body.

    In addition to the above factors, these substances are involved in the production of blood in the body. And blood is a constant thing during menstruation, so it requires constant replacement.

    If these hormones are in the female body in sufficient quantities, then there is a regular update of the reproductive system. And this contributes to the fact that after 21–35 days the egg cell in the woman’s body matures and the upper level of the uterine mucosa is replaced. If there are not enough hormones, then cycle jumps can be observed.

    The effect of thyroid hormones on the length of the menstrual cycle

    If there are any problems with the thyroid gland, then menstruation occurs with a significant delay. There are no established rules regarding the delay; for some, it may be several days, while others reach a period of six months, a year.

    Due to the inability of the thyroid gland to produce the required amount of hormones, the ovaries slow down. The follicle begins to stand out with great difficulty, and the growth of the sex cell slows down, and in some cycles it is absent.

    Since iron does not produce the right amount of hormones, the ovaries are simply not able to create the required number of active ingredients. For these reasons, the endometrium of the uterus does not develop, and this is characterized by the absence or scarcity of menstruation.

    In addition, an insufficient amount of hormones in the body increases the pain of menstruation and increases the symptoms of PMS.

    Thyroid disorders have a negative effect on ovarian function.

    What diseases of the thyroid gland can lead to a delay of the monthly cycle

    There are several diseases of the thyroid gland in which the probability of a cycle delay increases:

    • Hypothyroidism. This disease occurs due to insufficient functioning of the gland, the lack of the necessary amount of hormones. With this disease, there are cycle delays and an increase in its period, the discharge becomes quite scarce. If you do not seek help from a professional, then the discharge may stop, and this will lead to a lack of opportunities to become pregnant and have a baby. The discharge is very painful, ovulation is absent.
    • Thyroiditis. This is an inflammatory process in the thyroid gland that can turn into hypothyroidism. The disease manifests itself in cycle delays, as well as non-menstrual bleeding.
    • Tumors. This disease is characterized by the formation of atypical cells in the gland, which, when distributed, interfere with its normal functioning. Manifested by a decrease in the number of hormones in the body, and as a consequence of the deterioration of the ovaries. With this disease, the discharge stops almost completely or the cycle increases significantly and can be about 90 days.
    • Diffuse toxic goiter. This disease is characterized by an excessive amount of hormones secreted. The woman is constantly under stress, excessive vulnerability, delay.
    • Hyperthyroidism. This disease is characterized by an excess amount of hormones secreted, which leads to a reduction in the cycle.

    Each of these diseases is serious enough and requires immediate medical attention. Otherwise, problems with the conception of a child may arise later.

    Any suspicion of malfunction of the gland is the reason for the visit to the doctor

    How to understand that there are disorders in the thyroid gland

    Without the intervention of medicine to identify violations in the body that forms hormones, is unrealistic.

    If there are any changes in the cycle, then it is necessary to consult a doctor. They immediately send women to take tests for the hormone TSH. This hormone is produced by the pituitary gland, but it is the thyroid that regulates its amount in the body. If analyzes have shown that the hormone TSH is exceeded, then this is a sign of problems with this gland.

    It should be noted that it is possible to take this analysis, regardless of the period of development of the egg (it is allowed to take an analysis with monthly excretions).

    Восстановление менструального цикла после лечения щитовидной железы

    It is worth noting that the normalization of all processes in the body after drug treatment is quite a long process and you should not expect a momentary recovery. Since the body undergoes a shake-up due to the improper functioning of the body that secretes hormones, the monthly discharge after a few months of treatment will be characterized as follows:

    • Irregular discharge. These can be both delays and premature onset of discharge.
    • Small volumes and short period. Allocations can last only one or two days, besides they are very scarce.
    • Lack of ovulation. This problem most often occurs after the treatment of diseases associated with a deficiency in the body of certain hormones.

    If you follow all the advice and prescriptions of the attending physician, then all processes are normalized within two weeks, maximum of a month. But if the recommendations of the doctor are not followed, normalization of the processes may take up to six months.

    After recovery, it will take several weeks before your period becomes regular.

    Because of that, after the removal of the thyroid gland, the menstrual cycle is stopped.

    Late access to a doctor with the problems of malfunctioning of the thyroid gland or the formation of malignant tumors in it can lead to its complete removal. And as a result of this and the termination of the monthly discharge.

    Due to the fact that the body is not able to naturally engage in the production of hormones, various gynecological diseases may appear. Most of these diseases are also characterized by delayed secretions.

    Most often, after surgical removal of an organ that produces hormones, drugs are prescribed that should replace hormones missing in the body. If the use of these hormones is not observed normalization of secretions, then the wrong dosage was prescribed, and you need to go to the doctor again to change it.

    As you can see, the body that produces hormones and the monthly discharge is directly related and if the former is violated, there are problems with the latter. In order not to bring into your life a chain of various diseases, you need to carefully monitor the manifestations of various diseases. If you timely replace the manifestation of diseases, they can be cured very quickly and easily. It is important not to bring the body to a state where it is simply impossible to do without surgical intervention.

    You should not disregard your health, because it is fraught with irreparable consequences - infertility.

    Thyroid gland and its functions

    In the neck is an organ hidden by cartilage and consisting of two lobes and an isthmus. This is the thyroid gland. Its shape is similar to the letter H, its weight in an adult reaches 25 g, length - up to 4 cm, width - up to 2 cm, thickness - up to 1.5 cm.

    The main functions of the thyroid are the storage of iodine and the synthesis of two iodine-containing hormones - triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and thyrocalcitonin.

    Hormone thyroxin

    Each of these hormones plays an important role in the body of a woman.

    Thyroxin affects the following processes:

    • speeds up the metabolism
    • normalizes the heart,
    • stabilizes thermodynamic systems
    • affects the formation and operation of the central nervous system,
    • affects the thickness of the genital mucosa.

    Normally, from 9 to 19 pmol / l is found in the free state in the blood.

    Thyrocalcitonin hormone

    This biologically active substance is involved in the metabolism of calcium-phosphorus metabolism and is not directly related to the menstrual cycle. A change in its content is, among other things, a symptom of cancer.

    Thyroid and monthly

    Thyroid disease

    Many thyroid diseases are associated with pathological changes in hormone levels. Therefore, thyroid and ovaries are interrelated. Special attention is paid to the following diseases:

    1. Hypothyroidismis associated with insufficient hormones. There is a primary disorder associated with a malfunction of the thyroid gland, and secondary, which resulted in injuries, infections and inflammation. At primary, a decrease in thyroxin and triiodothyronine is observed. The content of thyroid-stimulating hormone produced by the pituitary gland is increased. A secondary disorder is characterized by a decrease in triiodothyronine.
    2. Hyperthyroidismor thyrotoxicosis is characterized by increased hormone production. The disease is accompanied by an increased content of thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Under the influence of hormones, the metabolic processes are accelerated. The primary form associated with the thyroid lesion, secondary, characterized by impaired pituitary, and tertiary, caused by the pathology of the hypothalamus. The disease manifests itself clearly, hidden, in conjunction with renal, cardiovascular pathologies.
    3. Thyroiditis. Pathology of the inflammatory nature. Is acute, subacute, chronic. Thyroiditis leads to an increase in the size of the thyroid gland, its reduction or does not lead to its change. Patients complain of shortness of breath. Suspected thyroiditis causes pallor, slowness of movement, deterioration of hair.
    4. Crayfish. The first sign of a disease may be the appearance of a small seal. The most common form is called papillary cancer, it is found in 80% of cases. Follicular is observed in 10% of patients, can give metastases. The most dangerous form is called the medullary, it appears from the cells that produce thyrocalcitonin.
    5. Diffuse toxic goiter. A number of factors lead to the disease: craniocerebral injuries, psychological traumas, infections. Goiter, feeling of a lump in the throat, shortness of breath, swelling of the legs, trembling of the extremities, tachycardia appear. In the development of the disease there are three degrees. At the same time there is a loss of weight, disturbances in the work of the liver, heart, in some cases, vision is lost.


    Many are interested in whether the thyroid can affect the monthly? Studies have shown that hypothyroidism causes significant irregularities in the menstrual cycle.

    • irregularity
    • decrease in the volume of blood released
    • reduction in the duration of bleeding up to one day
    • lack of ovulation
    • the increase in the time interval between bleeding sometimes up to two months.

    In some patients, all these changes are manifested separately, in others - together. Sometimes there is a complete absence of bleeding. Less common are increased blood excretion.

    The reduction in bleeding is associated with minimal thickening of the endometrium, which leads to rapid renewal.

    Hypothyroidism is associated with anovulatory character. The peculiarity of such a cycle is the presence of regular periods, but ovulation does not occur.

    Hormonal insufficiency at sexual age causes uterine bleeding. In many girls, the cycle is established several years after the onset of menstruation, accompanied by severe pain.


    The disease affects all systems of the human body, including the sexual system. Menstrual flow is accompanied by severe pain, scarce. In this case, the woman is experiencing weakness, severe pain in the head. Sometimes there is a risk of loss of consciousness.

    Hyperthyroidism severely leads to the disappearance of bleeding.

    This pathology is characterized by a delay in the onset of bleeding for up to several weeks. There is a scarcity of discharge.

    In severe forms, there may be bleeding in the uterus. Violations of menstruation at the later stages turn into their complete absence and, as a result, sterility.

    Diagnosis and treatment

    To confirm the pathology is usually carried out ultrasound of the thyroid gland, tests for hormones. If there are suspicions of malignant tumors, a CT scan is performed.

    Scintigraphy of the thyroid is prescribed using radioactive iodine. The study allows to clarify the functions and structure.

    Therapy depends on the type of disease. The use of iodine-containing products is shown, hormone therapy is carried out. For tumors, diffuse goiter, surgery is performed.

    Monthly after treatment

    You should not expect that immediately after the operation or upon completion of drug treatment and removal of the main symptoms, the menstrual cycle will be restored.

    It is noted that in many cases, bleeding have features:

    • scarcity
    • irregularity
    • short duration
    • lack of ovulation.

    The work of many organs is seriously affected by the thyroid gland, and menstruation is no exception. An important role is played by thyroid hormones thyroxin and triiodothyronine.

    In case of violation of the content of these substances, the periods become scarce, rare, painful. The manifestation of these symptoms requires timely treatment.

    The place of the thyroid gland in the human body

    The thyroid is an organ located in the cervical zone and developing from two lobes. Iron resembles the letter "H", its weight in adults is from 12 to 25 g, the dimensions have the following parameters:

    • length - up to 4 cm
    • width - up to 2 cm
    • thickness - up to 1.5 cm.

    The main purpose of the thyroid organ is to store iodine and produce iodine-containing hormones called triiodothyronine (TK), thyroxin (T4) and thyrocalcitonin.

    The hormone thyroxin ensures a good distribution of substances and the correct activity of the heart muscle, normalizes the systems of thermodynamics, favorably affects the activity of the central nervous system, and also affects the thickness of the mucous membrane of the genitals.

    The norm in the free state is in the range from 9 to 19 pmol / l.


    This hormone affects:

    • activity of the central nervous system,
    • myocardial state,
    • menstruation,
    • metabolism.

    According to the designated functions, the effect of triiodothyronine on the body is similar to thyroxin.

    Thyroid disease causing delay

    1. Hypothyroidism is associated with insufficient organ function. With this pathology, there is a delay in menstruation, a decrease in the amount of blood secreted and the duration of menstruation. Also increases the length of the cycle. If you do not diagnose the disease in time, then the menstruation may stop altogether. When hypothyroidism does not occur ovulation.
    2. Thyroiditis is an inflammation of the organ in question, preceding hypothyroidism. Symptoms of the disease are delayed, bleeding beyond critical days.
    3. Tumors that occur in the tissues of the thyroid gland, violate its work, and therefore a sufficient amount of secretion is not produced. This leads to a decrease in the activity of the ovaries, so the monthly become rare, and the gap between them reaches up to three months.
    4. The pathology in which excessive hormone production occurs is called diffuse toxic goiter. Due to this condition, the work of the central nervous system suffers, menstruation occurs less frequently.
    5. Hyperthyroidism is a disease associated with the excessive synthesis of thyroid hormones. Menstruation becomes short, sometimes there are delays. A frequent combination is a large activity of the thyroid gland and minor bleeding.

    Thus, the number of elements produced by the thyroid gland should be normal. When they increase or decrease significantly, the ailments listed above occur. Changing the state of the body itself, its morphology - another group of diseases of the gland.

    Cycle duration and thyroid activity

    First of all, a lack of thyroid secretion will affect the reproductive system. Symptoms of the disease also affect the cardiovascular and central nervous systems.

    In hypothyroidism, irregular critical days, their delay is caused by:

    • delayed effects on ovarian activity, empty cycles,
    • difficulty in isolating follicles,
    • violation of neurohumoral regulatory mechanisms.

    With increased work of the gland (hyperthyroidism), the process of egg formation becomes unstable. In the fair sex with diffuse toxic goiter conception becomes impossible due to the fact that menstruation completely disappears.

    However, infertility is not a diagnosis in cases of thyroid diseases. It is temporary, because in the course of treatment to restore the normal rate of the elements produced, the reproductive function is restarted.

    Disease Detection and Treatment

    In order to diagnose the symptoms, a specialist is appointed by an ultrasound of the organ, an analysis of the hormone content in the blood. If there is reason to believe that there are tumors, computed tomography is prescribed.

    To study the function and structure of the organ, thyroid scintigraphy is assigned using radioactive iodine.

    After finding out the type of disease, therapy occurs, which most often involves the use of hormone-containing tablets and products rich in iodine. The operation takes place when tumors are detected (if possible), diffuse goiter.

    Lack of menstruation after removal of thyroid

    The thyroid gland should be removed in case of serious pathology. Monthly after removal of the thyroid gland may be absent, as the body is not able to receive thyroid hormones during menstruation on its own. Therefore, after surgery, drugs are prescribed that contain elements that are not produced by the body.

    The dosage of medications prescribed by a doctor incorrectly may be the reason for the absence of monthly bleeding in a woman. The solution to the problem is dose adjustment.

    Sometimes emotional shock due to surgery and anesthesia affects the onset of long-awaited menstruation. Despite the fact that ovulation will not occur every month, pregnancy is possible.

    As it was found out, the violation of critical days is not always associated with the dysfunction of the organs involved in the reproductive process. Endocrine diseases in which the thyroid is involved affect reproductive function. Early detection and correct treatment can preserve women's health.

    How are sex and thyroid hormones related

    The endocrine gland is a large body that is responsible for controlling the entire system of the female body. In addition, there is its direct impact on the work of the reproductive organs.

    Hormones triiodothyronine and thyroxin perform the following functions:

    • participate in the control process for protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism,
    • play a direct role in the conception and normal development of the fetus in the womb,
    • ensure the smooth functioning of the ovaries, as well as the formation of LH and FSH.

    If the work of the gonads and the thyroid system is balanced, then the endometrium of the uterus will be updated regularly. In this case, the egg matures every 21-35 days, which also creates favorable conditions for conception. In pathological processes in the endocrine organ, in particular, the importance of the influence of the thyroid gland on menstruation is noted.

    In addition to the negative impact on metabolic processes and the functioning of internal organs, with the development of pathological conditions can:

    • be delayed by menstruation,
    • change the amount of secreted blood fluid.

    In addition, the activity of the ovaries is often disrupted.

    The effect of thyroid on the cycle duration

    If the thyroid gland undergoes any pathological processes, then menstruation usually occurs with a certain delay. As for this state, there are no established norms. In some cases, periods may be delayed for several days, and in others for 6 or more months.

    Due to the fact that the thyroid cannot produce a certain amount of hormones, the ovaries begin to function more slowly. Selection of the follicle is difficult, germ cells grow longer. In some cycles, the egg can be completely absent.

    Since the production of the required number of hormones does not occur, there is a shortage of active components produced by the ovaries. As a result, diagnosed abnormal development of the endometrium of the uterusaccompanied by scanty secretions or their complete absence.

    Also, with a lack of hormones in the female body, menstruation is accompanied by severe pain and pronounced symptomatology of premenstrual syndrome.

    Change in the nature of menstruation in thyroid pathology

    The active components in the ovary begin to be produced in a reduced amount if there is a deficiency or excess of thyroid hormones in the composition of the blood fluid.

    • the endometrium develops less
    • the production of uterine mucus is reduced.

    In the case when menstruation is scanty, and their duration is a maximum of two days, the cause of this condition most often becomes a disruption of the thyroid gland. In the period of menstruation, as a rule, the internal mucous layer, necessary for conception, is produced in smaller quantities.

    Restoration of the menstrual cycle after treatment of thyroid disease

    As a rule, after carrying out therapeutic measures, the normalization of the cycle does not occur immediately. A woman's body needs a certain amount of time to fully recover.

    Даже если результаты анализов будут в норме, то еще в течение некоторого периода у женщины могут отмечаться такие симптомы, как:

    • нерегулярные месячные (задержка или раннее начало критических дней),
    • short duration of menstrual bleeding and their scarce nature,
    • periodic absence of ovulation processes.

    In general, the woman's menstrual cycle after treatment of the endocrine organ is restored in 2-6 months.

    Does the menstrual cycle affect the results of thyroid screening?

    In the case when there are regular problems affecting the organs of the reproductive system and occurring against the background of a disruption of the endocrine organ, the physiological fluctuations of sex hormones that occur every month may distort the results of the thyroid gland diagnostic examination.

    Sex hormones have a certain effect on the functioning of the endocrine organ. However, this effect is insignificant and does not go beyond the physiological norm. That is why there are no obstacles to testing for TSH, T3 and T4 before the onset of menstruation, during it, or after critical days.

    To make the result as accurate as possible, you need to adhere to some of the recommendations of specialists:

    • test to do in the morning on an empty stomach,
    • not to drink alcohol, fatty and fried dishes a couple of days before the procedure,
    • half an hour before the study, do not smoke,
    • Do not expose the body to emotional stress.

    Based on the foregoing, it can be concluded that there is no connection between the menstrual cycle and test results. If the production of thyroid hormones deviates from normal values, then this is the first sign of the development of the pathological process.


    The thyroid and menstrual cycle interact closely with each other in the female body. Improper production of thyroid hormones over time will lead to impaired menstruation, and diseases affecting the reproductive organs will also affect the state of the thyroid gland.

    If you suspect any violation, you should seek medical help as soon as possible. Only due to complex diagnostics there is an opportunity to make an accurate diagnosis and to assign the most effective treatment.

    The thyroid and the duration of the menstrual cycle

    If the thyroid gland does not release enough hormones, significant changes are observed in the reproductive system.

    Irregular menstrual cycle, delayed menstruation and other pathological symptoms during hypothyroidism are caused by:

    • inhibitory effect on the ovaries, anovulatory ("empty") cycles,
    • the difficulty of isolating follicles,
    • Violation of the neuro-humoral regulatory mechanisms.

    Hyperthyroidism, or increased thyroid activity, also adversely affects the maturation and release of the egg. Often, women with diffuse toxic goiter period completely disappear, and the onset of pregnancy becomes impossible.

    Note! Infertility in thyroid disease is reversible (temporary). Adequate treatment of pathology and the normalization of thyroid hormone levels causes the restoration of reproductive function.

    The change in the nature of menstruation in thyroid pathology

    An insufficient or excessive amount of thyroid hormones in the blood also affects the decrease in the production of active components in the ovary.

    As a result, this occurs:

    • reduction of endometrial development,
    • decreased production of mucus in the uterus.

    If the woman's menstrual flow becomes scarce and continues for 1-2 days, it is possible that the thyroid gland is to blame: during menstruation, the insufficient growth of the internal mucous layer in the uterus that is necessary for the onset of pregnancy becomes noticeable.

    Other symptoms

    Frequent manifestations of hormonal imbalance in diseases of the thyroid gland are also:

    • general deterioration of state of health before critical days, weakness, malaise,
    • menstruation pain,
    • PMS phenomena.

    These symptoms are a consequence of a violation of the neuro-humoral mechanisms of regulation of the menstrual cycle, as well as the pathological effect of a deficiency or excess of thyroid hormones on the nervous system.

    Common causes of menstrual disorders

    In medicine, there are several thyroid diseases that can adversely affect a woman's menstrual cycle.

    The most common ones are presented in the table below:

    reducing the duration and profusion of menstruation,

    progressive increase in anovulatory cycles.

    bleeding mid cycle.

    an increase in the interval between periods to 90 days or more.

    Note! Thyroxin and menses are especially related: a decrease or increase in the free fraction of this hormone will necessarily affect the female reproductive system.

    Restoration of menstrual function after treating thyroid disease

    Women, faced with menstrual disorders due to the "fault" of the thyroid gland, are worried about many issues. Can I get pregnant with a sick thyroid? How to quickly establish the work of the reproductive sphere? And, finally, will menstruation return when the thyroid hormones are within the normal range?

    Instant normalization of the menstrual cycle in the treatment of thyroid should not wait: the body needs time to recover.

    Even with ideal test results, women may complain for some time about:

    • MC irregularity - delays or, on the contrary, premature start of critical days,
    • scarcity, short duration of bleeding,
    • lack of ovulation in some cycles.

    In general, in order to fully restore reproductive function in women with compensated thyroid diseases, it may take from 2 to 6 months.

    Note! If problems with menstruation persist against the background of the treatment of endocrine disease, be sure to consult your doctor again. It may be necessary to increase the dose of drugs taken or a complete change of therapy.