Delay of menstruation - menstrual dysfunction, manifested by the absence of cyclic bleeding for more than 35 days. It may be due to physiological causes (the onset of pregnancy, menopause, etc.), as well as various organic or functional disorders.
Delay of menstruation occurs at different periods of a woman's life: during the formation of the menstrual function, during the reproductive period and in premenopausal women. The delay of menstruation over five days is a reason to consult a doctor.
Diagnosis of monthly delay is aimed at finding the main cause of this symptom, on which the further treatment tactics depend.
Delayed monthly it is considered a failure in the menstrual cycle, in which menstrual bleeding does not occur in the expected period. The delay of menstruation, not exceeding 5-7 days, is not regarded as pathology.
Options for delayed menstruation are such menstrual disorders as oligomenorrhea, opsymenorrhea and amenorrhea, manifested by a decrease in menstrual bleeding.
Delay of menstruation can be observed in different age periods of a woman’s life: during puberty, during the reproductive phase, during premenopause, and caused by physiological or pathological reasons.
The natural, physiological reasons for menstruation delay is explained during the pubertal period during the formation of the menstrual cycle, when during 1-1.5 years of menstruation may be irregular.
In women of reproductive age, the delay in menstruation is natural with the onset of pregnancy and during lactation.
In the premenopausal period, the menstrual function gradually fades away, changes in rhythm, duration of menses occur, and the delays of menstruation are replaced by their complete cessation.
All other options for the delay of menstruation, exceeding 5-7 days, are not explained by natural phenomena, in such cases, an urgent gynecologist consultation is required.
A woman's menstrual cycle is a subtle mechanism that maintains the fertility function and reflects any deviations in the state of general health.
Therefore, for a better understanding of the causes and mechanisms of delay of menstruation, it is necessary to clearly understand what is the norm and deviation in the characteristics of the menstrual cycle.
The functioning of the body of a woman of childbearing age has cyclical patterns. Monthly bleeding is the final stage of the menstrual cycle.
Menstrual flow indicates that fertilization of the egg and the occurrence of pregnancy did not occur. In addition, the regularity of menstruation indicates that the woman's body functions smoothly.
The delay in menstruation, in contrast, indicates some failures have occurred.
The onset of the first menstruation usually occurs between 11-15 years. At first, menstrual bleeding may come irregularly, the delay of menstruation during this period is normal, but after 12-18 months the menstrual cycle should finally form.
Onset of menstruation before 11 years and absence after 17 years is a pathology.
The delay in the onset of menstruation to 18–20 years indicates obvious pathological processes: a general lag in physical development, dysfunction of the pituitary gland, ovarian hypoplasia, uterine hypoplasia, etc.
Normally, menstruation begins and ends at certain time intervals. In 60% of women, the cycle duration is 28 days, that is, 4 weeks, which corresponds to the lunar month.
In approximately 30% of women, the cycle lasts 21 days, and about 10% of women have a menstrual cycle of 30-35 days. On average, menstrual bleeding lasts 3-7 days, and the allowable blood loss per menstruation is 50-150 ml.
Complete cessation of menstruation occurs after 45-50 years and marks the onset of menopause.
Irregularities and fluctuations in the duration of the menstrual cycle, systematic delays of menstruation over 5–10 days, alternation of scanty and heavy menstrual bleeding, indicate serious deviations in a woman’s health. In order to control the onset or delay of menstruation, each woman should maintain a menstrual calendar, marking the day the next menstruation begins. In this case, the monthly delay will be immediately visible.
Inspection at a delay of the monthly
To establish the reasons for the delay of the monthly period, examinations may be required to supplement the gynecological examination:
- measurement and graphical display of changes in basal temperature, allowing to verify the presence or absence of the commission of ovulation,
- determination of blood levels of hCG, ovarian hormones, pituitary and other glands,
- ultrasound diagnosis of the pelvic organs to determine pregnancy (uterine, ectopic), tumor lesions of the uterus, ovaries and other causes of delayed menstruation,
- CT and MRI of the brain to exclude pituitary and ovarian tumors.
In identifying diseases associated with the delay of menstruation, consultations of other medical specialists are appointed: endocrinologist, dietician, psychotherapist, etc.
Summarizing the above, it should be noted that the delay in menstruation, whatever the circumstances it was caused, should not be left without attention of the woman. A banal change in the weather, or a joyful expectation of motherhood, as well as serious diseases can cause a delay in menstruation.
In the event of a delay in menstruation, a timely consultation with a doctor will relieve you from unnecessary worries and experiences that may significantly aggravate this condition.
In families where girls grow up, it is necessary to conduct their competent sex education, explaining, among other things, that the delay in menstruation is a problem that must be solved jointly with the mother and the doctor.
How to determine the delay of menstruation
To control the onset or delay of menstruation, any woman needs to keep a monthly calendar, marking the day of the next menstruation, then the monthly delay will be immediately visible.
The first menstruation occurs in girls at 12-14 years old, rarely - a little sooner or later. After their occurrence, girls may experience monthly delays for 1 or 2 years, and this is considered the norm, since in adolescents only the formation of the hormonal balance of the body occurs. If at the expiration of this time, the girl's period is irregular, this is a reason to consult a doctor.
The normal interval between two periods is 21-45 days. The calculation at the same time begin with the first day of the onset of menstruation. As a rule, each woman has an individual duration of the menstrual cycle, which lasts for the duration of the entire reproductive age.
If you have a delay, the monthly cycle is broken, and the bleeding does not occur at the expected time, you need to consult a doctor. It should be noted that even in healthy women, menstruation should not come at the same time. Monthly delay 1 day, or a maximum of 3 days is not a deviation from the norm.
In this case, there is no great need to immediately seek help from a doctor. Often a slight delay in menstruation, nausea, bloody, bloody vaginal discharge, pain in the chest and lower back, and pulling pain in the lower abdomen indicate that menstruation will soon begin.
If you have a longer delay of menstruation, for example, 7 days or more, this is cause for concern, since the reasons for such a delay can be varied. In this case, you will need a gynecologist consultation.
Big monthly delay: causes
A large delay in menstruation can be caused by physiological causes (for example, pregnancy) and other functional or organic disorders. Therefore, the examination should pay attention not only to gynecological problems, but also to the general condition of the body. The following are the most common causes of menstrual disorders.
Long delay during pregnancy and after childbirth
Most often, the absence of menstruation is associated precisely with pregnancy, and not with serious diseases. If you have 7 days of delayed menstruation, nauseous, nagging pain in the lower abdomen, this is a reason to do a pregnancy test. Two strips on the test speak of a positive result.
If the result is negative and your period does not occur, the pregnancy has probably come, but you did the test too early. Then the procedure should be repeated in a few days. The delay in menstruation is observed throughout pregnancy.
In the postpartum period, the cause of delayed menstruation lies in the increased level of prolactin (a hormone that is responsible for the production of breast milk). When a woman does not breastfeed, the delay in menstruation lasts about 6-8 weeks.
A lactating woman may experience a long delay of periods during the entire period of breastfeeding, up to about 2-3 years. In rare cases, the delay of menstruation, even in a nursing baby, is only 1.5-2 months after childbirth, this is due to the individual characteristics of the body.
Severe pain and delayed menstruation may indicate ectopic pregnancy when the embryo attaches to the wall of the fallopian tube.
Possible early consequences of ectopic pregnancy include: rupture of the fallopian tube, heavy bleeding, pain shock, tubal abortion.
If you have a delay of menstruation, abdominal pain that worsen, immediately contact your doctor to exclude the presence of ectopic pregnancy, because its late diagnosis can lead to infertility and sometimes death.
Stressful situations, excessive experiences, insomnia, severe fatigue can disrupt the production of hormones in the initial phase of the monthly cycle, which can lead to late ovulation and cause a delay in menstruation. Prolonged delay of menstruation due to stress is not the norm, but does not require treatment. As a rule, a full-fledged good rest and taking sedatives help to normalize the monthly cycle.
When you change your place of residence or go to rest to the sea, you may encounter all the charms of acclimatization. Do not worry if suddenly there is a slight delay in menstruation, since climate change is stressful for the body, and it needs time to recover.
Often the delay - the monthly hormonal failure. It may be associated with diseases of the hypothalamus or pituitary, when they disrupt the synthesis of hormones. This leads to an increase in the duration of menstruation or lack of ovulation.
Rarely are ovarian diseases leading to various endocrine problems. The most common cause of delayed menstruation in women is polycystic ovarian cancer, accompanied by increased production of male sex hormones.
With this disease, a long delay of menstruation is possible, because ovulation with polycystic may not occur for a long time.
A large delay in menstruation is often associated with diseases of the thyroid gland.
Reducing the amount of thyroxine (a thyroid hormone that affects the functioning of the ovaries) in the blood often leads to blockage of ovulation and disruption of the monthly cycle.
If you have a monthly delay, the forum dedicated to this problem suggests that it can also be caused by diseases of the adrenal glands, in which a large number of male sex hormones are produced in a woman’s body.
Delay of menstruation? Not pregnant by test results? In this case, it is necessary to consult a gynecologist, since various gynecological diseases can be the cause: endometritis, fibroids, adenometritis, inflammations in the uterus and appendages, and cervical pathology. The doctor will prescribe the necessary examinations to identify these diseases, and prescribe the necessary treatment. As a rule, timely detection and treatment of gynecological diseases leads to the normalization of the menstrual cycle.
Forced and spontaneous abortions also adversely affect the condition of the uterus and can lead to permanent menstruation delays and infertility.
The body's response to contraceptives and drugs
Many women wonder if it is possible to delay their periods when taking medication and contraceptive drugs? Doctors say that long-term use of various medications may have a negative impact on the health of the woman and cause a delay in menstruation. In this case, the doctor either cancels the prescribed medication, or adjusts its dosage.
If you have a delay in menstruation, contraceptive drugs can also cause it. In this case, there is no reason for special experiences. Consult with a specialist and take a break in taking contraceptives to give your body a chance to recover.
Overweight and underweight
Subcutaneous fat is involved in the regulation of the hormonal background of the body. Excess weight can lead to various pathologies. In this case, a woman needs to normalize her weight and eat properly, then the monthly cycle will also return to normal.
Strong thinness is also a cause of delays and lack of menstruation. Regular diets and the desire to lose weight to the parameters of the models, can lead to infertility and loss of health.
Exercise and poor lifestyle
Physical activity and bad habits (alcohol, drugs, smoking), chronic diseases weaken the female body, reduce immunity and can cause a delay in menstruation. To strengthen your body, avoid excessive exertion, lead a correct lifestyle, watch your diet, relax in nature.
Climax does not always occur immediately after 40 years. In many women, menstruation lasts up to 55 years. The extinction of childbearing function is often the cause of changes or disturbance of menstruation.
Diagnosis and treatment of delayed menstruation
Any violations related to the work of the genitals require careful research. First of all, you need to carry out a pregnancy test, consult a gynecologist and pass blood and urine tests. To identify the causes of delayed menstruation, you can prescribe such tests:
- graphic image and measurement of changes in basal temperature, which helps to ensure the occurrence or absence of ovulation,
- determination of the level of hCG in the blood,
- Ultrasound of the pelvic organs to detect pregnancy (ectopic and uterine), tumors of the uterus and ovaries,
- magnetic resonance and computed tomography, necessary to exclude tumor formations of the ovaries and pituitary,
- Ultrasound of the kidneys and adrenal glands.
In the presence of diseases that cause delayed menstruation, consultations of such specialists are appointed: a nutritionist, an endocrinologist, a psychotherapist, an immunologist, etc.
A full diet, rest and sleep, rejection of bad habits, the right approach to examination and treatment, timely access to medical care, will restore the monthly cycle. If the reason for the delay is pregnancy, then that's fine. The birth of a baby is the most joyful event in the life of every woman.
Delay of menstruation - for what reasons can it be, when is it the norm, and when is it pathology?
Normally, the menstrual cycle lasts from 21 to 35 days. Each woman has its individual duration, but for most of them the intervals between menstruations are equal or different from each other by no more than 5 days. The calendar should always mark the day of the onset of menstrual bleeding in order to notice the irregularity of the cycle in time.
Often a woman after stress, illness, intense physical exertion, climate change, there is a slight delay in menstruation. In other cases, this symptom indicates a pregnancy or hormonal disorders. We will describe the main reasons for the delay of menstruation and the mechanism of their development, as well as talk about what to do in this situation.
Why is there a delay?
Delay of menstruation can be the result of physiological changes in the body, as well as be a manifestation of functional failures or diseases of both the genital and other organs (“extragenital pathology”).
Normally, menstruation does not occur during pregnancy. After childbirth, the mother's cycle is also restored not immediately, it largely depends on whether the woman has lactation.
In women without pregnancy, an increase in cycle time may be a manifestation of perimenopause (menopause).
The irregularity of the cycle in girls after the onset of menstruation is also considered the norm, if it is not accompanied by other disorders.
Functional disorders that can trigger the failure of the menstrual cycle are stress, intense physical exertion, rapid weight loss, an infection or other acute illness, or climate change.
Нередко нерегулярный цикл с задержкой месячных у пациенток, страдающих гинекологическими заболеваниями, прежде всего поликистозом яичников.
Кроме того, такой симптом может сопровождать воспалительные заболевания репродуктивных органов, возникать после прерывания беременности или диагностического выскабливания, после гистероскопии.
Ovarian dysfunction may be due to the pathology of the pituitary gland and other organs that regulate the hormones of a woman.
Of somatic diseases, accompanied by a possible violation of the menstrual cycle, it is worth noting obesity.
When menstruation delay is normal
Puberty and Ovulatory Cycle
The gradual puberty of girls leads to their first menstruation, menarche, usually between the ages of 12 and 13. However, in adolescence, the reproductive system was not yet fully formed. Therefore, failures in the menstrual cycle are possible.
Delay in menstruation in adolescents occurs during the first 2 years after menarche, after this period it may be a sign of illness. If the monthly did not appear before the age of 15, this is a reason to visit the gynecologist.
If the irregular cycle is accompanied by obesity, excessive hair growth on the body, a change in voice, as well as abundant menstruation, it is necessary to seek medical help earlier in order to start correcting the violations in time.
Normally, the cycle by 15 years is already regular. In the future, menstruation occurs under the influence of cyclic changes in the concentration of hormones in the body. In the first half of the cycle, under the action of estrogens produced by the ovaries, an egg cell begins to mature in one of them.
Then the bubble (follicle), in which it developed, bursts, and the egg is in the abdominal cavity - ovulation occurs. When ovulation appears short mucous white discharge from the genital tract, may be a little sore on the left or right lower abdomen.
The egg cell is captured by the fallopian tubes and enters the uterus through them. At this time, the bursting follicle is replaced by the so-called corpus luteum - a formation that synthesizes progesterone.
Under the influence of this hormone, the lining layer of the uterus from the inside, the endometrium, grows and prepares to receive the embryo upon the occurrence of pregnancy.
If conception did not occur, progesterone production decreases, and the endometrium is rejected - menstruation begins.
During fertilization and development of the embryo, the corpus luteum in the ovary continues to actively produce progesterone, under the influence of which implantation of the egg cell occurs, the formation of the placenta and the development of pregnancy.
Endometrium is not subject to degradation, therefore it is not rejected.
In addition, progesterone inhibits the maturation of new eggs, so there is no ovulation and, accordingly, cyclical processes in the body of a woman cease.
If there is a delay
With a delay of menstruation for 3 days (and often on the first day) at home, you can do a test to determine pregnancy. If it is negative, but the woman is still worried about the delay, you should undergo an ultrasound examination of the uterus using a vaginal sensor, and also take a blood test that determines the level of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).
If ultrasound is used to determine the second phase of the cycle, then the menstruation will soon come, if there are no signs of the second phase - you need to think about ovarian dysfunction (we will talk about it later), during pregnancy, the fertilized egg is detected in the uterus, and in ectopic pregnancy fallopian tube (tubal pregnancy). In doubtful cases, after 2 days, you can repeat the analysis for HCG. Increasing its concentration two or more times indicates the course of uterine pregnancy.
Menstruation after childbirth
After childbirth, the cycle of menstruation in many women is not immediately restored, especially if the mother feeds the baby with her milk. Milk production occurs under the influence of the hormone prolactin, which simultaneously inhibits progesterone synthesis and ovulation. As a result, the egg does not mature, and the endometrium does not prepare for its adoption, and then does not reject.
Typically, menstruation is restored within 8-12 months after birth, against the background of breastfeeding the baby and the gradual introduction of complementary foods. The delay in menstruation during breastfeeding with a restored cycle in the first 2-3 months is usually the norm, and may further indicate a new pregnancy.
Reproductive function extinction
Finally, over time, reproductive function gradually begins to fade in women. At the age of 45-50 years of age, menstruation may be delayed, cycle irregularities, changes in the duration of discharge.
However, at this time, it is likely that ovulation will occur in some cycles; therefore, if a patient has a delay of more than 3–5 days, a woman needs to think about pregnancy.
To exclude this possibility, you should consult a gynecologist in time and select contraceptives.
Intermittent cycle violations
Delay of menstruation with a negative test is often associated with the effect on the body of adverse factors. The most common causes of short-term failure of the cycle duration:
- emotional stress, such as a session or family trouble,
- intense physical activity, including sports competitions,
- rapid weight loss with diet,
- climate change and time zone when traveling on vacation or on a business trip.
Under the influence of any of these factors, an imbalance of excitation, inhibition, and mutual influence of nerve cells develops in the brain. As a result, a temporary malfunction of the cells of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, the main regulatory centers in the body, may occur.
Under the influence of substances secreted by the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland cyclically secretes follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones, under the action of which the synthesis of estrogen and progesterone occurs in the ovaries.
Therefore, when the work of the nervous system changes, the duration of the menstrual cycle can also change.
Many women are interested in, can there be a delay in menstruation after taking antibiotics? As a rule, antibacterial drugs themselves do not affect the duration of a cycle and cannot cause a delay in menstruation.
However, it can lead to the infectious disease, about which the patient was prescribed antimicrobial drugs.
Infection has a toxic (toxic) effect on the nervous system, and is also a stress factor contributing to hormonal dysregulation. This is possible, for example, with cystitis.
Normally, the next menstruation after a delay in these cases occurs on time. More permanent violations of the cycle may occur when using certain drugs:
- oral contraceptives, especially low-dose,
- progestogens of prolonged action, used in some cases for the treatment of endometriosis and other diseases,
- prednisone and other glucocorticoids,
- releasing hormone agonists,
- chemotherapeutic agents and some others.
How to cause menstruation during a delay?
This possibility exists, but you need to clearly answer the question - why does a woman need menstruation as a fact.
Most often, the fair sex answer this question - to restore a normal cycle.
In this case, you need to understand that thoughtless self-medication with hormonal drugs can, of course, cause menstruation, but even more likely to lead to dysfunction of the reproductive system, impaired ability to conceive.
Thus, a woman will get a much larger set of problems than just a delay in menstruation. In addition, she may be pregnant. Therefore, when menstruation is delayed for more than 5 days, it is recommended to do a home test to determine pregnancy, and then consult a gynecologist.
To normalize the cycle, the patient can only get rid of external factors contributing to the delay (stress, fasting, overload) and follow the recommendations of your doctor.
Diseases causing delayed menses
Regular delay of menstruation is most often a sign of diseases of the hypothalamic-pituitary system or the ovaries, less often - the uterus or appendages. This feature can also be observed in extragenital pathology, which is not directly related to diseases of the female reproductive system.
The defeat of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland can occur when a tumor of the neighboring brain regions or these formations themselves, hemorrhage in this section (in particular, as a result of childbirth). Frequent causes other than pregnancy, for which the regularity of the cycle is disturbed, are ovarian diseases:
Under these conditions, a woman often does not hurt anything, and she does not go to a doctor for a long time, not paying attention to the irregularity of the cycle. This leads to serious consequences for her health.
Delay of menstruation may occur in some other gynecological diseases, in particular, against the background of endometriosis, chronic endometritis, uterine abnormalities. Under these conditions, it often pulls the lower abdomen, and there are spotting secretions before and after menstruation.
In addition, a violation of the cycle often accompanies diagnostic curettage, hysteroscopy, medical and other types of abortion, and the use of emergency hormonal contraception.
If the irregularity persists for the next cycle after the intrauterine manipulation, you need to consult a gynecologist.
Finally, the delay of menstruation occurs in certain extragenital diseases:
- neurosis and other mental disorders
- diseases of the biliary tract and liver,
- blood diseases
- breast tumor,
- adrenal and other diseases accompanied by hormonal imbalances.
The variety of reasons for which may delay menstruation, requires careful diagnosis and different approaches to treatment. It is clear that only a competent doctor can choose the right tactics after a general, gynecological and additional examination of the patient.
What are the symptoms of delayed monthly cycle
Every woman at least once in her life faced with a delay of menstruation, suspecting pregnancy. Every healthy woman who has sex has a delayed period means pregnancy. To get started, do a pregnancy test. The test will be more accurate if you make it in the second - third week of delay.
Delayed menstruation does not necessarily mean pregnancy
However, delay does not always mean pregnancy. The reasons for which delay menstruation, quite a lot - from cold and ending with debilitating diets. But, this is not all causes of delayed menstruation.
Signs of delayed menstruation
Uterine fibroids. Myoma or fibromyoma is a benign tumor that occurs in the uterine cavity from muscle tissue due to active cell division. The disease is not rare, occurs in every third woman aged twenty-five to fifty years. What provokes myoma?
Hereditary manifestations (ask your mother and grandmother if they have encountered a similar ailment).
- Problems with the cycle of menstruation.
- Obesity, diabetes.
- Problems of gestation pregnancy.
- Abortion Abuse
- Numerous stresses.
The first signs of fibroids:
- Abundant menstruation,
- Violation of the menstruation cycle,
- Unusual abdominal pain.
However, fibroids can be asymptomatic. A woman can live with this ailment for a long time. In order to detect the disease in time, every year you pass a routine examination by a gynecologist.
Inflammatory processes of the genital organs provoke infections (chlamydia, trichomonas, mycoplasma, ureaplasma), viruses, bacteria that have entered the woman's body. Infection can occur both sexually and in the case when immunity is reduced.
The reason may also be the use of poor-quality intimate hygiene products, or allergic reactions caused by these means, injury, failure to follow the rules of hygiene, when installing a spiral.
And also after childbirth, when the uterus is cleaned without proper hygiene.
Diagram of the possible location of myomas relative to the uterine artery
Causes of inflammation of the genital organs
- Frequent change of sexual partners.
- Wearing an intrauterine device.
- Venereal diseases.
- Weak immunity.
- Cervical tears during childbirth.
- Endocrine problems.
The first signs of delayed menstruation associated with the inflammatory process:
- Uncharacteristic discharge before and after menstruation,
- Severe lower abdominal pain,
- Increased temperature.
There are a number of reasons leading to infection of the genitals.
- Unprofessional abortion.
- Sex during menstruation.
- Intrusion of foreign objects into the vagina.
- Difficult childbirth.
- Not faithfully conducted Caesar.
However, the symptoms may not manifest themselves. If you do not treat inflammation of the genital organs, it will lead to problems with the nervous, cardiovascular, endocrine systems and infertility.
Cervical cancer is a disease that affects women from forty-five to fifty-five years. The first is human papillomavirus (HPV).
However, the body infected with HPV, successfully copes with the infection. But, there is a percentage of women in whom HPV causes a precancerous condition of the cervix and benign growths. And there is a percentage of women who have HPV provokes cervical cancer.
Factors triggering infection:
- Regular change of sexual partners.
- Early sex life.
- HIV infection, AIDS.
- Weak immunity.
If you suspect a disease, the first actions in a situation are visits to the gynecologist. The doctor will order the delivery of the necessary tests.
Severe abdominal pain may indicate an inflammatory process.
With this disease, endometrial cells begin to grow and extend beyond the inner wall of the uterus. The disease affects women between the ages of twenty and forty-five. It is important to timely detect and cure the disease. Otherwise infertility will occur. What are the symptoms of the disease?
- Pain when having sex.
- Failure of menstruation.
- Suspected infertility.
Similar diseases are diagnosed by a gynecologist, prescribing the necessary list of tests that you pass. The disease is treated with hormonal drugs, they help the body to cope with the disease on their own, eliminating the foci of the disease. However, the most effective method is surgical. It allows you to remove only the affected tissue, keeping the uterus and appendages.
It is possible to prevent the disease, without allowing abortions, to be regularly examined by a gynecologist. It will not be superfluous to take contraceptive drugs. Carefully and regularly monitor the state of health.
Excessive exercise. Violations of menstruation during exercise are observed if a woman is too actively involved in an active lifestyle. But the body gets used, and the cycle is restored by itself. It is important to ensure a proper rest and balanced nutrition.
The introduction of hormonal contraceptives in itself is stressful for the body, because we are talking about hormonal adjustment. This is a very crucial moment: uncontrolled intake of contraceptives leads to serious health problems, so the drugs are prescribed only by a gynecologist.
Scheme of endometriosis: fallopian tube, ovary, uterus, vagina and endometriosis itself
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
This is a cystic formation on the ovaries, which leads to disruption of maturation and release of eggs. This will lead to a failure of the menstruation cycle. Prevents pregnancy.
What can be identified the first and main reasons that increase the risk of disease?
- Numerous stresses.
- Congenital problems with women's health.
- Bad ecology.
Symptoms of PCOS can be specified.
- Weight fluctuations.
- Increased hairiness of the body.
- Basal temperature, not changing throughout the cycle.
- Painful menstruation.
- Oily skin and hair.
- Frequent stress.
But this is not a sentence - PCOS is a completely treatable disease, it is treated with hormonal contraceptives that help restore hormonal levels, and after curing a woman should undergo an annual examination to avoid recurrence of the disease.
Eliminate stress - the main source of the disease, not only the sexual sphere, but the whole body. Take care not to miss the first signs of an incipient disease. It will be easy for you, because you already know which symptoms to pay attention to. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Healthy Ovary on the Top, Polycystic Cystic Bottom Termination of pregnancy is a serious stress for the body, especially at the hormonal level. He needs time to recover, especially if you have encountered an abortion or miscarriage for the first time. The first periods after an abortion or miscarriage should be expected in a couple of months. There is no cause for concern during this period. If menstruation is no more than two months, consult a gynecologist. Medications that trigger problems with the menstruation cycle are anabolic antidepressants, diuretic drugs, and others. Drugs, dose and period of administration prescribed only by a doctor, remember this, do not self-medicate. Climate change introduces the body to stress when it gets into non-standard conditions for itself. The absence of menstruation, as the body's response to weather, humidity and air temperature. Первые признаки, говорящие о перестройке организма — сбой в цикле менструации во время или после проведения отпуска в ином климате. After the holidays, consult with the gynecologist, even if the delay was insignificant (about seven to ten days). Climax is not a problem, but a natural phenomenon, if a woman is over fifty and she has similar problems, she should understand that this is the next period in the life of every woman, except for the cases when a woman has gynecological problems or protracted periods between periods, then the doctor's consultation. It is important to know that the first symptoms of menopause occur from forty-five to fifty-five years. During this period, menstruation is, but pass with delays. While menstruation is, it is worth remembering that the chance to get pregnant remains before the full onset of menopause. Miscarriage seriously violates the monthly cycle The main source of hormone production in humans. The lack of necessary hormones in the body leads to the fact that a person becomes disabled, mentally retarded. Hormones are secreted by the thyroid gland throughout life and are directly responsible for the development of the body. Characterized by: general malaise, drowsiness, lethargy, depression. It is worth paying attention to the general condition as a whole, in order to understand whether the cause is really in the thyroid gland. If necessary, visit a specialist. There are also the first signs of diseases to which attention should be paid.
Miscarriage, abortion, like shaking up the body
Diseases of the thyroid gland
It will be easy for you, because you already know which symptoms to pay attention to.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Healthy Ovary on the Top, Polycystic Cystic Bottom
Termination of pregnancy is a serious stress for the body, especially at the hormonal level. He needs time to recover, especially if you have encountered an abortion or miscarriage for the first time.
The first periods after an abortion or miscarriage should be expected in a couple of months. There is no cause for concern during this period. If menstruation is no more than two months, consult a gynecologist.
Medications that trigger problems with the menstruation cycle are anabolic antidepressants, diuretic drugs, and others. Drugs, dose and period of administration prescribed only by a doctor, remember this, do not self-medicate.
Climate change introduces the body to stress when it gets into non-standard conditions for itself. The absence of menstruation, as the body's response to weather, humidity and air temperature.
Первые признаки, говорящие о перестройке организма — сбой в цикле менструации во время или после проведения отпуска в ином климате.
After the holidays, consult with the gynecologist, even if the delay was insignificant (about seven to ten days).
Climax is not a problem, but a natural phenomenon, if a woman is over fifty and she has similar problems, she should understand that this is the next period in the life of every woman, except for the cases when a woman has gynecological problems or protracted periods between periods, then the doctor's consultation.
It is important to know that the first symptoms of menopause occur from forty-five to fifty-five years. During this period, menstruation is, but pass with delays. While menstruation is, it is worth remembering that the chance to get pregnant remains before the full onset of menopause.
Miscarriage seriously violates the monthly cycle
The main source of hormone production in humans. The lack of necessary hormones in the body leads to the fact that a person becomes disabled, mentally retarded. Hormones are secreted by the thyroid gland throughout life and are directly responsible for the development of the body.
Characterized by: general malaise, drowsiness, lethargy, depression. It is worth paying attention to the general condition as a whole, in order to understand whether the cause is really in the thyroid gland. If necessary, visit a specialist.
There are also the first signs of diseases to which attention should be paid.
These obvious symptoms appear already in adolescence - note that when you notice the first signs of the disease, be sure to tell the doctor about it. This will help the specialist to form a clearer picture of what is happening and make the correct diagnosis and prescribe an effective treatment.
Every woman who lives sexually, is obliged to monitor their health and monitor the menstrual cycle. This will help to preserve women's health: it is better to study your body and notice all the signs of pregnancy in time.
And whatever the reasons for the delay, you should not close your eyes to it, be more attentive to these "messages" of the body - this will help prevent unwanted health problems.
Physiology of menstruation
The appearance of the menstrual cycle suggests that the female body is ready for conception. Normally, the cycle is 21-35 days or 28 days on average. The cycle ends and begins when menstruation occurs (bleeding) - this is the first day of menstruation.
The menstrual cycle consists of three periods:
- The first phase is follicular.
- The second phase is luteal.
At the hormonal level, the cycle consists of two phases, where one of the sex hormones dominates, and ovulation. In the first phase, the hormone estrogen begins to increase gradually. In this period, the follicle develops, from which an egg cell will emerge in the future.
Then comes ovulation. This is a selection from the follicle of a ripe egg cell in the fallopian tube, where conception occurs. The egg cell lives for 1-2 days, during which it descends into the uterine cavity and awaits conception. In place of the follicle, a yellow body is created. The second phase begins.
The corpus luteum is a temporary gland that creates a balance of estrogen and progesterone. Progesterone gradually rises. The endometrium is hypertrophied and is preparing to accept an egg cell. If conception has come, progesterone remains at a high level and contributes to the normal course of pregnancy. In the opposite case, at the end of the cycle, progesterone falls, the mucous hypertrophied layer of the endometrium is rejected (the vessels are damaged, which contributes to bleeding) and the cycle ends. And so in a circle. All this is regulated by the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, pituitary, hormonal background, and a violation in any of the chains leads to menstrual disorders. The irregularity of the discharge for 2-3 cycles, the change in the nature and amount of the blood secreted is evidence of irregularities and requires expert advice.
Physiological causes of delayed menses
The first reason for the normal delay of menstruation is pregnancy. This reason accounts for the bulk of the delays. Also, during lactation and in the postpartum period, due to an increase in the hormone prolactin, the concentration of estrogen is not stable, which makes the cycle irregular.
Normally, the first menstrual periods in girls begin in the period of 12-14 years and the first two years the cycle is only being formed, therefore delays are not uncommon. During menopause, the concentration of sex hormones decreases, which causes disruptions in the cycle and later complete cessation of menstruation. A delay of 5-7 days is normal. Monthly delays one twice a year are also normal. Everything else is considered a pathology and requires gynecological examination.
Pathological causes of delayed menses
Pathological reasons for the delay of menstruation are divided into gynecological and those that are not related to the reproductive system.
Gynecological problems that cause a delay in menstruation include:
- Acute and chronic inflammatory diseases of the genital organs in women and their appendages (adnexitis, salpingitis, oophoritis).
- Cystic formations or polycystic ovarian degeneration. Also simultaneously with the delay, an increase in male hormones is observed, which is manifested by the growth of hair on the face and body, the appearance of acne and an increase in body weight.
- Oncological diseases of the female genital organs (benign and malignant tumors - fibroids, fibroids, uterine polyps, cervical cancer).
- Abortion. Scraping damages the endometrium (the mucous layer of the uterus), which increases its recovery time. Also during abortion hormones are sharply disturbed.
- Ectopic pregnancy (fertilized egg implanted outside the uterus, often in the fallopian tube).
- Abnormal development of the genitals.
Other causes of monthly delay
- Adaptation of a woman’s body during a change of climate, lifestyle, place of residence or work.
- Emotional stress (positive - for example, excessive joy, or negative - depression, feelings).
- High and unusual physical exertion (cycle failures are often observed in athletes who are engaged in weightlifting).
- Increased mental load (in the period of exam preparation and preparation).
- Sharp weight loss. Adipose tissue is actively involved in maintaining the concentration of estrogen in the body. It is logical to assume violations of menstruation with a sharp weight loss, and the body responds with a defensive reaction - delaying or completely stopping the discharge. This is observed in compliance with debilitating diets, prolonged fasting and anorexia. Menses recur with normalization of weight. Excessive weight gain will also affect the regularity of the cycle.
- Surgical interventions, injuries.
- After discontinuation of contraceptive use. Since the latter are hormonal drugs, after their cancellation, time must pass to restore hormonal levels. The use of drugs for emergency contraception.
- Viral and bacterial infections (ARVI, influenza, tonsillitis, pharyngitis and others).
- Poisoning and intoxication.
- Disruption of the thyroid, pancreas, adrenal glands, pituitary, as well as chronic diseases and periods of exacerbations (pyelonephritis, gastritis).
- Acceptance of hormonal drugs, antidepressants, anti-tuberculosis therapy.
How is the delay of menstruation?
Normal physiological delays of menstruation occur during puberty, menopause, lactation, after childbirth, and are manifested simply by an increase in duration and an irregular cycle (during menopause, the disappearance of menstruation completely).
Due to pathological problems, delayed menstruation may be accompanied by all sorts of symptoms that depend on the cause. If the cause is in the female genital organs, then the obssenorrhea will manifest itself on the background of inflammation (fever, pulling pain in the lower abdomen or on the one hand, pathological discharge), cancer (there may be pain of varying intensity or not at all, the diagnosis is made by tomography or Ultrasound), anomalies - violations of the development of the genital organs, on the background of stress, excessive loads and so on.
What to do when menstruation is delayed
The first thing to do is to exclude or confirm pregnancy, as this is the most common cause of the delay. During early pregnancy, there may be pain in the breasts, their swelling, nausea, dizziness, fatigue, irritability may occur. But these symptoms are also characteristic of premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
Symptoms such as a change in taste and appetite, increased and changed sensitivity to odors, the release of colostrum, sexual intercourse in the past month (the use of contraception is not a fact of discarding pregnancy) indicate successful fertilization. But every woman is individually and manifests itself in different ways.
To confirm pregnancy, first use a pregnancy test. It is based on the detection of chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the urine. HCG appears two weeks after conception, and if you do the test earlier, it will be negative. The appearance of the second strip indicates the occurrence of pregnancy. To accurately determine pregnancy, you need to donate blood to hCG. If the result is negative, then the problem is different.
You need to sign up for a gynecological examination to the gynecologist to identify the cause. On examination, cysts and tumors, developmental abnormalities, symptoms of inflammation (swelling, redness, pain) can be detected.
In addition, to diagnose the cause of opsomenorrhea use:
- Determining the concentration of hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary and reproductive system (prolactin, gonadotropin, estrogen, progesterone).
- Ultrasound of the pelvic organs during pregnancy and volumetric processes (benign and malignant neoplasms, cysts, structural changes in the genital organs, diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy). For better detail, computed and magnetic resonance imaging (CT, MRI) is used.
- Another diagnostic method is the measurement of basal temperature. They are conducted to confirm ovulation. In the first phase, the temperature holds up to 36.6 C. With ovulation, the temperature rises by about 5 degrees (about 37.1-37.3 C) and in the second phase holds until the onset of menses. This means that the cycle is ovulatory. In the anovulatory cycle, the temperature curve does not peak.
If necessary, appoint an endocrinologist consultation (for diseases of the endocrine glands), a psychotherapist (if stress is the cause), a nutritionist (if there is a problem with weight).
Recommendations and forecast
For the early diagnosis of osomenorrhea and its causes, you need to keep a calendar of menstruation, adhere to an active healthy lifestyle, respond correctly to stressful situations, control your weight, take care of yourself and have enough rest.
Opsomenorrhea itself does not pose a health hazard. This is a signal that something is broken in the woman’s body. The very reason for the delay of menstruation may be dangerous.
As you can see, the reasons for which there is a delay of menstruation except pregnancy, the postpartum period, lactation and menopause are very different. From harmless, for example, emotional concussions, to more serious, for example, a tumor. It is better to consult a specialist in a timely manner. Only a doctor can make the correct diagnosis and prescribe the appropriate treatment.
Characteristics of the menstrual cycle
The functioning of the body of a woman of childbearing age has cyclical patterns. Monthly bleeding is the final stage of the menstrual cycle. Menstrual flow indicates that fertilization of the egg and the occurrence of pregnancy did not occur. In addition, the regularity of menstruation indicates that the woman's body functions smoothly. The delay in menstruation, in contrast, indicates some failures have occurred.
The onset of the first menstruation usually occurs between 11-15 years. At first, menstrual bleeding may come irregularly, the delay of menstruation during this period is normal, but after 12-18 months the menstrual cycle should finally form. Onset of menstruation before 11 years and absence after 17 years is a pathology. The delay in the onset of menstruation to 18–20 years indicates obvious pathological processes: a general lag in physical development, dysfunction of the pituitary gland, ovarian hypoplasia, uterine hypoplasia, etc.
Normally, menstruation begins and ends at certain time intervals. In 60% of women, the cycle duration is 28 days, that is, 4 weeks, which corresponds to the lunar month. In approximately 30% of women, the cycle lasts 21 days, and about 10% of women have a menstrual cycle of 30-35 days. On average, menstrual bleeding lasts 3-7 days, and the allowable blood loss per menstruation is 50-150 ml. Complete cessation of menstruation occurs after 45-50 years and marks the onset of menopause.
Irregularities and fluctuations in the duration of the menstrual cycle, systematic delays of menstruation over 5–10 days, alternation of scanty and heavy menstrual bleeding, indicate serious deviations in a woman’s health. In order to control the onset or delay of menstruation, each woman should maintain a menstrual calendar, marking the day the next menstruation begins. In this case, the monthly delay will be immediately visible.
Causes of delayed menstruation
The causes of the irregular cycle are natural and pathological. Factors related to physiology:
- Puberty - a normal cycle can be established only 1-2 years after menarche (first menstruation).
- Pregnancy - in the absence of obvious signs, such as nausea, changes in taste, vomiting, you need to do a test.
- Breastfeeding - in the process of lactation, increased production of prolactin occurs, which blocks ovulation. The recovery cycle is observed a couple of months after the cessation of feeding.
- Perimenopause - violation of menstruation occurs in the premenopausal period.
- Changing the established rhythm of life - a new place of work, residence.
- The offset of the intrauterine device.
- Influenza, SARS.
- Gastritis, diabetes and other chronic diseases,
- Physical and emotional stress - excessive stress, stress, depression.
- Taking contraceptives with a high content of hormones.
Delay factors of monthly pathological type:
- Tumor and inflammatory diseases of the genital organs - uterine fibroids, oophoritis, adnexitis.
- Gynecological diseases - polycystic ovarian cyst of the yellow body of the ovary, hyperprolactinemia.
- Endocrine disorders - dysfunction of the thyroid gland.
- Ectopic or frozen pregnancy, miscarriage in the early stages.
- Abortion - Delay can cause mechanical damage and hormonal imbalance.
- Ovarian hypoplasia.
- Urogenital infections - thrush.
- Intoxication due to the use of alcohol or drugs.
- Sharp loss and weight gain.
- Hereditary predisposition
How many days are normal can last month? The normal duration of bleeding is from 3 to 7 days. The interval between them should not exceed 21-35 days. If menstruation does not come more than 10 days - this is the reason to immediately consult a doctor.
Diagnosis of impaired menstrual function
Treatment of disorders of the menstrual cycle should be approached seriously, since the cause of the delay of menstruation can be diseases of the reproductive, endocrine and other body systems. Not only gynecologists but also endocrinologists, neuropathologists, psychiatrists and nutritionists are involved in solving the problem. The list of diagnostic measures includes:
- gynecological examination,
- collection of information during the patient survey,
- ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs,
- blood test for hormones and their metabolites,
- hysteroscopy and laparoscopy with biopsy,
- X-ray of the Turkish saddle and skull
- computed and nuclear magnetic tomography,
- tests for sexually transmitted diseases.
A delay of more than 6 months is called amenorrhea. Pathology threatens the development of diabetes, infertility, osteoporosis, vegetovascular diseases, oncological tumors.
Treatment of disturbed menstrual cycle
Treatment of delayed menstruation is carried out after a full examination. Tactics are selected depending on the identified causes. Patients are prescribed:
- hormonal therapy
- antibiotic treatment
- ozone drip,
- vitamin therapy
- painkillers (if there is pain),
If the menstrual failure is caused by excessive physical exertion, sudden loss or weight gain, you must first change your lifestyle, adjust the power system and daily routines. Until complete recovery of function, it is recommended to use progestogen-type oral contraceptives. Быстрое похудение более чем на 10 килограмм свидетельствует о начале развития анорексии. Пациенткам с таким диагнозом и задержкой месячных необходима не только помощь гинеколога, но и психолога, а также поддержка близких и родных.
In the treatment of dysfunction, which has developed as a result of polycystic ovarian disease, contraceptives are used, at the same time eliminating the problem of increased body hair of the male type. The content of testosterone and estrogen in the blood is determined without fail. Depending on the results of the diagnosis, medical measures are prescribed.
The elimination of the causes of menstrual disorders in hyperprolactinemia (high content of the hormone prolactin) is carried out by means of drugs that reduce its level. If a diagnosis is made of a cyst of the corpus luteum of the ovary, physiotherapy and conservative treatment are carried out. The decision on surgical intervention is made in the most extreme case.
The delay associated with premature menopause is eliminated with hormone replacement therapy. If the violation of the cycle was caused by an artificial termination of pregnancy, oral and combined contraceptives, restoring hormonal balance, are prescribed to patients for preventive purposes.
Treatment of delayed folk remedies
Traditional medicine can also cause menstrual bleeding. There are several effective recipes:
- Dandelion. The decoction is prepared from the roots of the plant. 1 teaspoon pour a glass of boiling water and boil on very low heat for 5 minutes. Cool the mixture and take ½ cup orally in the morning and evening.
- Parsley. Chopped grass in the amount of 150 grams. pour a glass of boiling water and drink half a cup twice a day (start 7 days before the expected date of menstruation).
- A mixture of herbs (in tablespoons) - chamomile (4), valerian (3), mint (3) pour 2 cups boiling water and insist for 20 minutes. To accept inside on 100 ml twice a day (a course of 30 days).
Prevention of monthly delay
The following measures will help prevent menstrual irregularities:
- systematic visits to the gynecologist (at least 2 times a year),
- annual consultations of the endocrinologist,
- active lifestyle, sports,
- regular sex life
- competent planning of pregnancy
- proper nutrition, maintaining weight is normal,
- smoking cessation, alcohol, drugs,
- use of STD protection products,
- timely treatment of colds.
Delay of menstruation should not be overlooked! No matter what causes it, the joy of the upcoming motherhood, moving to a new place of residence or other factors. Violation of the menstrual cycle can indicate a serious illness, so it is very important to seek help from a specialist in time.
What is a normal monthly delay?
The usual duration of the menstrual cycle is 26-28 days. In this case, the duration of the delay, at which it is not necessary to visit the gynecologist, should not exceed 5-7 days.
But even such a delay may not cause concern only if it is not accompanied by pain and discomfort.
A long delay is considered normal in such cases:
1 Unsteady menstrual cycle. After the arrival of the first menarche (menarche), a delay is allowed before the next up to 6 months. A full cycle of young girls formed over several years.
2 Premenopausal period. In women aged 45–50 years, the prolonged absence of menstruation indicates the onset of menopause. With each cycle, delays become longer, and then periods stop completely.
3 Pregnancy and lactation. Carrying a child eliminates the possibility of any discharge with bloody impurities.
During lactation, the delay in menstruation is associated with the hormone prolactin, which limits the maturation of the eggs.
As soon as the concentration of prolactin is reduced (complementary feeding is introduced, the child is transferred to artificial or mixed feeding), the monthly periods are restored.
4 Delay caused by artificial means. In the treatment of certain diseases, accompanied by heavy and painful periods, women are prescribed special drugs to stop the cycle.
It is not recommended to provoke a delay yourself, especially if there are no really serious reasons for this.
Gynecological reasons for delayed menses
Frequent and long delays speak about the threat of pathologies of the sexual sphere. The gynecologist, having learned about your problem, must necessarily conduct a series of studies on the presence of such disorders:
1 Uterine fibroids. Tumor disease that occurs with sharp pains and characteristic discharge. The type of treatment is selected depending on the degree of fibroids.
2 Polycystic ovaries. This syndrome occurs due to endocrine problems in the body. Pathology affects the appearance of a woman: the activity of the sebaceous glands is activated, hair growth on the body increases, excess weight is possible. Violation is corrected quickly, if hormonal treatment was correctly chosen.
3 Cyst. The appearance of such tumors is also a consequence of hormonal imbalance. In the early stages, cysts are treated with medication and physiotherapy.
Cycle instability is likely after treatment of bacterial diseases with antibiotics. The cycle temporarily stops even after some procedures: colposcopy, cauterization of cervical erosion.
Also considered normal is the absence of critical days after the detection of ectopic pregnancy or abortion.
How to cause monthly during a delay?
If critical days have not come on time, you should not use drugs yourself. By causing menstruation artificially, you can cause even more serious harm to health. Prescribe medication can only be a gynecologist after a full examination, and only in case of detection of concomitant diseases.
You can return the monthly and quite harmless and pleasant ways:
1 Warm bath. Receiving a bath with your favorite fragrances will not only optimize blood flow to the pelvic organs, but will also have an excellent soothing effect. This is especially useful when the failure was caused by stress.
2 Sex. When excited, there is an increase in the tone of the uterus, which, in conjunction with a rush of blood, should cause the desired body response the very next day.
3 Herbal infusions. It is considered effective decoction of oregano, wild rose, knotweed. 2 tablespoons of each dry ingredient is poured with a glass of hot water.
The resulting mixture will be ready to receive after 12 hours.
With folk remedies for the delay you need to be very careful: you should not take more than half a glass of broth at a time.
If none of the above methods does not give proper results, and there were no “safe” reasons for the delay, then it is still worth contacting a specialist. Early treatment will help restore the body’s normal cycle and avoid a host of unpleasant problems.