How to properly manicure yourself at home


Nails have become an important indicator of well-being and culture. Nail care is easy if you know the principles. Not everyone knows how to do a properly cropped manicure. After all, it is not enough to get a set of tools as a gift, you also need to know how to use them. Some will have to be thrown away immediately, and something must be given to the grind. But first things first.


Not everyone goes to manicure courses. There are lots of training materials that show the process for free. But after all, all people are different, the skin and cuticle are different for everyone. The classic method of manicure, which is taught in well-known schools, tells about all the problems and covers the full technology. Does it take into account your nuances free video?

Let's look at a few tips from the master on how to do a cropped manicure. First you need to prepare the tools you need. These are scissors for cutting the cuticle or tweezers for the same purpose. They should be sharp enough not to crush the skin, not tear it off with pieces, and cut.

The test can be carried out on an ordinary paper napkin: once an incision is made, it should not cause layers of a napkin that stretch beyond the blades. If there is no clear cut with smooth edges, it’s time to carry the tool into the grind.

A few words of consolation to girls who have received an expensive manicure set: all tweezers are more expensive than five thousand and let out to be inaccurate. So it can even please - it means that the tool is of high quality.

Files that will be needed should have an indication of grit (this is the amount of abrasive per square centimeter). For natural nails, this indicator should be only 180 grit, not more. Less can - up to 240 grit, but will have to cut for a long time.

The exceptions are glass files, but they are best purchased in professional stores. Cheap nail files quickly lose their properties and begin to crush nails.

Pusher (cuticle pusher) and scraper (hatchet) are often combined in one tool, it is very convenient. They have metal cutting edges, which must also be sharp.

How to do a manicure correctly: process description

In the classic manicure (it is called hygienic edged), there are three stages: shaping the nails, maceration (the hand goes down into the bath), removal of the cuticle.

Nail shaping is always dry. Wet nails can not be sawed, they only get nasty, and have to wait for them to dry.

Maceration is done on one hand, and the master begins with the little finger, the other fingers at this time should be in the bath. Taking out one finger, the master processes them and, smearing with oil for the cuticle, leaves it in the air.

When the turn of the thumb comes up, they change the water in the bath and put the second hand in there. While the thumb is being processed, the second hand is being prepared. Begin her manicure, too, with the little finger.

After the manicure is completed, the nails are degreased and the lacquer is applied, then, after it dries, the oil for the cuticle drops again.

Step-by-step instruction

There is an instruction that determines how to do a properly cropped manicure.

1. shaping the nails:

  • Extra length is removed, nails are trimmed to a harmonious size.
  • The side edges of the nails are filed in accordance with the selected form (square, oval, almond).
  • The corners are smoothed and the sawdust (irregularities under the nails) is removed with a buff.

2. In the bath add liquid soap, bleaching salt if desired, and put your hand in it.

3. Take out one finger, dry with a towel:

  • Move the proximal roller.
  • Clean the pterigy with a scraper, carefully removing it from under the cuticle. A “pocket” should be formed, that is, the skin does not stick over the nail plate, but covers it.

4. Cut the cuticle with scissors or tweezers. In the corners, where the roller is rounded, the tool is raised vertically to make small cuts and not to cut.

So repeat the operation with other nails.

At home

Many people think about how to properly do a manicure at home and to comply with the rules of disinfection. In the salons used autoclaves - a kind of oven. At home, you can use the oven stove, highlighting for this special tray.

In the sale of special nail shops there are craft packages. You can buy them, they are inexpensive. But you can be sure that not a single molecule from the tool gets on the food trays.

Files and orange sticks can be soaked in a solution of a professional disinfectant, following the instructions. This will provide protection against accidental contact with the skin of fungi, viruses, warts, hepatitis, and the like.

Classic classic manicure: ideas

The new century has updated the arsenal of nail masters. These include manicure devices, nail files of various types, and means for softening the cuticle.

A new type of manicure - a combined. It combines elements of the classic edging and European unedged.

How to make a properly cropped manicure using new technologies? First of all, remember the order of operation in the classic version. Some operations can be simplified through the use of a manicure device, but do it carefully.

Cuticle softener based on fruit acids is a great helper in the fight against keratosis. Too dry hands are first treated with an anticicle in the area of ​​the nail rollers, then placed in the bath.

If your hands are in good condition, you can stop maceration. Instead, use the tool to soften the cuticle and perform all the steps of a classic manicure.

Unfortunately, this fast-growing segment of the global market has attracted unscrupulous manufacturers. Their products do not meet the standards and often harm the nails. Let's talk about those and others.

First about the good

Recently, two tools have appeared to help the nail master: a ceramic nail file and a ceramic hoof. We will explain how to do a properly cropped manicure using these devices.

They are designed to work on dry skin. This is required for some paving operations. Immediately I must say that they will not be able to remove the cuticle. But to remove the pterygium - a thin film that slides out from under the cuticle with the growth of the nail - completely.

Only this should be done dry, without applying antiktikulu. Typically, girls use the claw between sessions salon manicure, when they want to change the nail polish. After removing the old coating, gently pass the hoof along the nail in the area of ​​the proximal roller, removing the regrown pterygium. He slough off like flour. Having brushed away all unnecessary with a brush, they proceed to applying a new layer of varnish.

Ceramic nail file is a good helper for processing rollers. It gently removes coarse skin and can correct the shape of nails. After working with her, nails are applied to the nails.

And now about the sad

All markets, haberdashery stores and supermarkets offer penny tool kits for manicure. They are no good, even for children's games. The buyer, using these items, can forget about how to do a cropped manicure.

The enemy of nail masters is the manicure fork. The very design of the tool says that it is designed to disfigure the nail ridges. The bevel, which have metal edges of the tool, provides for the cutting of the skin belt. But gently remove the regrown cuticle will not work.

Another tool, cheap nail file - a reliable tool for shredding the ends of the nail plate. Typically, they are not written number of grit, but the feelings - it is 120. This is used only for extended nails. Applying it on natural will result in foliation and crumbling nails.

Anyway, you can do a manicure at home, it will not be difficult. If you regularly care for the cuticle, it will not grow quickly. Permanent pushing of the proximal roller will remove part of the nail from the skin, and its shape will become more noble. Constant coating of nails with varnish will allow forming a semicircular arch to the nails, this will affect their strength and beauty.

Learn how to do a manicure correctly, and everyone around you will notice!

Types of manicure

Beauty salons offer a variety of manicure. In order to choose the most optimal way to bring fingers in order, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the main points of each type:

  1. Classic (cut) - the most popular type of manicure in the post-Soviet space. Suitable for all types of marigold (even in neglected condition). Economical in time. During the procedure, the hands are steamed in water, then the cuticle is removed with scissors. However, in many European countries this type of manicure is not used in salons because of the possibility of cuticle damage and infection.
  2. Apparatus - one of the types of unedged manicure. With the help of a special device with grinding nozzles, the cuticle gets rid of dead cells, keeping the cuticle itself intact. Such devices are widely used for pedicure.
  3. European - quite famous in the US and European countries (hence the name). It is considered safe, rather than traditional, due to the lack of cutting tools in the procedure. The skin around the nail is softened by a special tool and the cuticle is removed with an orange stick. This type of manicure is not suitable for running nails.
  4. Japanese - a unique and natural type of manicure, which allows effectively to treat thin and weakened nail plates. In the process used environmentally friendly products (hand scrub, serum for marigold, natural tools). Effective for nail restoration after removing gel polish.
  5. SPA manicure is a long but pleasant procedure. This is a complex consisting of moisturizing and massaging the hands, peeling and nourishing the skin of the hands with a special vitamin remedy. After this procedure, the skin rejuvenates and becomes more elastic, the nail plate is strengthened.

Facial masks at home - How to do them, read our publication on the site.

To learn whether acne toothpaste helps can be found in this article.

From here you can take the idea of ​​a long car with a bang.

What tools are needed for quality procedures

To marigold constantly looked well-groomed, you need a certain set of specialized tools. You can purchase them individually or with a complete manicure kit. In the latter case, you should pay attention to the presence of all the necessary devices:

  1. Nail scissors - the main tool for nail care. Should regularly monitor their severity. Scissors are divided into different types: for removing the cuticle, for cutting the nails, universal.
  2. Nippers for removal of agnails and a cuticle. Differ in cutting blade length. When choosing, be sure to pay attention to the material of manufacture and the quality of sharpening. There are also nail clippers (knipsary),
  3. Nail file - is used to give the nail the desired shape, polishing and grinding the nail plate. Nail files vary in grit size. Taking into account this circumstance, it is necessary to choose separately files for natural nails and extended. For polishing nails used buffs on a soft basis,
  4. Pusher - oblong tool with different tips. One side in the form of a scapula is needed to move the cuticle back. The other side in the form of a hatchet is used to clean the nail from dirt,
  5. Trimmer is a special tool for trimming the cuticle and processing the prenoguevoy hole.

How to do a classic manicure at home

Learning to do a manicure at home alone is quite possible. After all, it is not always possible to visit beauty salons. Cutting manicure at home is easy, you only need to know the main stages of the procedure:

  1. Correction of the form. You should start by choosing the shape of the nail (oval, round, square), depending on the length of the fingers, the shape of the hands and the nail plate. Manicure scissors are used when deciding to cut nails by several millimeters. It is necessary to shear immediately with one movement. In other cases, the use of a nail file is recommended. When filing the file is kept at an angle, moving from the edge to the center of the nail strictly in one direction,
  2. Hand bath. For easy removal of the cuticle, it is necessary to soften it with hot water. In the bath, you can add sea salt and essential oils. Fingers are immersed in such a solution for 10-15 minutes. After the bath, the hands are wiped dry with a towel,
  3. Cuticle removal. First, you need to push the cuticle with a pusher or orange stick. The excess skin is removed with tweezers, which before use should certainly be disinfected. If there are burrs, they should be carefully removed with the help of forceps. The treated areas of the cuticle are treated with an alcohol disinfecting solution. At the end of the procedure, it is advisable to put on the nails a specialized oil for the care of the cuticle.

The main advantage of the classic cut manicure is the ability to quickly and simply bring the nails in order.

Apparatus manicure - modern technology

For owners of too delicate skin of the hands or those who are unacceptable edged manicure, perfect hardware manicure. The procedure is performed by the device in the form of a small milling machine.

This type of manicure can be performed in a beauty salon or at home. Specialists in the cabin use a professional tool. To work at home, you can pick up a semi-professional device or home.

Recommendations for the implementation of hardware manicure:

  1. When using the tool, you should choose a quality device yourself and be sure to study the technology of nail processing using this method
  2. The procedure is performed on dry skin. If the cuticle was very hard and was removed by the classical method, then the hands should be dried well,
  3. During the procedure, it is worth choosing a low speed, the instrument should be held at a 45-degree angle to the nail. The cutter is moved from the center to the edges,
  4. For the milling machine to serve for a long time, it is necessary to take breaks in the process of work.
  5. Perform hardware manicure recommended 2 times a month.

The subtleties of decorative manicure gel varnish

Of course, the main achievement of the nail industry over the past time is the creation of gel polishes. This coating is considered the most popular and fashionable in beauty salons.

Gel Polish can hold on the nails up to 30 days, if you precisely follow the correct technology of application. At the same time, the lacquer does not crack, does not lose its shine, the nail plate is protected.

The main stages of applying gel polish:

  1. Make a manicure in any convenient way. However, it is preferable to choose a European or hardware manicure, as gel varnish should not be applied on wet nails,
  2. To level a file and to clear edge of a nail of dust,
  3. Remove the glossy layer from the nail plate with the help of the buff (nail file with fine grit). This is done for better adhesion of gel polish to the nail,
  4. Primer treatment (means for degreasing the nail plate),
  5. Applying a base coat with a thin layer and placing the nail in a special lamp for drying the coating,
  6. Applying color gel polish in 2 or 3 layers, while drying each layer in the lamp,
  7. Covering nails with a finishing coat with a thicker layer
  8. Remove the adhesive layer with a special degreaser. The nails will then get a beautiful glossy shine.

The main advantages of manicure gel varnish: durable coating, ease of coating the nails, glossy shine of lacquer until the removal of the coating.

French chic - classics of the genre

French manicure - the most famous type of nail design. Exquisitely looks on any form of nails. Traditional manicure is nail polishing in a pink or beige shade, and the edge of the nail plate is isolated with white lacquer in the form of a crescent.

How to do a French manicure? Consider the stages of its application:

  1. Be sure to do a hygienic manicure,
  2. Applying a light pink or beige lacquer in 1-2 layers,
  3. Stick stencils for french manicure on marigolds (sold in specialized stores) and cover the edges with white lacquer. After drying the varnish, carefully remove the stencils,
  4. Cover with clear lacquer.

French manicure is always relevant and is suitable for any style.

Excellent condition and appearance of the hands and nails - is an indicator of grooming and accuracy of any girl. Therefore, it is worth paying special attention to manicure and always care for your nails.

The following video clearly and in detail shows how to do a manicure at home.

Manicure technique

  • Paint removal. Before a manicure, get rid of lacquer and its remnants should be first. Remove varnish is best with a special nail polish remover. Acetone is better not to use. With frequent use of acetone, your nails will become brittle and dry,
  • Придание формы. После того, как вы удалили остатки покрытия, возьмите пилочку, которой вы обычно пользуетесь и подпилите ногти, придав им нужную форму.Many people advise you to first trim the nails, but if you often do a manicure, then you do not need to trim the nails. Moreover, frequent cutting of the nails leads to the detachment of the nail. To file the nails need to dry, as the filing of wet nails also leads to their separation,
  • Cuticle removal. Doing a manicure is not only cutting the nails, now you need to remove the growth of the skin at the base of the nail - cuticle. To do this, you need to make a warm soapy bath and, after softening the cuticle, remove it with a wooden stick. You can also use a special cuticle removal solution, it will save your time,
  • Manicure completion. After removing the cuticle, wash off all the remnants of soapy water or special means, wipe your hands well with a towel. Apply a cream for nails or hands and make yourself a massage.

Nail is dense horny plates from dead cells.

How to do a manicure

Now we will tell you in more detail how to do a manicure, it is also called a classic manicure. The basic techniques of performing a cut manicure: varnish removal, softening, cuticle removal and nutrition.

Remove old varnish

Before you do a manicure, first of all remove the old varnish or its remnants with nail polish remover. Liquid should not contain acetone. Today, new acetone-free nail polish removers have appeared on store shelves. It is based on the closest "relative" of acetone - ethyl acetate. Such fluids are saturated with vitamins, caring ingredients and perfume oils. They are well suited for nail polish removers, people with brittle nails, overdried, and only they are suitable for artificial nails,

We do a bath for nails

To do a manicure properly, you must properly prepare a bath for the hands. To do this: Deep tank, Hot water, Filler for the bath. Take the container and take hot water. After that, add a filler for the bath. There are a lot of fillers, sea salt: a tablespoon of salt in a glass of hot water, a soap solution: dissolve any washing gel or liquid soap in water. It is better to use both. Sea salt well nourishes your nails, saturating them with natural minerals, which helps strengthen the nails. Also in the bath you can add lemon juice. It will help better soften the cuticle. If you have minor injuries, cuts, scaly skin, then sea salt and lemon juice should be discarded. Then use a decoction of chamomile or oak bark. This decoction will help you soothe the inflamed skin and promotes the rapid healing of scratches and cracks on your fingers. Take a bath for about five minutes, then wipe dry your hands with a towel. This procedure will help to make a manicure with higher quality,

Apply moisturizer

At the end of all procedures, apply a special softening cream or oil on the cuticle. It is applied to the cuticle and rubbed in a circular motion. Give each finger approximately three minutes. As a result of these procedures, the cuticle will slow down its growth and will be softer. The end of your manicure should be a finger massage.

The entire nail is updated within 106-150 days.

How to make a French manicure at home

For French manicure at home, you will need:

  1. Nail file,
  2. White pencil or special strips for French manicure,
  3. White and body nail polish,
  4. Anchoring lacquer.

Before you do a French manicure at home, you should do a regular, classic manicure. Only then can you start a French manicure. File give a special form of nails. Then glue a thin strip on the regrown part of the nail. Take a flesh-colored lacquer and apply on nails, let dry and apply a second layer. Then remove the strip and seal the painted part of the nail. Take white varnish and also in two stages, apply it on the tips of the nail. In place whitewash varnish, you can use a pencil that whitens the tips of the nail on the back side. The final stage of the French manicure is fastening. Take colorless varnish or fixative and apply it. A single layer will suffice.

During the day the nail grows to 0.1 millimeter.

How often can I do a manicure

It all depends on how quickly the cuticle and nails grow. Cosmetologists recommend doing a classic manicure - once a week. Remember that the more often you do a manicure, the faster the cuticle or nails will grow. File your nails can be at least every day, but try to cut the cuticle as it grows.

What you need for a manicure at home

For a manicure at home, not so many tools are required, compared to the amount used in beauty salons.

The most necessary tools:

  1. File.
  2. Cuticle scissors.
  3. Manicure trimmer.
  4. Nippers for skin.
  5. Ceramic nail file.
  6. Nail polish remover.
  7. Cotton pads.
  8. Napkins.
  9. A plate with warm water.

As soon as you collect all the above tools, you can begin to do a manicure.

Preparatory stage before applying varnish

Before proceeding to the procedure, you should do a few simple steps:

  • You should first treat the cuticle

It is recommended to apply a special tool in order to easily remove it. The tool will soften the skin and prevent its growth. After application, let it soak for a few minutes.

Hands put put in a bowl with warm water.

In a small plate, leave the handles for 12 minutes and then you can begin to process the cuticle. To work with it you need a trimmer. As soon as you take your fingers out of the water, dry them with a napkin. Carefully push the cuticle up, use the round end of the trimmer. And the sharp side remove the remnants of the cuticle.

  • Remove burrs

To remove agnails, it is necessary to use nail clippers for skin. Carefully remove burrs, do not pull, because this should not create new wounds.

  • Finger care

Rough areas of fingers or corns, should be treated with a ceramic file. Try to handle carefully to avoid injury.

Manicure rules

There are certain important rules of this procedure that need to be followed:

  • The most common forms of marigold - oval or square. Such a manicure will always look good. The most important thing is to choose the right shape.
  • In order to make a high-quality manicure, you need good lighting. With poor lighting, you can not see any flaws.
  • Before applying the varnish, you need to apply the base. The base is the basis, without which nowhere. Without it, the nails can endure badly and very briefly.
  • With the help of a cotton swab, you always need to correct the shortcomings that were made when applying varnish.
  • To get a smooth surface you need to use a file with a "velvet" coating.
  • Use gloves and a mask to secure the procedure.

How to make a manicure gel varnish

To create this type of house itself, you need to purchase the necessary accessories. This procedure can be the main income.

It will take:

  • File.
  • Sponge
  • Emollient oil.
  • Ultraviolet lamp.
  • Transparent and color material.

Ordinary monophonic manicure:

  • The cuticle is processed, and the desired shape is given to the nail.
  • It is necessary to apply the main base, it must be dried under the lamp for about 3 minutes.
  • Carefully nail plates need to be varnished and dried in the ultraviolet.
  • After that, it is necessary to process the last layer and apply a fixative.
  • The final step will be the final drying of the nails, as well as covering the cuticle with oil.

This procedure is quite simple, you just need to approach its implementation carefully and carefully. By the time it almost always takes about 1-2 hours.

French manicure

This is one of the most common nail designs. Versatile and neat. Make it while being home will be easy.

In order to make a French manicure, get transparent lacquer, white enamel and stencil stripes. Before you begin to take up the French manicure, then prepare your nails, do the usual manicure. It will also be useful to learn how to grow nails at home.

Step by step how to do a French manicure:

  1. On the nails necessarily put the base. Wait until it dries.
  2. Take a stencil strip and press it a little lower than the growth edge of the marigold. The strip should be well pressed so that there are no flaws.
  3. Apply white lacquer to the area. After it dries, remove the stencil.
  4. Secure finally with a transparent layer.

The proposed method is incredibly simple and even beginners can do it. And stencils will help create a neat manicure.

Manicure cat eye

How to make a cat-eye manicure:

  • To perform the work prepare the nails and put the base. Then dry it in the UV-Lampe, about 2 minutes.
  • We apply gel varnish using a special tool. The consistency is very thick. In addition to the varnish is a special magnet, creating the effect of a cat's eye.
  • It is advised to attach the magnet closely and leave for a few seconds.
  • Dry the nail in a special lamp.

Find out also how to tie a scarf on the neck and on the head beautifully.

Because of what to peel the skin on the face, and how to get rid of it on the next page.

Manicure cut

The most important rules:

It is necessary to cut the cornified cuticle, without touching the skin. Before you begin to cut, it is recommended to soften it, and only after carefully cut off. Removing the cuticle is important to follow the rules of the technique of "angles".

How to do a cut manicure:

  • Apply the cream to the area of ​​the cuticle to soften it.
  • Use the metal trimmer to gently slide the cuticle away from the nail.
  • Carefully trim the excess, trying not to damage the nail plate or the skin around the nail. The main thing is not to pull it, and carefully cut. Also, you can not rely the sharp part of the pliers on the cuticle and soft tissue.
  • As a result, the removed cuticle should look like a thin thread.
  • Apply oil to the trimmed area.

If a few days after the procedure the burrs do not come out, then the procedure was done correctly.

It is not necessary to go to the salon and overpay money, because you can do this procedure well, nicely and neatly at home.

In the video, how to properly make a marble manicure gel varnish:

What is needed for a manicure?

Of course, the list of necessary depends on many factors. For example, on what type of manicure you prefer: edged or uncut. But the standard set of tools that you need looks like this:

  • nail polish remover,
  • cotton pads or lint-free wipes,
  • nail clippers (nail clippers) or nail clippers,
  • orange stick or cuticle pusher,
  • cuticle remover (remover)
  • nail file to shape the nails,
  • nail file,
  • hand cream,
  • base coat for nails

Simple unedged manicure at home: step by step instructions

Have you prepared everything you need? Then make sure that your workplace is properly lit - and follow our instructions exactly.

The first stage is to remove the remnants of the old varnish with cotton wool or a lint-free cloth moistened with a nail polish remover. It is better, by the way, if possible to do it after all with a napkin: the cotton pads often leave small lint, because of which the lacquer is then unevenly distributed. And even if there is no nail polish on the nails, still wipe the nail plate with nail polish remover to degrease it.

Use scissors or pliers to trim your nails. If the nails are not too long, or you do not plan to shorten them significantly, you can skip this step and immediately start using the nail file.

Use a nail file for natural nails with 180-200 grit abrasiveness. You can find out how to choose this tool correctly here, and our detailed guide will help you choose the right shape of nails. Do not move the nail file according to the "right-left" scheme, this can lead to the separation of nails: move in one direction, with smooth movements. Fold nails very carefully and do not overdo it: if you file your nails too actively on the sides, this may lead to their growing.

Grind the edges of your nails with a polishing saw to avoid delamination, and lightly polish their surface. But, again, do not strive to achieve a mirror shine: nail polish on a perfectly smooth surface will be hard to “fix”.

Orange stick or a special pusher gently move the cuticle and pterygium - the bottom layer of the cuticle, which is a thin film.

Apply a special tool for softening the cuticle (remuver), wait 20-30 seconds.

With the orange stick or pusher, gently push the cuticle back again, trying not to press hard on it. If you do not have a special remover on hand, you can use a rich cream instead.

If necessary, remove burrs with nippers or scissors. Handle the skin of the cream.

After removing the cuticle, use an alcohol-based liquid or nail polish remover. This will help remove remuver residues and degrease the surface of the nail. By the way, some beauty brands produce special degreasers for nails, they are also very effective and easy to use.

Be sure to use a base coat: it will prevent yellowing of the nail plate and provide better adhesion to the varnish. Distribute the base in a thin layer, stepping back a little from the cuticle. Do not skip this step, even if you plan to then cover your nails with a light varnish.

Is it worth doing a manicure trim?

Nowadays, the most popular procedure of unedged (European) manicure, the creation of which we presented above. With such a manicure, the cuticle is not cut off, but softened with the help of a special tool (remuver), and then removed.

In addition, the cuticle serves as a barrier and protects the skin from infections. If you are still accustomed to a trimmed (classic) manicure, but would like to switch to a European one, just stop trimming the cuticle, start using the remover - and be patient. Fortunately, the process is reversible, and if you refuse to cut the cuticle, with a regular European manicure, after some time the cuticle will become softer and thinner.

How to make a French manicure at home?

French - one of the classic types of manicure. If the tip of the nail is highlighted with a contrasting strip, then it is just a French jacket in front of you. The canonical version suggests a combination of “pink translucent polish plus a white stripe”, but today, in French manicure, various combinations of colors, as well as different textures, both shimmer and glitter and matte, are increasingly used.

According to the latest trends, the color line on the tip of the nail does not necessarily have to be even. But if you want to create a classic version of the service jacket, then this problem will be the main one that you have to solve.